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Encyclopedia > Kabuki
The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto
The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto
The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyo's leading kabuki theaters.
The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyo's leading kabuki theaters.

Kabuki (歌舞伎 kabuki?) is a form of traditional Japanese theatre. Kabuki theatre is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by its performers. The individual kanji characters, from left to right, mean sing (歌), dance (舞), and skill (伎). Kabuki is therefore sometimes translated as "the art of singing and dancing." These are, however, ateji, characters that do not reflect actual etymology. The word kabuki is believed to derive from the verb kabuku, meaning "to lean" or "to be out of the ordinary", so kabuki can be interpreted to mean "avant-garde" or "bizarre" theatre.[1] The expression kabukimono (歌舞伎者) referred originally to wild urban gangs of young eccentrics who dressed outrageously and had strange hairstyles. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 491 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1492 × 1822 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 491 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1492 × 1822 pixel, file size: 2. ... Minami-za (南座, Minami-za) is a form of traditional Japanese theatre for Kabuki. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Download high resolution version (1190x754, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1190x754, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kabuki-za, Tokyos premier Kabuki theater Kabuki-za ) in Ginza is the principal theater in Tokyo for the traditional kabuki drama form. ... Kabuki can refer of the following: Kabuki, a form of traditional Japanese theater known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by its performers. ... Traditional Japanese theatre includes kabuki, noh and bunraku. ... Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Ateji (当て字 ) guessed characters are Kanji selected to write a borrowed non-Chinese or native Japanese word with the intent of implying an etymology, which is fanciful or false. ... Etymologies redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Kabuki has changed drastically since its earliest incarnations.

Kabuki founder Izumo no Okuni, wearing a Katana and a Christian cross.
Kabuki founder Izumo no Okuni, wearing a Katana and a Christian cross.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (459x643, 65 KB) Summary Okuni, inventor of kabuki theatre Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (459x643, 65 KB) Summary Okuni, inventor of kabuki theatre Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Okuni, wearing a samurai sword and a Christian cross. ... For other uses, see Katana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...

1603–1629: female kabuki

The history of kabuki began in 1603, when Okuni, a miko (young woman in the service of a Shinto shrine) of Izumo Taisha, began performing a new style of dance drama in the dry river beds of Kyoto.[2] Female performers played both men and women in comic playlets about ordinary life. The style was instantly popular; Okuni was even asked to perform before the Imperial Court. In the wake of such success, rival troupes quickly formed, and kabuki was born as ensemble dance drama performed by women—a form very different from its modern incarnation. Much of its appeal in this era was due to the ribald, suggestive performances put on by many troupes; this appeal was further augmented by the fact that the performers were often also available for prostitution.[1] For this reason, kabuki was also written "歌舞妓" (singing and dancing prostitute) during the Edo Period. Okuni (出雲阿国: Izumo no Okuni, 1572?–1613) was the main founder of kabuki theater. ...

A tryst between a man and a youth, probably a kabuki actor. Young kabuki actors were often sought-after by townsmen who followed shudo.
A tryst between a man and a youth, probably a kabuki actor. Young kabuki actors were often sought-after by townsmen who followed shudo.

Since kabuki was already so popular, young male actors took over after women were banned from performing. Along with the change in the performers' gender came a change in the emphasis of the performance: increased stress was placed on drama rather than dance.[2] Their performances were equally ribald, however, and they too were available for prostitution (also to male customers). Audiences frequently became rowdy, and brawls occasionally broke out, sometimes over the favors of a particularly handsome young actor, leading the shogunate to ban young male actors in 1652.[3] Image:Miyagawa Issho hand scroll. ... Image:Miyagawa Issho hand scroll. ... Man and youth Tryst between a man and a male youth. ... Homosexuality has been recorded from ancient times in Japan; indeed, at some times in Japanese history love between men was viewed as the purest form of love. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ...

After 1653: men's kabuki

From 1653, only mature men could perform kabuki, which developed into a sophisticated, highly stylized form called yarō kabuki (野郎歌舞伎, roughly, men's kabuki). This metamorphosis in style was heavily influenced by kyogen comic theater, as mandated by the shogunate.[1] Kyogen was, in any case, extremely popular at the time. Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ...


The yarō was eventually dropped, but all roles in a kabuki play continued to be performed by men. Male actors who specialize in playing women's roles, called onnagata or oyama (both 女形), emerged, and families of onnagata specialists developed. In later years, most onnagata came from these families.


Two major role types developed: aragoto (rough style) was pioneered by Ichikawa Danjūrō (16601704) in Edo, and wagoto (soft style) by Sakata Tōjūrō (16471709) in the Kyoto-Osaka area. Aragoto is a bombastic style of role, in which the actor greatly exaggerates words, gestures, and even costumes and makeup; its name is derived from a word meaning the reckless warrior matter, and its plays emphasize action. In contrast, wagoto features more realistic speech and gestures, and its plays are usually tragic romances.[4] Ichikawa DanjÅ«rō VIII in the lead role in Shibaraku, a role which is definitive of aragoto. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Wagoto ), or soft style, is a style of kabuki acting that emphasizes realistic speech and gestures. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ...

Kabuki actor, by Katsukawa Shunshō (1726–1792)
Kabuki actor, by Katsukawa Shunshō (1726–1792)

Download high resolution version (902x1964, 505 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (902x1964, 505 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kabuki actor, by Katsukawa Shunshō Katsukawa Shunshō (勝川春章)(1726-1792) was a Japanese painter and printmaker in the ukiyo-e style, and the leading artist of the Katsukawa school. ...

1673–1735: The Genroku period

During the Genroku era, kabuki thrived. The structure of a kabuki play was formalized during this period, as were many elements of stylization. Conventional character types were determined. Kabuki theater and ningyō jōruri, the elaborate form of puppet theater that later came to be known as bunraku, became closely associated with each other during this period, and each has since influenced the development of the other.[2] The famous playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon, one of the first professional playwrights of kabuki, produced several influential works, though the piece usually acknowledged as his most significant, Sonezaki Shinju (The Love Suicides at Sonezaki), was originally written for bunraku. Like many bunraku plays, however, it was adapted for kabuki, and it spawned many imitators—in fact, it and similar plays reportedly caused so many real-life "copycat" suicides that the government banned shinju mono (plays about lovers' double suicides) in 1723. Ichikawa Danjūrō I also lived during this time; he is credited with the development of mie[5] poses and mask-like kumadori make-up[6]. Genroku ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ... Statue of Chikamatsu Monzaemon at Amagasaki, Hyogo Chikamatsu Monzaemon (Japanese: 近松門左衛門; real name Sugimori Nobumori, 杉森信盛, 1653–6 January 1725) was a Japanese dramatist of jōruri, the form of puppet theater that later came to be known as bunraku, and the live-actor drama, kabuki. ... Ohatsu and Tokubei The Love Suicides at Sonezaki (Sonezaki ShinjÅ«) is a love-suicide play by Chikamatsu. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Ichikawa DanjÅ«rō I (初代市川段十郎[1], shodai Ichikawa DanjÅ«rō) (1660-1704) was an early kabuki actor in Japan. ... The Mie pose (見え or 見得, mie) is a part of the Kabuki performance art. ... The hero of Shibaraku, wearing kumadori makeup. ...


In the mid-18th century, kabuki fell out of favor for a time, with bunraku taking its place as the premier form of stage entertainment among the lower social classes.[2] This occurred partly because of the emergence of several skilled bunraku playwrights in that time. Little of note would occur in the development of kabuki until the end of the century, when it began to re-emerge. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Kabuki after the Meiji Restoration

Kabuki performance around 1860
Kabuki performance around 1860

The tremendous cultural changes begun in 1868 by the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate, the elimination of the samurai class, and the opening of Japan to the west helped to spark the re-emergence of kabuki. As the culture struggled to adapt to its new lack of isolation, actors strove to increase the reputation of kabuki among the upper classes and to adapt the traditional styles to modern tastes. They ultimately proved successful in this regard—on one occasion (21 April 1887), a performance was given for the Meiji Emperor.[7] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (924x582, 84 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (924x582, 84 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ...


Many kabuki houses were destroyed by bombing during World War II, and the occupying forces briefly banned kabuki performances after the war. However, by 1947 the ban had been rescinded, and performances began once more.[8] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kabuki today

The immediate post-World War II era was a difficult time for kabuki. Besides the devastation caused to major Japanese cities as a result of the war, the popular trend was to reject the styles and thoughts of the past, kabuki among them.[9] Director Tetsuji Takechi's popular and innovative productions of the kabuki classics at this time are credited with bringing about a rebirth of interest in the kabuki in the Kansai region.[10] Of the many popular young stars who performed with the Takechi Kabuki, Nakamura Ganjiro III (b.1931) was the leading figure. He was first known as Nakamura Senjaku, and this period in Osaka kabuki became known as the "Age of Senjaku" in his honor.[10] Tetsuji Takechi (武智鉄二 - Takechi Tetsuji) (December 10, 1912 - July 26, 1988) was a Japanese theatrical and film director. ... The Kansai (Japanese: 関西) region of Japan, also known as the Kinki region (近畿地方, Kinki-chihō), lies in the Southern-Central region of Japans main island, Honshu. ...


Today, kabuki remains relatively popular—it is the most popular of the traditional styles of Japanese drama—and its star actors often appear in television or film roles. [11] For example, the well-known onnagata Bandō Tamasaburō V has appeared in several (non-kabuki) plays and movies—often in a female role. Kabuki is also referenced in works of Japanese popular culture such as anime. This article is about motion pictures. ... Bandō Tamasaburō V (坂東玉三郎五代目)(b. ... “Animé” redirects here. ...


Though there are only a handful of major theatres in Tokyo, Kyoto, and Osaka, there are many smaller theatres in Osaka, and throughout the countryside. The Ōshika Kabuki troupe, based in Ōshika"大鹿", Nagano Prefecture"長野県", is one example.[12] Oshika (大鹿村; -mura) is a village located in Shimoina District, Nagano, Japan. ... Nagano Prefecture (長野県; Nagano-ken) is located on Honshu island, Japan. ...


Some kabuki troupes now use female actors in the onnagata roles, and the Ichikawa Kabuki-za (an all-female troupe) was formed after World War II. In 2003, a statue of Okuni, has been erected near Kyoto's Pontochō district. Pontochō (先斗町) is a district in Kyoto, Japan known for geisha and home to many geisha houses and traditional tea houses. ...


Interest in kabuki has also spread in the West. Kabuki troupes regularly tour Europe and America, and there have been several kabuki-themed productions of canonical Western plays such as those of Shakespeare. Western playwrights and novelists have also experimented with kabuki themes, an example of which is Gerald Vizenor's Hiroshima Bugi (2004). Writer Yukio Mishima pioneered and popularized the use of kabuki in modern settings, and revived other traditional arts, such as Noh, adapting them to modern contexts. Canon, in the context of a fictional universe, comprises those novels, stories, films, etc. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Gerald Vizenor (born 1934) is a Native American (Chippewa) writer. ... Yukio Mishima ) was the public name of Kimitake Hiraoka , January 14, 1925–November 25, 1970), a Japanese author and playwright, famous for both his highly notable nihilistic post-war writings and the circumstances of his ritual suicide by seppuku. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Australia, the Za Kabuki troupe at the Australian National University has been performing a Kabuki drama each year since 1976; the single longest regular Kabuki performance outside of Japan. Image:Za Kabuki. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ...


Kabuki was enlisted on the UNESCO's 'Third Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity' on 24 November 2005. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Map showing the distribution of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage by State Parties as of 2005. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Elements of kabuki

Stage design

The kabuki stage features a projection called a hanamichi (花道; literally, flower path), a walkway which extends into the audience and via which dramatic entrances and exits are made. Kabuki stages and theaters have steadily become more technologically sophisticated, and innovations including revolving stages and trap doors, introduced during the 18th century, added greatly to the staging of kabuki plays. A driving force has been the desire to make manifest one frequent theme of kabuki theater, that of the sudden, dramatic revelation or transformation.[13] A number of stage tricks, including rapid appearances and disappearances of actors, have evolved using these innovations. The term keren (外連), often translated playing to the gallery, is sometimes used as a catch-all term for these tricks. The hanamichi lit. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Keren is the third largest city in Eritrea, lying north west of Asmara, with a population of around 75,000 people. ...


Mawari-butai (revolving stage) developed in the Kyōhō era (1716–1735). Originally accomplished by the on-stage pushing of a round, wheeled platform this technique evolved into a circle being cut into the stage floor with wheels beneath it facilitating movement. When the stage lights are lowered during this transition it is known as kuraten (“darkened revolve”). More commonly the lights are left on for akaten (“lighted revolve”), sometimes with the transitioning scenes being performed simultaneously for dramatic effect.


Seri refers to the stage traps that have been commonly employed in kabuki since the middle of the eighteenth century. These traps raise and lower actors or sets to the stage. Seridashi or seriage refers to the traps moving upward and serisage or serioroshi when they are being lowered. This technique is often used for dramatic effect of having an entire scene rise up to appear onstage.


Chūnori (riding in mid-air) is a technique, which appeared toward the middle of the nineteenth century, by which an actor’s costume is attached to wires and he is made to “fly” over the stage and/or certain parts of the auditorium. This is similar to "wire fu"of modern cinema. As these “trick” (keren) devices have fallen out of favor many stages are no longer equipped to handle them. Wire fu is an action film genre in which the actors use wire-work to perform amazing stunts. ...


In kabuki, as in some other Japanese performing arts, scenery changes are sometimes made mid-scene, while the actors remain on stage and the curtain stays open. This is sometimes accomplished by using a Hiki Dōgu, or small wagon stage. This technique originated at the beginning of the 18th century, where scenery or actors are moved on or off stage by means of a wheeled platform. Also common are stage hands rushing onto the stage adding and removing props, backdrops and other scenery; these stage hands, known as kuroko (黒子), are always dressed entirely in black and are traditionally considered invisible. These stage hands also assist in a variety of quick costume changes known as hayagawari (quick change technique). In plays, when a character's true nature is suddenly revealed, the devices of hikinuki or bukkaeri are often used. Hikinuki or bukkaeri is accomplished by having costumes layered one over another and having a stage assistant pull the outer one off in front of the audience. For other uses, see Kuroko (disambiguation). ...


Performance

There are three main categories of kabuki play: jidai-mono (時代物, historical, or pre-Sengoku period stories), sewa-mono (世話物, domestic, or post-Sengoku stories), and shosagoto (所作事, dance pieces). This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ...


Important characteristics of Kabuki theater include the mie (見得), in which the actor holds a picturesque pose to establish his character.[13] At this point his house name (yagō, 屋号) is sometimes heard in loud shout (kakegoe,掛け声) from an expert audience member, serving both to express and enhance the audience's appreciation of the actor's achievement. Keshō, kabuki makeup, provides an element of style easily recognizable even by those unfamiliar with the art form. Rice powder is used to create the white oshiroi base, and kumadori enhances or exaggerates facial lines to produce dramatic animal or supernatural masks for the actors. The color of the kumadori is an expression of the character's nature: red lines are used to indicate passion, heroism, righteousness, and other positive traits; blue or black, villainy, jealousy, and other negative traits; green, the supernatural; and purple, nobility.[6] Yagō (屋号), literally meaning house name, is a term applied in traditional Japanese culture to names passed down within a guild, studio, or other circumstance other than blood relations. ... Kakegoe (掛け声) are shouts of cheer. ... Make-up redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ...


Play structure

Kabuki, like other traditional forms of drama in Japan as well as in other cultures around the world, was (and sometimes still is) performed in full-day programs. Rather than attending a single play for 2–5 hours, as one might do in a modern Western-style theater, one would "escape" from the day-to-day world, devoting a full day to entertainment in the theater district. Though some plays, particularly the historical jidaimono, might go on for an entire day, most plays were shorter and would be arranged, in full or in part, alongside other plays in order to produce a full-day program. Jidaimono (時代物) are Japanese kabuki or jōruri plays which feature historical plots and characters, often famous samurai battles. ...


The structure of the full-day program, like the structure of the plays themselves, was derived largely from the conventions of bunraku and Noh, conventions which also appear in countless other traditional Japanese arts. Chief among these is the concept of jo-ha-kyū (序破急), which states that all things should be done at a certain pace, one which starts out slow, speeds up, and ends quickly. The concept, elaborated on at length by master Noh playwright Zeami, governs not only the actions of the actors, but also the structure of the play as well as the structure of scenes and plays within a day-long program. Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jo-ha-kyÅ« (序破急) is a concept of modulation and movement applied in a wide variety of traditional Japanese arts. ... Zeami Motokiyo (c. ...


Nearly every full-length play would be performed in five acts, the first one corresponding to jo, an auspicious and slow opening which introduces the audience to the characters and the plot. The next three acts would correspond to ha, speeding events up, culminating almost always in a great moment of drama or tragedy in the third act and possibly a battle in the second and/or fourth acts. The final act, corresponding to kyu, is almost always very short, providing a quick and satisfying conclusion.[14]


While many plays were written for kabuki, many others were taken from jōruri plays, Noh plays, folklore, or other performing traditions such as the oral tradition of the Tale of the Heike. While plays taken from jōruri tend to have serious, emotionally dramatic, and organized plots, those plays written specifically for kabuki generally have far looser, sillier plots.[15] One of the crucial differences in the philosophy of the two forms is that jōruri focuses primarily on the story and on the chanter who recites it, while kabuki focuses more on the actors. Thus, it is not unknown in a jōruri play to sacrifice the details of sets, puppets, or onstage action in favor of directing attention to the chanter, while by contrast kabuki is known to sacrifice drama and even the plot itself in favor of showing off an actor's talents. It was not uncommon in kabuki to insert or remove individual scenes from a day's schedule in order to cater to the talents or desires of an individual actor—scenes he was famed for, or better at showing off in, would be inserted into a day's program where it made no sense in terms of plot continuity.[15] The Tale of the Heike (Japanese 平家物語, Heike monogatari) is an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century. ...


Another crucial stylistic element of kabuki is the difference between traditions in Edo and in Kamigata (the Kyoto-Osaka region). Through most of the Edo period, kabuki in Edo was defined by extravagance and bombast, as exemplified by stark makeup patterns, flashy costumes, fancy keren (stage tricks), and bold mie (poses). Kamigata kabuki, meanwhile, was much calmer in tone and focused on naturalism and realism in acting. Only towards the end of the Edo period in the 19th century did the two regions begin to adopt one another's styles to any significant degree.[16] For a long time, actors from one region often failed to adjust to the styles of the other region and were unsuccessful in their performance tours of that region. Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Kamigata (上方) is a region of Japan referring to the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; the term is used particularly when discussing elements of Edo period urban culture such as ukiyo-e and kabuki, and when making a comparison to the urban culture of the Edo/Tokyo region. ... Keren is the third largest city in Eritrea, lying north west of Asmara, with a population of around 75,000 people. ... Mie can refer to: Mie prefecture, Kinki, Japan Mie District, Mie (a district of Japan) Mie, Oita (a town of Japan) Mie noodles, a type of Chinese instant noodles similar to ramen Mie (pose), a pose in Kabuki theatre. ...


Famous plays

While there are many famous plays known today, the three most famous ones were written in three successive years in the middle of the 18th century. Like most of kabuki's longer, more serious, more dramatic plays, these were originally written for jōruri (bunraku) and were adopted by kabuki soon afterwards. All three were written by Takeda Izumo II, Miyoshi Shōraku, and Namiki Senryū I, between 1746 and 1748. Namiki Sōsuke (並木宗輔)(1695-c. ...

  • Kanadehon Chūshingura (Treasury of Loyal Retainers) is the famous story of the Forty-seven Ronin who track down their lord's killer, and exact revenge upon him before committing seppuku as required by their code of honor upon the death of their lord.[17]
  • Yoshitsune Senbon Sakura (Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees) follows Minamoto no Yoshitsune as he flees from agents of his brother Yoritomo. Three Taira clan generals supposed killed in the Genpei War figure prominently, as their deaths ensure a complete end to the war and the arrival of peace, as does a kitsune named Genkurō.[18]
  • Sugawara Denju Tenarai Kagami (Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy) is based on the life of famed scholar Sugawara no Michizane (845–903), who is exiled from Kyoto, and upon his death causes a number of calamities in the capital. He is then deified, as Tenjin, kami (divine spirit) of scholarship, and worshipped in order to propitiate his angry spirit.[17]

A woodblock print of the mansion raid, by Utagawa Kuniyoshi. ... Incense burns at the burial graves of the 47 Ronin at Sengaku-ji. ... Seppuku (Japanese: 切腹, belly-cutting) is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. ... Yoshitsune by Kikuchi Yosai Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka Minamoto no Yoshitsune () (1159 – June 15, 1189) was a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ... Portrait of Yoritomo (copy) Minamoto no Yoritomo May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. ... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... Prince Hanzoku terrorized by a nine-tailed fox. ... Genkurō (源九郎) is a shapechanging kitsune (fox-spirit) character who features prominently in the famous jōruri and kabuki play Yoshitsune Senbon Zakura (Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees). Spoiler warning: Disguising himself as Satō Tadanobu, a retainer of Yoshitsunes, he rescues Yoshitsunes lover Shizuka Gozen from agents of... Sugawara no Michizane by Kikuchi Yosai Kanke (also known as Sugawara no Michizane, from Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Sugawara no Michizane (菅原道真 845 - March 26, 903), also known as Kan Shōjō (菅丞相), was a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan. ... Tenjin (天神) is the Shinto kami of scholarship, the deified Sugawara no Michizane. ... “Megami” redirects here. ...

Major theatres in operation

  • Kotohiru, Kagawa
    • Kanamaru-za
  • Kyoto
    • Minami-za
  • Osaka
    • Shochiku-za
  • Tokyo
    • Kabuki-za
    • National Theater
  • Nagoya
    • Misono-za

The front of Konpira Grand Theatre The Konpira Grand Theatre (金毘羅大芝居 Konpira Ōshibai), also known as Kanamaru-za (金丸座) is a restored Kabuki theatre in Kotohira, Kagawa, on the island of Shikoku, Japan. ... Minami-za (南座, Minami-za) is a form of traditional Japanese theatre for Kabuki. ... Kabuki-za, Tokyos premier Kabuki theater Kabuki-za ) in Ginza is the principal theater in Tokyo for the traditional kabuki drama form. ... The exterior of the National Theatre building recalls the ancient azekura-zukuri style of the Shōsōin. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c "Kabuki" in Frederic, Louis (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  2. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  3. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  4. ^ Frederic, Louis (2002). "Aragoto", "Wagoto". Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  5. ^ "Mie". Kabuki Jiten. Accessed 09 Feb 2007.
  6. ^ a b Kincaid, Zoe (1925). Kabuki: The Popular Stage of Japan. London: MacMillan and Co. pp21–22.
  7. ^ Shōriya, Asagoro. Kabuki Chronology of the 19th century at Kabuki21.com (Accessed 18 Dec 2006.)
  8. ^ Takemae, Eiji; Robert Ricketts and Sebastian Swann (translators and adapters) [1983] (2002). The Allied Occupation of Japan (in English). New York & London: Continuum, pp.390-391. ISBN 0-8264-6247-2. 
  9. ^ Kominz, Laurence (1997). The Stars Who Created Kabuki; Their Lives, Loves and Legacy (in English). Tokyo, New York, London: Kodansha International, p.232. ISBN 4-7700-1868-1. 
  10. ^ a b Toita, Yasuji; Don Kenny (translator) (1970). "Zenshin-za Innovations", Kabuki: The Popular Theater, Performing Arts of Japan: II (in English). New York & Tokyo: Walker/Weatherhill, p.213. ISBN 0-8027-2424-8. 
  11. ^ Shōriya, Asagoro. Contemporary Actors at Kabuki21.com. (Accessed 18 Dec 2006.)
  12. ^ Ōshika Kabuki (html). Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  13. ^ a b Scott, A.C. The Kabuki Theatre of Japan. London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1955. 55–56
  14. ^ Quinn, Shelley Fenno. "How to write a Noh play—Zeami's Sandō. Monumenta Nipponica, vol 48, issue 1 (Spring 1993). pp53–88.
  15. ^ a b Toita, Yasuji (1970). Kabuki: The Popular Theater. New York: Weatherhill. pp6–8.
  16. ^ Thornbury, Barbara E. "Sukeroku's Double Identity: The Dramatic Structure of Edo Kabuki". Japanese Studies 6 (1982). Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan. 13
  17. ^ a b Miyake, Shutarō (1971). "Kabuki Drama". Tokyo: Japan Travel Bureau.
  18. ^ Jones, Stanleigh H. Jr. (trans.)(1993). "Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees." New York: Columbia University Press.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Monumenta Nipponica is an English-language academic journal featuring peer-reviewed articles and book reviews on Japanese society, culture, history, religion, literature, art, anthropology, and other topics relevant to Japanese and Asian studies. ...

See also

Japan Portal
  • Kanteiryū, a lettering style invented to advertise kabuki and other theatrical performances
  • Rakugo, a Japanese entertainment form based on comic monologues
  • Kyogen, a traditional form of Japanese comic theatre that influenced the development of kabuki
  • Noh, a traditional form of Japanese theatre
  • Bunraku, a traditional Japanese puppet theatre from whose scripts many kabuki plays were adapted
  • Butoh, an avant-garde dance form
  • Takarazuka Revue, an all-female theatrical troupe based upon the original form of kabuki
  • Benshi, a tradition of narrating silent films, based on the narration style of kabuki

Image File history File links Portal. ... Edomoji (江戸文字) are Japanese lettering styles which were invented for advertising in the Edo period. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ... Butoh ) is the collective name for a diverse range of techniques and motivations for dance inspired by the Ankoku-Butoh movement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Benshi (弁士 in Japanese) were performers who provided live narration for silent Japanese films. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kabuki - definition of Kabuki in Encyclopedia (1087 words)
Kabuki is therefore sometimes translated as "the art of singing and dancing." Kabuki theater is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate makeup worn by its performers.
Kabuki theater and ningyō jōruri, the elaborate form of puppet theater that later came to be known as bunraku, became closely associated with each other during this period, and each has since influenced the development of the other.
Kabuki stages and theaters have steadily become more technologically sophisticated, and innovations including revolving stages and trap doors, introduced during the 18th century, added greatly to the staging of kabuki plays.
Kabuki (comics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (650 words)
Kabuki is a comic book series by artist and writer David Mack, first published in 1994 by Caliber Press and later by Image Comics.
The character, codenamed Kabuki, is the granddaughter of a former World War II Japanese military man known as "the General" and an Ainu comfort woman, and much of the conflict is her identity between these two worlds.
In the beginning, Kabuki and the Noh are controlled by two masked men, known as the Devil, who wears an oni kabuki mask, and Dove, who wears an old man kabuki mask, although the group serves the Company, lead by the General.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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