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Encyclopedia > Kabyle language
Kabyle
Taqbaylit 
Spoken in: Algeria; immigrant communities in France, Belgium and elsewhere 
Region: Kabylie (Provinces of Tizi Ouzou, Bejaia, Bouira, Boumerdes, Sétif, BBA, and parts of Jijel)
Total speakers: 3,123,000 (1995) [3]—5.5 millions in Algeria, about 7 millions worldwide [4] [5]
Language family: Afro-Asiatic
 Berber
  Northern
   Kabyle 
Writing system: Berber Latin alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: kab
ISO 639-3: kab 
Kabyle-speaking areas (in 1936)

Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle: Ṯaqbayliṯ, Taqbaylit , pronounced /ˌθaq.βajˈliθ/) spoken by the Kabyle people. In 1995, there were 3,123,000 speakers worldwide, the majority in Algeria, where there were more than 2,000,000. However, according to INALCO estimates, there are 5.5 million speakers in Algeria and about 7 million worldwide. Image File history File links Taqbaylit. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ... Tizi Ouzou (Arabic: تيزي وزو , Berber : Tizi Wezzu) is a wilaya in Algeria. ... Béjaïa (Arabic: ولاية بجاية , Berber : Bgayet) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Bouira (Arabic: ولاية البويرة ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Boumerdès (Arabic: ولاية بومرداس ) is a wilaya of northern Algeria, between Algiers and Tizi-Ouzou, with its capital at the coastal city of Boumerdès (formerly Rocher-Noir) just east of Algiers. ... Sétif (Arabic: ولاية سطيف ) is a province in northern Algeria. ... Bordj Bou Arréridj (Arabic: ولاية برج بوعريريج) is a province and in the east Algeria around 200 Km away from the capital Algiers. ... Jijel (Arabic: ولاية جيجل ) is a coastal wilaya in eastern Algeria. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Northern Berber languages are a dialect continuum across the Maghreb that form a sub-family within the Berber languages. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Berber Latin alphabet is the version of the Latin alphabet commonly used to write Northern Berber languages. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 399 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 639 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Map showing where Kabyle was spoken as of 1936. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 399 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 639 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Map showing where Kabyle was spoken as of 1936. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Image File history File links Taqbaylit. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Kabyles are a Berber people whose traditional homeland is highlands of Kabylie (or Kabylia) in northeastern Algeria. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO) is located in Paris, France. ...


Kabyle was (with some exceptions) rarely written before the 20th century; however, in recent years a small but increasing body of literature has been printed. The originally oral poetry of Si Mohand is particularly notable in this respect. Famous Kabyle singers include Matoub Lounes, Idir and Ait Menguellet. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ... Si Mohand ou-Mhand n At Hmadouch (Icheraiouen, At Yiraten, about 1848 - Lhammam-Michelet 28 December 1905). ... Matoub Lounès (in the middle) with his friends, notably Mourad Nechab known to be his favorite, and family in Kabylie. ... // Biography: Idir Idir was born in 1949 at Aït Lahcène a Berber village in Haute-Kabylia. ... Lounis Aït Menguellet is a Berber singer from Kabylie, Algeria, who sings in the Berber language. ...

Contents

Classification

The classification of Kabyle is Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern. Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Northern Berber languages are a dialect continuum across the Maghreb that form a sub-family within the Berber languages. ...


Geographic distribution

Kabyle is a Berber language native to Kabylie, it is present in seven Algerian districts. The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ...


The populations of Tizi Ouzou, Béjaïa (Bgayet) and Bouira (Tubiret) are in majority Kabyle-speaking. Kabyle is majority language in Bordj Bou Arreridj, Sétif and a minority language in Boumerdes and Jijel where it coexists with Algerian Arabic. Tizi Ouzou comes from Berber language Tizi Uzezzu, spelt Tizi Wezzu, translates to View point of the flower, is a major Kabyle town and capital of Tizi Ouzou province, Algeria. ... Nickname: Location of Béjaïa within Algeria Country Algeria Wilaya Béjaïa Province Government  - Mayor Abdelhafidh Bouaoudia (2005-2007) Area  - City 3,268. ... Bouira is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Bordj Bou Arreridj, population 128,535 (1998 census), is a city in Bordj Bou Arreridj Province, Algeria. ... Sétif (Arabic: ‎; sātÄ“f`, formerly Sitifis Colonia; population 230,000 (2005 estimate) is the capital of Sétif Province, with 1. ... Boumerdes is a wilaya of northern Algeria, between Algiers and Tizi-Ouzou; its capital, Boumerdes, is largely a new city built in the 1980s. ... Jijel (also called Djidjelli) is the capital of Jijel Province. ... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ...


Kabyle is also spoken as a mother tongue among the Kabyle diaspora in Algerian and European cities (mainly France). It is estimated that half of Kabyles live outside Kabylie.


Official status

Berber languages have no official status in Algeria. Kabyle faces an unfavourable environment in this nation, although there exists a public radio (Channel II, which dates back to the Algerian revolution), and some TV news reports on the unique Algerian TV channel. Since private ownership of TV channels is illegal in Algeria, Kabyles have launched a private Kabyle speaking TV channel that broadcasts from Paris, France (Berbère Télévision). The Algerian War of Independence (1954–62) was a period of guerrilla strikes, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians on both sides, and riots between the French army and colonists in Algeria and the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) and other pro-independence Algerians. ...


In 1994, Kabyle pupils and students boycotted Algerian schools for a year, demanding for the officialization of Berber, leading to the symbolic creation of the "Haut Commissariat à l'Amazighité" (HCA) in 1995. Berber languages were subsequently taught as a non-compulsory language in Berber speaking areas.


After the tragic events of the Black Spring in 2001, The Kabyle population organized itself under the label of the Arouch. One of their main goals was to officially recognize Berber. President Bouteflika said "Berber will never be an official language, and if it has to be a national language, it has to be submitted to a referendum," [1] however he had to submit to the pressure of the Black spring and recognize Berber as a "national language" without a referendum. The Black Spring (Kabyle: Tafsut taberkant) was a series of violent disturbances and political demonstrations by Berber activists in the Kabylie region of Algeria in 2001, which were met by repressive police measures, and became a potent symbol of Kabyle discontent with the national government. ... The Berber Arouch Citizens Movement, or simply Arouch, is an organization representing Algerian Berbers. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ...


In 2005, Bouteflika contradicted himself about the Berber issue, saying that "there is no country in the world that has two official languages" and that "this will never be the case of Algeria".[2] Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ...


Varieties

From west to east, some linguists distinguish four zones characterized by three distinct—but mutually intelligible—pronunciations in the following regions: At the west of Tizi Ghenif, Kabylie of the Djurdjura, Soummam valley and the zone starting from Bejaïa to the east.


Phonology

The phonemes below reflect the pronunciation of Kabyle.


Vowels

Kabyle language has four vowels: (e is not considered to be a true vowel, it just makes the reading easier)

  • /a/ [æ]
  • /e/ [ə]
  • /i/ [ɪ]
  • /u/ [ʊ]

Historically, schwa (e) is thought to be the result of a pan-Berber reduction or merger of three other vowels. The phonetic realization of the vowels, especially /a/, is influenced by the character of the surrounding consonants; emphatic consonants invite a more open realization of the vowel, e.g. aẓru = [az̴ru] 'stone' vs. amud = [æmud] 'seed'.


Consonants

Kabyle consonant phonemes
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
 Plain  Lab.  Plain  Emph.  Plain  Emph.  Plain  Emph.  Plain  Lab.  Plain  Lab.  Plain  Lab.
Stops and affricates voiceless       t [t] [tˁ] tt [ts]   č [tʃ]       k [k] k [kʷ] q [q] q [qʷ]    
voiced b [b] b [bʷ]   d [d]   zz [dz]   ǧ [dʒ]       g [g] g [gʷ]        
Fricatives voiceless   f [f] t [θ]   s [s] [sˁ] c [ʃ] c [ʃˁ] k [ç] k [çʷ]     x [χ] x [χʷ] [ħ] h [h]
voiced b [β]     d [ð] [ðˁ] z [z] [zˁ] j [ʒ] j [ʒˁ] g [ʝ] g [ʝʷ]     ɣ [ʁ] ɣ [ʁʷ] ɛ [ʕ]  
Nasals m [m]     n [n]                          
Laterals       l [l] l [ɫ]                        
Trills       r [r] r [rˁ]                        
Approximants                   y [j]     w [w]      

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Assimilation

Inside the Kabyle language there are various accents which are the result of assimilations (these accents are generally divided into western and eastern Kabyle). Some of these assimilations are present among all Kabyle "dialects" and some not. These assimilations are not noted in writing, such as:

  • « Axxam n wergaz. » — "The house of the man." is pronounced either « Axxam n wergaz. » or « Axxam bb wergaz » or « Axxam pp wergaz » ...etc. (N+W=BB)
  • « D taqcict. » — "It's a girl." is pronounced « Tsaqcict ». (D+T=TS)
  • Here is a list of some of these assimilations: D+T=TS, T+T=TS, N+W=BB/PP, I+Y=IG, W+W=BB, Y+Y=GG.

Gemination affects the quality of certain consonants, turning fricatives into stops; in particular, geminated ɣ becomes qq and y becomes gg. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Look up stop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fricatives vs Stops

Kabyle is mostly composed of fricatives phonemes which are originally stops in other Berber languages, but in writing there is no difference between fricatives and stops. Below is a list of fricatives vs stops and when they are pronounced (note that gemination turns fricatives into stops). Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Look up stop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Cononant B D G K T
Fricative /β/ Sound sample  /ð/ Sound sample  /ʝ/ Sound sample  /ç/ Sound sample  /θ/ Sound sample 
Stop /b/ /d/ /g/ /k/ /t/
Is a stop after m l,n b,j,r,z,ɛ f,b,s,l,r,n,ḥ,c,ɛ l,n
Is a stop in the words (and their derivatives) ngeb, ngeḥ, ngeẓwer, angaẓ, ngedwi, nages,ngedwal

Image File history File links Voiced_bilabial_fricative. ... Image File history File links Voiced_dental_fricative. ... Image File history File links Voiced_palatal_fricative. ... Image File history File links Voiceless palatal fricative. ... Image File history File links Voiceless_dental_fricative. ...

Writing system

Main article: Kabyle alphabet
A trilingual sign in Algeria, written in Arabic, French, and Kabyle (using Tifinagh).
A trilingual sign in Algeria, written in Arabic, French, and Kabyle (using Tifinagh).

The most ancient Berber writings were written in the Libyco-Berber script (Tifinagh). Such writings have been found in Kabylie and continue to be discovered by archeologists. You may be looking for: Tifinagh, the ancient Berber alphabet still used by the Tuareg and recently made official in Morocco Berber Latin alphabet, widely used in modern Algerian and Moroccan publishing and used for education in Algeria Berber Arabic alphabet, frequently used in Moroccan and Libyan publishing Tashelhiyt Arabic... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


During the Middle Ages, religious literature in Kabylie was written in the Arabic language, which was sometimes annotated with footnotes in Kabyle using the Arabic script, however, entire texts were not written in Kabyle. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... A footnote is a note of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...


During the Ottoman era, the first French-Kabyle dictionary was compiled by a French ethnologist in the 18th century. It was written in the Latin script with an orthography based on that of French. Other dictionaries were edited when the French colonized North Africa, mainly by priests, the pères blancs, who also compiled dictionaries in Algerian Arabic. They also collected many stories from the local population. “Ottoman” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... Ethnologyis a genre of cultural anthropology and| anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the beliefs and practices of different societies. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This missionary society, known under the name of White Fathers ( This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. ... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ...


By the beginning of the 20th century, contributions of educated Kabyles in their own language, and written in the Latin script, began appearing―"tamacahutt n wuccen" by Brahim Zellal being an example of this trend.


After the independence of Algeria, some Kabyle activists tried to revive the Libyco-Berber script, which is still in use by the Tuareg. Attempts were made to modernize the writing system by modifying the shape of the letters and by adding vowels, but its use remains limited to logos. Kabyle literature continued to be written in the Latin script. This new version of Tifinagh has been called Neo-Tifinagh and has been adopted as the official script of Berber languages in Morocco. The fertile coastal plain of North Africa, especially west of Tunisia, is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib). ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Entrance to Kidal. ...


Mouloud Mammeri codified a new orthography for the writing of the Kabyle language which avoided the use of the archaic French orthography. His script has been adopted by all Berber linguists, the INALCO and the Algerian HCA. It uses diacritics and two letters from the extended Latin alphabet : Ɛɛ Čč Ḍḍ Ǧǧ Ḥḥ Ɣɣ Ṭṭ Ṣṣ Ẓẓ. Mouloud Mammeri is a Kabyle writer, anthropologist and linguist (Algeria born in December 28, 1917 in Taourirt Mimoune (Ath Yenni) in Kabylie, He died in February 1989 near Aïn Defla when he returning from a conference in Oujda (Morocco). ... The Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO) is located in Paris, France. ... Open e (majuscule: Ɛ, minuscule: É›) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet. ... ÄŒ in upper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Slovenian alphabet and the fifth letter of the Lithuanian and Latvian alphabet. ... (minuscule: ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from D with the addition of a dot diacritic. ... Letter (G with caron, Unicode code points U+01E6 and U+01E7) is a letter used in several Latin orthographies. ... transliterates Sanskrit visarga Semitic Ḥet This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... (minuscule: ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from R with the addition of a dot below the letter. ... Tsade (also spelled Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its oldest value is probably IPA , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... (minuscule: ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of a dot below the letter. ...


Grammar

Nouns and adjectives

Gender

As an Afro-Asiatic language, Kabyle has only two genders, Masculine and Feminine. Like most Berber languages, masculine nouns and adjectives generally start with a vowel (a-, i-, u-), while the feminine nouns generally start with t- and end with a -t (there are some exceptions, however). Note that most feminine nouns are in fact feminized versions of masculine nouns. The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


Examples:

  • Aqcic "a boy", taqcict "a girl".
  • Amɣar "an old man", tamɣart "an old woman".
  • Argaz "a man", Tameṭṭut "a woman".
  • Izi "a fly", Tizit "mosquito".

Pluralization

Singular nouns generally start with an a-, and do no have a suffix. Plural nouns generally start with an i- and often have a suffix such as -en. There are three types of plural : external, Internal, mix: In linguistics, broken plurals is a grammatical phenomenon typical in many Semitic languages of the Middle East and Ethiopia in which a singular noun is broken to form a plural by having its root consonant embedded in a different frame, rather than by merely adding a prefix or suffix to...

  • External or "regular": consists in changing the initial vowel of the noun, and adding a suffix -n,
amɣar "an old man" → imɣaren "old men".
afus → ifasen "hands"
argaz → irgazen "men"
ul → ulawen "hearts"
  • Internal: involves only a change in the vowels within the word:
adrar → idurar "mountain"
amicic "a cat" → imcac "cats"
  • Mix: combines a change of vowels (within the word) with the suffix -n:
igenni "sky" → igenwan "skies".
izi → izan "fly"
aar → iuran "root"

It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ...

Free and annexed state

As in all Berber languages, Kabyle has two types of states or cases of the noun, organized ergatively: one is unmarked, while the other serves as the subject of a transitive verb and the object of a preposition, among other contexts. The former is often called free state, the latter construct state. The construct state of the noun derives from the free state through one of the following rules: In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In ergative-absolutive languages, the ergative case identifies the subject of a transitive verb. ...


The first involves a vowel alternation, whereby the vowel a become u :

amaziɣ → umaziɣ "Berber"
ameqqran → umeqqran "big"
adrar → udrar "mountain"

The second involves the loss of the initial vowel in the case of some feminine nouns (e is not considered to be a true vowel, it just makes the reading easier):

tamɣart → temɣart "women"
tamdint → temdint "town"
tamurt → tmurt "country"

The third involves the addition of a semi-vowel (w or y) word-initially:

asif → wasif "river"
au → wau "wind"
iles → yiles "tongue"
uccen → wuccen "jackal"

Finally, some nouns do not change for free state:

taddart → taddart "village"
tuccent → tuccent "female jackal"

Depending on the role of the noun in the sentence, it takes either its free or annexed state:

  • Free: Yewwet aqcic. "He has beaten a boy". (Verb-Object)
  • Annexed: Yewwet weqcic. "The boy has beaten". (Verb-Subject)

After a preposition (at the exception of "ar" and "s"), all nouns take their annexed state:

  • Free state: Aman (water), Kas n waman (a glass of water).

Verbs

There are three tenses : the Preterite (past), intensive Aorist (present perfect, present continuous, past continuous) and the future (Ad+Aoriste). Unlike other Berber languages, the aorist alone is rarely used in Kabyle (In the other languages it is used to express the present). The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ...

  • "Weak verbs" have a preterite form that is the same as their aoriste. Examples of weak verbs that follow are conjugated at the first person of the singular:
Verb Preterite ad + aorist Intensive aorist
If (to outdo) ifeɣ ad ifeɣ ttifeɣ
Muqel (to observe) muqleɣ ad muqleɣ ttmuqleɣ
Krez (to plough) kerzeɣ ad kerzeɣ kerrzeɣ
  • "Strong verbs" or "irregular verbs":
Verb Preterite ad + aorist Intensive aorist
Aru (to write) uriɣ ad aruɣ ttaruɣ

Conjugation

Conjugation in Kabyle is done by adding suffixes (prefixes, postfixes or both). These suffixes are static and identical for all tenses (only the theme changes): In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ...

Person Singular Plural
1st — (e)ɣ n(e) —
2nd (m) t(e) — (e) t(e) — (e)m
2nd (f) t(e) — (e) t(e) — (e)mt
3rd (m) i/y(e) — — (e)n
3rd (f) t(e) — — (e)nt
  • Example: verb afeg (to fly) with its four themes : ufeg (preterite), ufig (negative preterite), afeg (aorist), ttafeg (intensive aorist).
Person Preterite Negative Preterite Ad+Aorist Intensive Aorist Imperative Intensive Imperative
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ufgeɣ nufeg ur ufigeɣ ur nufig ad afgeɣ ad nafeg ttafgeɣ nettafeg
2nd (m) tufgeḍ tufgem ur tufigeḍ ur tufigem ad tafgeḍ ad tefgem tettafgeḍ tettafgem afeg afget ttafeg ttafget
2nd (f) tufgeḍ tufgemt ur tufigeḍ ur tufigemt ad tafgeḍ ad tefgemt tettafgeḍ tettafgemt afeg afgemt ttafeg ttafgemt
3rd (m) yufeg ufgen ur yufig ur ufigen ad yafeg ad afgen yettafeg ttafgen
3rd (f) tufeg ufgent ur tufig ur ufigent ad tafeg ad afgent tettafeg ttafgent
Preterite Participle Aorist Participle Intensive Aorist Participle
Positive Negative Positive Negative
yufgen ur nufig ara yafgen yettafeg ur nettafeg

Verb framing

Kabyle is a satellite-framed based language, Kabyle verbs use two particles to show the path of motion: In linguistics, verb framing is a term used to describe how verb phrases in different languages vary regarding whether the main verb tends to encode the manner of motion or the direction of motion. ...

  • d orientates toward the speaker, and could be translated as "here".
  • n orientates toward the interlocutor or toward a certain place, and could be translated as "there".

Examples:

  • « iru-d » (he came), « iru-n » (he went).
  • « awi-d aman» (bring the water), « awi aman » (carry away the water).

Negation

Kabyle usually expresses negation in two parts, with the particle ur attached to the verb, and one or more negative words that modify the verb or one of its arguments. For example, simple verbal negation is expressed by « ur » before the verb and the particle « ara » after the verb: In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... Look up argument in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • « Urareɣ » ("I played") → « Ur urareɣ ara » ("I didn't play")

Other negative words (acemma...etc.) are used in combination with ur to express more complex types of negation.


Verb derivation

Verb derivation is done by adding suffixes. There are three types of derivation forms : Causative, reflexive and Passive. In grammar, a reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient (typically represented syntactically by the subject and the direct object) are the same. ... In English as in many other languages, the passive voice is the form of a transitive verb whose grammatical subject serves as the patient, receiving the action of the verb. ...

  • Causative: obtained by prefixing the verb with s- / sse- / ssu- :
ffeɣ "to go out" → ssuffeɣ "to make to go out"
kcem "to enter" → ssekcem "to make to enter, to introduce"
irid "to be washed" → ssired "to wash".
  • Reflexive: obtained by prefixing the verb with m- / my(e)- / myu-:
er "to see" → mer "to see each other"
ṭṭef "to hold" → myuṭṭaf "to hold each other".
  • Passive: is obtained by prefixing the verb with ttu- / ttwa- / tt- / mm(e)- / n- / nn-:
krez "to plough" → ttwakrez "to be ploughed"
ečč "to eat" → mmečč "to be eaten".
  • Complex forms: obtained by combining two or more of the previous prefixes:
enɣ "to kill" → mmenɣ "to kill each other" → smenɣ "to make to kill each other"

Interestingly, two prefixes can cancel each other:

enz "to be sold" → zzenz "to sell" → ttuzenz "to be sold" (ttuzenz = enz !!).

Agent noun

Every verb has a corresponding agent noun. In English it could be translated into verb+er. It is obtained by prefixing the verb with « am- » or with « an- » if the first letter is b / f / m / w (there are exceptions however). In linguistics, agent noun (or nomen agentis) is a word that is derived from another word denoting an action (A) and that has the meaning `entity that does A. Agent noun (or nomen agentis) is also the name of this derivational meaning (also called a derivateme). ...

  • Examples:
ṭṭef "to hold" → anaṭṭaf "holder"
inig "to travel" → iminig "traveller"
eks "to graze" → ameksa "shepherd"

Action noun

Every verb has a corresponding action noun, which in English it could be translated into verb+ing: A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ...

ffer "to hide" → tuffra "hiding" (stem VI), « Tuffra n tidett ur telhi » — "Hiding the truth is bad".

There are 6 regular stems of forming action nouns, and the 7th is for quality verbs : (C for consonant, V for vowel)

Stem Verb Action noun
I cvcv acvcv
II c(c)vc(c) ac(c)vc(c)v
III c(c)ecc ac(c)ecci
IV (c)cac(c) a(c)cac(c)i
V c1c2ec3 accac
VI ccec tuccca
VII ic1c2vc3 tec1c2ec3
  • Examples:
ɣeẓẓ "to bite" → aɣa
zdi "to be united" → azday
ini "to say" → timenna

Predicative particule "d"

The predicative particule "d" is an indispensable tool in speaking Kabyle, "d" is equivalent to both "it is + adjective" and "to be + adjective", but cannot be replaced by the verb "ili" (to be). It is always followed by a noun (free state).


Examples:

  • D taqcict, "it's a girl".
  • D nekk, "it's me".
  • Nekk d argaz, "I'm a man".
  • Idir d anelmad, "Idir is a student".
  • Idir yella d anelmad, "Idir was a student".

The predicative particule "d" should not be confused with the particle of coordination "d"; indeed, the former is followed by a noun at its annexed state while the first is always followed by a noun at its free state.


Pronoun

Personal pronouns

Person Singular Plural
1st (m) nekk / nekkini nekni
1st (f) nekk / nekkini nekkenti
2nd (m) kečč / keččini kunwi / kenwi
2nd (f) kemm / kemmini kunnemti / kennemti
3rd (m) netta / nettan / nettani nutni / nitni
3rd (f) nettat nutenti / nitenti

Example : « Ula d nekk. » — "Me too."


Possessive pronouns

Person Singular Plural
1st (m) (i)w / inu nneɣ
1st (f) (i)w / inu nnteɣ
2nd (m) (i)k / inek nwen
2nd (f) (i)m / inem nkent
3rd (m) (i)s / ines nsen
3rd (f) (i)s / ines nsent

Example : « Axxam-nneɣ. » — "Our house." (House-our)


Pronouns of the verb

  • Direct object
Person Singular Plural
1st (m) (i)yi ɣ / (y)aɣ / naɣ / (y)anaɣ
1st (f) (i)yi ɣ / (y)aɣ / tnaɣ / (y)anteɣ
2nd (m) (i)k (i)ken
2nd (f) (i)kem (i)kent
3rd (m) (i)t (i)ten
3rd (f) (i)tt (i)tent

Example : « Yuɣ-it. » — "He bought it." (He.bought-it)

  • Indirect object
Person Singular Plural
Long form Short form Long form Short form
1st (m) (i)yi yi ɣ / (y)aɣ ɣ
1st (f) (i)yi yi ɣ / (y)aɣ ɣ
2nd (m) (y)ak k (y)awen wen
2nd (f) (y)am m (y)akent kent
3rd (m) (y)as s (y)asen sen
3rd (f) (y)as s (y)asent sent
  • Example : « Yenna-yas. » — "He said to him." (He.said-to.him)
  • Complex example (Mixing indirect and direct object) : « Yefka-yas-t. » — "He gave it to him." (He.gave-to.him-it)

Demonstratives

There are three demonstratives, near-deictic ('this, these'), far-deictic ('that, those') and absence: In pragmatics and linguistics, deixis (Greek: δειξις display, demonstration, or reference, the meaning point of reference in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus, Stoica 2,65) is a process whereby words or expressions rely absolutely on context. ...

  • Suffix: Used with a noun, example : « Axxam-agi» — "This house." (House-this).
Near-deictic Far-deictic Absence
Singular Plural Singular Plural
(y)a / (y)agi (y)agini (y)ihin / (y)ihinna (y)inna nni
  • Isolated : Used when we omit the subject we are speaking about : «Wagi yelha» — "This is nice." (This-is.nice)
Near-deictic Far-deictic Absence
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
masculine wa/ wagi/ wagini wi/ wigi/ wigini wihin / wihinna wihid / wihidak
widak-inna / wigad-inna
widak-ihin / wigad-ihin
win / winna wid / wid-nni
widak / widak-nni
wigad-nni
feminine ta / tagi / tagini ti / tigi / tigini tihin / tihinna tihid / tihidak
tidak-inna / tigad-inna
tidak-ihin / tigad-ihin
tin / tinna tid / tid-nni
tidak / tidak-nni
tigad-nni

Numerotation

Only the first two numbers are Berber; for higher numbers, Arabic is used. They are yiwen (f. yiwet) "one", sin (f. snat) "two". The noun being counted follows it in the genitive: sin n yirgazen "two men". Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ...


"First" and "last" are respectively amezwaru and aneggaru (regular adjectives). Other ordinals are formed with the prefix wis (f. tis): wis sin "second (m.)", tis tlata "third (f.)", etc. Ordinal numbers, or ordinals for short, are numbers used to denote the position in an ordered sequence: first, second, third, fourth, etc. ...


Prepositions

Prepositions precede their objects: « i medden » "to the people", « si temdint » "from the town". All words preceded by a preposition (at the exception of « s » and « ar », "towards", "until" ) take their annexed state. In grammar, a preposition is a word that establishes a relationship between an object (usually a noun phrase) and some other part of the sentence, often expressing a location in place or time. ...


Some prepositions have two forms : one is used with pronominal suffixes and the other form is used in all other contexts.


Also some of these prepositions have a corresponding relative pronoun (or interrogative), example: A poprelative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. ... An interrogative pronoun (also known simply as an interrogative) is a pronoun used in asking questions. ...

« i » "for/to" → « iwumi » "to whom"
« Tefka aksum i wemcic » "she gave meat to the cat" → « Amcic iwumi tefka aksum » "The cat to whom she gave meat"
Kabyle prepositions
Preposition With suffixes translation equivalent Corresponding Relative pronoun translation equivalent
d yid- / did- 'and, with, in the company of' (w)ukud / wi d 'with whom'
i 'for, to' (dative) iwumi / iwimi / imi / umi / mi 'to whom' (dative) / 'whose'
ɣer / ar 'to' (direction) iɣer / ɣer way / (s)aniɣer / (s)awier / ɣer 'to' (direction)
s 'to' (direction) sani 'to' (direction)
ɣur 'among' (w)uɣur / ɣur 'among'
ɣef / af / f fell- 'on; because of; about' iɣef / ɣef way / ɣef wadeg / ɣef 'on what'
deg / g / di 'in' ideg / deg way / deg waydeg / anda / deg 'where'
seg / si / g 'from' iseg / seg way / ansi 'from where'
s iss- / yiss- / yis- 'with, by means of, using' (instrumental) s ways / s wacu / s / iss / is 'with what' (instrumental)
ger gar- 'between'
n 'of'
nnig / sennig 'on top of'
ddaw / seddaw 'beneath, under'
ar 'until'
deffir 'behind'
zdat / zzat 'in front of'
am 'like, as'

A poprelative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ...

Conjunctions

Conjunctions precede the verb: mi yiwwe "when he arrived", muqel ma yusa-d "see if he came".


Vocabulary

Kabyle has absorbed quite some Arabic and French vocabulary. According to Salem Chaker, about a third of Kabyle vocabulary is of Arabic origin; the amount of French loanwords has not been studied yet. These loanwords are sometimes Berberized and sometimes kept in their original form. The Berberized words follow the regular grammar of Kabyle (free and annexed state).


Examples of berberized arabic or french words :

Kitab => Taktabt (Book, Ar.)
Machine => Tamacint (Machine, Fr.)

Many loanwords from arabic have often a different meaning in Kabyle:

El Mal (Money, Ar.) => Lmal (Domestic animals, Kab.)

All verbs of Arabic origin follow a Berber conjugation and verbal derivation:

fhem (to understand) => ssefhem (to explain).

Sample text

In. MOULIERAS (Auguste), les fourberies de si Djeh'a.

Aqerruy n tixsi Ewe Head
Yiwen wass, Ğeḥḥa yefka-yas baba-s frank, akken ad d-yaɣ aqerruy n tixsi. Yuɣ-it-id, yečča akk aksum-is. Yeqqim-d uceqlal d ilem, yewwi-yas-t-id i baba-s. Ihi, mi t-iwala yenna-yas: "acu-t wa?" yenna-yas: "d aqerruy n tixsi".

-A ccmata, anida llan imeẓẓuɣen-is?

-Tella d taɛeẓẓugt.

-Anida llan wallen-is?

-Tella d taderɣalt.

-Anida yella yiles-is?

-Tella d tagugamt.

-I weglim n uqerruy-is, anida yella?

-Tella d taferḍast.
One day, Jehha's father gave him one cent, so that he buys an ewe head. He bought it, and ate all of its meat. Only an empty carcass was left, he brought it to his father. Then, when he saw it he said: "what is that?" Jehha said: "an ewe head".

-You vile (boy), where are its ears (the ewe)?

-It was deaf.

-Where are its eyes?

-It was blind.

-Where is its tongue?

-It was dumb.

-And the skin of its head, where is it?

-It was bald.
IPA transcription : æqərruj ən θiχsi Word by word translation : head of ewe
jiwən wæss, dʒəħħæ jəfkæ-jæs βæβæ-s frank, ækkən æ d-jæʁ æqərruj ən θiχsi. Yuʁ-iθ-id, yətʃtʃæ ækʷ æçsum-is. Yəqqim-d uʃəqlæl ð iləm, jəwwi-jæs-θ-id i βæβæ-s. Ihi, mi θ-iwælæ jənnæ-jæs: "æʃu-θ wæ?" jənnæ-jæs: "ð æqərruj ən θiχsi".

-æ ʃʃmætæ, ænidæ llæn iməz̴z̴uʁn-is?

-θəllæ ts aʕəz̴z̴ugt.

-ænidæ llæn wælln-is?

-θəllæ ts æðərʁælθ.

-ænidæ jəllæ jils-is?

-θəllæ ts æʝuʝæmθ.

-i wəʝlim ən uqərruj-is, ænidæ jəllæ?

-θəllæ ts æfərðˁast.
One day, Jehha he.gave-to.him father-his cent, so.that he.buys head of ewe. He.bought-it-here, he.ate all meat-its. Stayed-here carcass it.is empty, he.brought-to.him-it-here to father-his. Then, when it-he.saw he.said-to.him: "what-it that?" he.said-to.him: "head of ewe".

-Oh vile, where are ears-its?

-She.was it.is deaf.

-Where are eyes-its?

-She.was it.is blind.

-Where is tongue-its?

-She.was it.is dumb.

-And skin of head-its, where it.is?

-She.was bald.

Note: the predicative particule d was translated as "it.is", the particule of direction d was translated as "here".


Sources used for this article

  • Kamal Nait-Zerrad. Grammaire moderne du kabyle, tajerrumt tatrart n teqbaylit. Editions KARTHALA, 2001. ISBN 978-2-84586-172-5
  • Dallet, Jean-Marie. 1982. Dictionnaire kabyle–français, parler des At Mangellet, Algérie. Études etholinguistiques Maghreb–Sahara 1, ser. eds. Salem Chaker, and Marceau Gast. Paris: Société d’études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France.

Bibliography

  • Kamal Nait-Zerrad. Grammaire moderne du kabyle, tajerrumt tatrart n teqbaylit. Editions KARTHALA, 2001. ISBN 978-2-84586-172-5
  • Dallet, Jean-Marie. 1982. Dictionnaire kabyle–français, parler des At Mangellet, Algérie. Études etholinguistiques Maghreb–Sahara 1, ser. eds. Salem Chaker, and Marceau Gast. Paris: Société d’études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France.
  • Achab R. : 1996 - La néologie lexicale berbère (1945-1995), Paris/Louvain, Editions Peeters, 1996.
  • Achab R. : 1998 - Langue berbère. Introduction à la notation usuelle en caractères latins, Paris, Editions Hoggar.
  • Dallet J.-M. : 1982 - Dictionnaire kabyle-français, Parler des At Mangellat, Selaf, Paris.
  • Mammeri M. : 1976 - Tajerrumt n tmaziɣt (tantala taqbaylit), Maspero, Paris.
  • Naït-Zerrad K. : 1994 - Manuel de conjugaison kabyle (le verbe en berbère), L’Harmattan, Paris.
  • Naït-Zerrad K. : 1995 - Grammaire du berbère contemporain, I - Morphologie, ENAG, Alger.
  • Naït-Zerrad K. : 2001 - Grammaire moderne du kabyle, Karthala, Paris.
  • Tizi-Wwuccen. Méthode audio-visuelle de langue berbère (kabyle), Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, 1986.
  • F.Amazit-Hamidchi & M.Lounaci : Kabyle de poche, Assimil, France, ISBN 2-7005-0324-4

Assimil is a French company, founded by Alphonse Chérel in 1929. ...

References

External links

Wikipedia
Kabyle language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

Websites in Kabyle

Online dictionaries


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