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Encyclopedia > Kabardian language
Kabardian
къэбэрдеибзэ kʺèbèrdeibzè
Spoken in: Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Germany, USA 
Region: Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia
Total speakers: 1,012,000
Language family: North Caucasian (hypothetical)
 Northwest Caucasian
  Circassian group (hypothetical)
   Kabardian
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: kbd
ISO/FDIS 639-3: kbd 

The Kabardian language is closely related to the Adyghe language (see Adyghe), both members of the Northwest Caucasian language family, mainly spoken in Kabardino-Balkar Republic and Karachay-Cherkess Republic of Russia (the native territories) and in Turkey and the Middle East (the residence of the extensive post-war diaspora). It has 47 or 48 consonant phonemes of which 22 or 23 are fricatives, depending upon whether one counts [h] as phonemic, but this is contrasted with just two phonemic vowels. It is one of very few languages to possess a clear phonemic distinction between ejective affricates and ejective fricatives. The Kabardino-Balkar Republic or Kabardino-Balkaria (Russian: ; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic), located in the northern Caucasus. ... The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (Russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика, or, less formal, Карача́ево-Черке́ссия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... North Caucasian languages is a blanket term for two distinct, but possibly related, phyla of languages spoken in the north Caucasus and in Turkey. ... The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ... The Kabardian language is a Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Adyghe (адыгэбзэ adygebze, adÉ™găbză) is one of the two official languages of the Federal Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. ... The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as Cherkess). Shapsigh Autonomous District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black... The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ... The Kabardino-Balkar Republic or Kabardino-Balkaria (Russian: ; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic), located in the northern Caucasus. ... The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (Russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика, or, less formal, Карача́ево-Черке́ссия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ...


The Kabardian language has two major dialects, Besleney and Terek (the latter being the literary standard). Some linguists argue that Kabardian is only a dialect of an overarching Adyghe or Circassian language that consists of all of the dialects of Adyghe and Kabardian together, and the Kabardians themselves most often refer to their language using the Kabardian term Adighabze ("Adyghe language"). Several linguists, including Georges Dumézil, have used the terms eastern Circassian (Kabardian) and western Circassian (Adyghe) in order to avoid this confusion, but both "Circassian" and "Kabardian" may still be found in linguistic literature. There are several key phonetic and lexical differences that create a reasonably well-defined separation between the eastern and western Circassian dialects, but the degree to which the two are mutually intelligible has not yet been determined. The matter is also complicated somewhat by the existence of Besleney, which is usually considered a dialect of Kabardian, but which also shares a large number of features with certain dialects of Adyghe. Adyghe (адыгэбзэ adygebze, adÉ™găbză) is one of the two official languages of the Federal Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. ... The Kabardian language is a Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ...


Kabardian is written in a form of the Cyrillic alphabet, and like all Northwest Caucasian languages, has an extremely complex verbal system. Kabardian is ergative. The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or just ergative language) is one that marks the subject of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ...


Since 2004, the Turkish state broadcasting corporation TRT has maintained a half-an-hour programme a week in the Terek dialect of Kabardian. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Corporate logo of the Turkish Radio-Television Corporation Old Corporate logo, 1980s-2001 // Introduction The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu, TRT), founded in 1964, is a national publicly-funded broadcaster based in Turkey. ...


External links

  • Ethnologue: Kabardian
  • Kabardian (къэбэрдеибзэ) alphabet
Wikimedia Incubator
Kabardian language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
Northwest Caucasian languages
Abaza | Abkhaz | Adyghe | Kabardian | Ubykh

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kabardian (Circassian) alphabet, pronunciation and language (141 words)
Kabardian is a North West Caucasian language with about 650,000 speakers mainly in the Kabardian-Balkar and Karachay-Circassian Republics of Russia.
Kabardian is also known as East Circassian or Upper Circassian.
Kabardian first appeared in writing in 1923 in a version of the Latin alphabet.
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Northwest Caucasian languages (536 words)
The Northwest Caucasian languages or Abkhaz-Adyg languages are a family of languages spoken in the Caucasian part of Russia and in Abkhazia.
The basis behind this theory is that, during language evolution, vowel features such as labialisation[?], pharyngealisation[?] or frontness[?] are removed from the vowels in a root and reassigned instead to the consonants which surround them.
Kabardian is characterised by ejective fricatives[?] and a small number of vowels in speech.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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