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The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield
The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield

KGB (transliteration of "КГБ") is the Russian abbreviation for Committee for State Security (Russian: ; Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), which was the official name of the umbrella organization serving as the Soviet Union's premier security agency, secret police, and intelligence agency, from 1954 to 1991. Then, the official name of this organization was changed to FSB (ФСБ, Федеральная служба безопасности), although the word KGB may apply to the secret police of various epochs. The State Security Agency of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian: , Russian: ) is that countrys intelligence agency. ... KGB may refer to: KGB, former Soviet intelligence agency KGB (Belarus), Belarusian intelligence agency KGB (computer game) KGB Archiver, open-source software KGB-FM, radio station in San Diego, California, United States Kabeer Gbaja-Biamila, American football player Koryeo Golden Box, Korean cargo delivery company Kingston and George Bay Railroad... Image File history File links Symbol (Coat of Arms?) of the KGB. Source: Agentura site. ... Image File history File links Symbol (Coat of Arms?) of the KGB. Source: Agentura site. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Image File history File links Ru-KGB.ogg KGB, Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (Комитет Государственной Безопасности) in Russian. ... An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. ... Security agency is an organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation, state or organization. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... For other uses, see FSB. Minor emblem of FSB The FSB (Federal Security Service) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) is a domestic state security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor of the Soviet Cheka, NKVD, and KGB. Its headquarters are in Lubyanka Square, Moscow. ...


The KGB's operational domain encompassed functions and powers like those exercised by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the counter-intelligence (internal security) division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the National Security Agency, the Federal Protective Service, and the Secret Service in the United States, or by the twin organizations MI5 and Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in the United Kingdom. CIA redirects here. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... NSA redirects here. ... Federal Protective Service vehicle. ... USSS redirects here. ... MI-5 redirects here. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6)[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ...


On December 21, 1995, the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin signed the decree that disbanded the KGB, which was then substituted by the FSB, the current domestic state security agency of the Russian Federation. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... For other uses, see FSB. Minor emblem of FSB The FSB (Federal Security Service) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) is a domestic state security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor of the Soviet Cheka, NKVD, and KGB. Its headquarters are in Lubyanka Square, Moscow. ...


In Belarus, a former Soviet republic, the official Russian name of the State Security Agency remains "KGB". The State Security Agency of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian: , Russian: ) is that countrys intelligence agency. ...


The term is also sometimes used figuratively in the Western press to refer to the current FSB committee after the 1991 renaming due to its recognition and public perception.[1] Occident redirects here. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


Most of the information about the KGB remains secret, although there are two sources of documents of KGB available online.[2][3]

Contents

Origin of the KGB

The first of the forerunners of the KGB, the Cheka, was established on December 20, 1917. It replaced the Tsarist Okhrana. The Cheka underwent several name and organizational changes over the years, becoming in succession the State Political Directorate (OGPU) (1923), People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) (1941), and Ministry for State Security (MGB) (1946), among others. In March 1953, Lavrentiy Beria consolidated the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) and the MGB into one body—the MVD; within a year, Beria was executed and MVD was split. The reformed MVD retained its police and law enforcement powers, while the second, new agency, the KGB, assumed internal and external security and intelligence functions, and was subordinate to the Council of Ministers. On July 5, 1978 the KGB was re-christened as the "KGB of the Soviet Union," with its chairman holding a ministerial council seat. For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Directorate was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ... The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB - was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20 1941, and again from 1943 to 1946, and then renamed into the Ministry for State Security, or MGB. // On... The Ministry of State Security (MGB) ( Russian: Министерство государственной безопасности (Ministerstvo Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti)) was the name of the Soviet secret police agency from 1946 to 1953. ... Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია, Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD Russian Gendarme officers in the 1860s The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in Russia. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


The KGB was dissolved when its chief, Colonel-General Vladimir Kryuchkov, used the KGB's resources to aid the August 1991 coup attempt to overthrow Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. On August 23, 1991 Colonel-General Kryuchkov was arrested, and General Vadim Bakatin was appointed KGB Chairman—and mandated to dissolve the KGB of the Soviet Union. On November 6, 1991, the KGB officially ceased to exist. Its services were divided into two separate organizations; the FSB for Internal Security and the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) for Foreign Intelligence Gathering. The Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti (FSB) is functionally much like the Soviet KGB. Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Vadim Viktorovich Bakatin (born 1937) was a Russian Soviet political figure. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ... For other uses, see FSB. Minor emblem of FSB The FSB (Federal Security Service) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) is a domestic state security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor of the Soviet Cheka, NKVD, and KGB. Its headquarters are in Lubyanka Square, Moscow. ...


From its inception, the KGB was envisioned as the "sword and shield" of the Bolshevik Revolution and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). The KGB achieved a remarkable string of successes in the early stages of its history. The then-comparatively lax security of foreign powers such as the United States and the United Kingdom allowed the KGB unprecedented opportunities to penetrate the foreign intelligence agencies and governments with its own ideologically-motivated agents such as the Cambridge Five. Arguably, the Soviet Union’s most important intelligence coup, the Cambridge Five, detailed information concerning the building of the atomic bomb (the Manhattan Project), which occurred due to well-placed KGB agents within that project such as Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall. The KGB also pursued enemies of the Soviet Union and of Joseph Stalin. These include people, such as Leon Trotsky and groups like the counter-revolutionary White Guards, eventually achieving Trotsky's assassination. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The Cambridge Five (also sometimes known as the Cambridge Four) was a ring of Soviet spies in the UK who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and into the early 1950s. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... Theodore Halls ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... White Army redirects here. ...


During the Cold War, the KGB played a critical role in the survival of the Soviet one-party state through its suppression of political dissent (termed "ideological subversion") and hounding of notable public figures such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov. It also achieved notable successes in the foreign intelligence arena, including continued gathering of Western science and technology (including much of the technical information regarding the Concorde, which the USSR copied for the Tupolev Tu-144) from agents like Melita Norwood and the infiltration of West Germany’s government under Willy Brandt, alongside the East German Stasi. However, the double blow of the compromise of existing KGB operations through high-profile defections like those of Elizabeth Bentley in the United States and Oleg Gordievsky in Britain, as well as the drying up of ideological recruitment after the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the 1968 Prague Spring, resulted in a major decline in the extent of the KGB’s capabilities. However, the KGB was assisted by some mercenary Western defectors such as the CIA mole Aldrich Ames and the FBI mole Robert Hanssen, helping to partly counteract its own hemorrhage of skilled agents. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was the first supersonic transport aircraft (SST), constructed under the direction of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ... Melita Norwood, née Sirnis, (25 March 1912 – 2 June 2005) was a British civil servant who, for a period of about 40 years following her recruitment in 1937, supplied the KGB (and its predecessor agencies) with state secrets from her job at the British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association... For the Oz character, see Willy Brandt (Oz). ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... For the writer, see Elizabeth Bentley (writer). ... Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... A mole is a spy who works for an enemy nation and works within his nations government. ... Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst, who, in 1994, was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union. ... This article is about a former FBI official and convicted spy. ...


Modus operandi

Many experts consider the KGB as the then world's most effective information-gathering organization.[4] Like most other intelligence agencies, the KGB operated both legal and illegal residencies in its target countries. Legal residencies operated out of the local Soviet embassy under the cover of diplomatic immunity, and legal residents were thus free from prosecution if discovered to be spying. At best, the legal resident’s position to gather information would be compromised, and either the KGB would have to recall the resident or the resident would be expelled by the host country. In contrast, illegal residents operated without the benefit of immunity from prosecution (similar to the CIA's non-official cover). The KGB, especially in its early years, often placed more worth in its illegal residencies than its legal ones, primarily due to the ability of illegals to more easily operate undercover and thus infiltrate KGB targets. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments, which ensures that diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host countrys laws (although they can be expelled). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Using the ideological attraction of the first worker-peasant state and later on the fight against fascism and the Great Patriotic War, the Soviets successfully recruited many high-level spies. However, events such as the 1939 signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the crushing of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising, and the 1968 Prague Spring mostly dried up ideological recruitment; young radicals were repelled by the Red Army’s violations of sovereignty and Brezhnev’s geriatric leadership. Instead, the KGB turned to blackmail and bribery to recruit Western agents. Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ...


At legal residencies, operations were divided into four major sectors: political, economic, military strategic intelligence, and disinformation, called active measures in espionage parlance (PR Line), counter-intelligence and security (KR Line), and scientific and technological intelligence (X Line), which took on increasing importance throughout the Cold War. Other major operations included the collection of SIGINT (RP Line), illegal support (N Line), and a section dealing with émigrés (EM Line). Illegal residencies tended to be more decentralized and lacked official organizational structures. Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... For other uses, see Sigint (disambiguation). ...


The KGB, like its Western counterparts, divided its intelligence personnel into agents, who provided the information, and controllers, who relayed the information to the Kremlin and were responsible for keeping track of and paying the agents. Some of the most important agents, like the Cambridge Five, had multiple controllers over their espionage careers. Ironically, Kim Philby, who had thought of himself as a KGB officer, was rudely informed of this distinction when he defected to the Soviet Union; as a foreign agent, he was not even allowed to enter KGB headquarters.[citation needed] This article is about Russian citadels. ... The Cambridge Five (also sometimes known as the Cambridge Four) was a ring of Soviet spies in the UK who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and into the early 1950s. ... Kim Philby Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Unions NKVD and KGB. In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of...


To give cover for its illegals who were often born in Russia, the KGB constructed elaborate legends for them, involving them assuming the identity of a "live double," who handed over his or her identity to assist in the fabrication, or a "dead double," whose identity was based on a real (though deceased) person but was heavily altered by the KGB itself. These legends were usually supplemented by the agent living out the role given to him by the KGB in a foreign country before arriving at his final destination; one of the KGB’s favorite tactics was to send agents bound for the United States through its Ottawa residency in Canada.-1...


KGB agents practiced standard espionage craft such as the retrieval and photographing of classified documents using concealed cameras and microfilm, code-names in communication to disguise agents, contacts, targets, and the use of dead letter boxes to relay intelligence. In addition, the KGB made skillful use of agents provocateur, who infiltrated a target’s entourage by posing as sympathizers to the target’s cause or group. These agents provocateur were then used to sow dissent, influence policy, or help arrange kidnapping or assassination operations. A dead drop or dead letter box, is a location used to secretly pass items between two people, without requiring them to meet. ... An agent provocateur (plural: agents provocateurs) is a person assigned to provoke unrest, violence, debate, or argument by or within a group while acting as a member of the group but covertly representing the interests of another. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


History of the KGB

Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of Cheka, a predecessor to the KGB.

The evolution of the KGB originates with the establishment of the Cheka six weeks after the 1917 October Revolution in order to defend the nascent Bolshevik state from its powerful, "bourgeois" enemies, chief among them the White Army. The Cheka set out to brutally suppress dissent by interrogating and torturing suspected counter-revolutionists and was credited by Lenin as playing a key role in the new regime’s survival. With Lenin’s approval, a new foreign intelligence department of the Cheka, the INO (Innostranyi Otdel) was established on December 20, 1920; it was the precursor to the First Chief Directorate (FCD) of the KGB. The Cheka itself was renamed the State Political Directorate (OGPU), a name it would retain throughout much of Stalin’s early reign (1920s-30s). Image File history File links Felix_Dzerzhinsky_1919. ... Image File history File links Felix_Dzerzhinsky_1919. ... Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский; September 11, 1877 - July 20, 1926) was a Polish Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, later known by many names. ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... White Army redirects here. ... The First Chief Directorate (Russian: Первое Главное Управление) [or-PGU] of the Committee for State Security (KGB), was the organization responsible for foreign operations and intelligence collection activities by the training and management of covert agents, intelligence collection management, and the collection of political, scientific and technical intelligence. ... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Directorate was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ...


The OGPU continued to expand its operations at home and abroad; however, the growing paranoia of Stalin, which would foreshadow the later period of the purges, strongly influenced the performance and direction of the intelligence agency. Under Stalin, the pursuit of imaginary conspiracies against the state like that of the Trotskyists became a central focus of intelligence. As Stalin acted as his own intelligence analyst, the role of intelligence processing was subordinated to that of collection, and often reports submitted to Stalin were designed to reflect only what he wanted to hear. Of the many agents OGPU offered, only Nikolai Vlasik was chosen as Stalin's longtime bodyguard. This was only a slight nod to the organization as a whole. This period in the KGB’s history culminated in the eventual liquidation of many intelligence officers and chaos within the organization’s internal and external operations during the Great Purge, such as the conviction of former KGB chairman Genrikh Yagoda of treason and conspiring with Trotskyists, and of former KGB chairman Nikolai Yezhov, on similar charges, who ironically had denounced Yagoda and carried out the Terror under Stalin’s orders from 1936 to 1938. For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Никола́й Си́дорович Вла́сик (1896-1967). ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Genrikh Yagoda Genrikh Grigorevich Yagoda (Russian: ; born Yenokh (Enoch) Gershonovich Ieguda (Russian: )[1]; 1891 – March 15, 1938) was the head of the NKVD, the Soviet secret police, from 1934 to 1936. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov (Russian: ; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a senior figure in the NKVD (the Soviet secret police) during the period of the Great Purge. ...


The agency, now called the NKGB and later part of the NKVD, sought to rebuild itself after the disaster of Stalin’s purges. Under Lavrentiy Beria, it continued its sycophantic role of producing intelligence to corroborate Stalin’s own conspiracy theories while simultaneously achieving some of the deepest penetration of Western powers ever achieved by any intelligence agency. The next major organizational shuffle was to come in 1947 in the form of the KI (Komitet Informatsii), the brainchild of Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, which would centralize the intelligence system by combining the foreign intelligence services of the agency, renamed the MGB, and the GRU, and place the ambassador in an embassy at the head of the both the MGB’s and the GRU’s legal residency. The KI unraveled after Molotov fell out of favor with Stalin. The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB - was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20 1941, and again from 1943 to 1946, and then renamed into the Ministry for State Security, or MGB. // On... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია, Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... The Ministry of State Security (MGB) ( Russian: Министерство государственной безопасности (Ministerstvo Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti)) was the name of the Soviet secret police agency from 1946 to 1953. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile, Beria, now the head of the MVD, had been consolidating his power with the ambition to succeed Stalin as leader of the Soviet Union. Following Stalin’s death in 1953, Beria merged the MGB into the MVD. Fearing an attempt at a coup d'état, Beria’s colleagues in the Presidium united against him and he was charged with "criminal anti-Party and anti-state activities" and executed for treason. The MGB was split off from the MVD and underwent its final renaming to become the KGB. Coup redirects here. ... The Presidium or Praesidium (from Latin praesidium meaning protection or defense so plural presidia or praesidia) is the name for the executive committee of various legislative and organizational bodies. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


The next KGB chairman to possess high ambitions was the relatively youthful Aleksandr Shelepin (chairman from 1958–61), who helped in the coup against Khrushchev in 1964. His protégé at the KGB, Vladimir Semichastny (1961–67), was sacked, and Shelepin himself was sidelined from the powerful post of chairman of the Committee of Party and State Control into the unimportant chairmanship of the Trade Union Council by Brezhnev and the Communist Party, whose memories of Beria were still fresh in their minds. Alexander Nikolayevich Shelepin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Шелепин, born 1918) was the head of KGB from December 25, 1958 to November 13, 1961. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Vladimir Yefimovich Semichastny (Russian: Владимир Ефимович Семичастный, January 15, 1924-January 12, 2001) was the head of the KGB from November 1961 to April 1967. ...


In 1967, Yuri Andropov, the longest serving and most influential KGB chairman in its history, began his tenure at the head of the KGB. Andropov would go on to make himself heir-apparent to Brezhnev, helped by the general secretary’s growing feeble-mindedness, and succeeded him in 1982. Andropov’s legacy at the KGB was an increased focus on combating ideological subversion in all its forms, no matter how apparently minor or trivial. Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death fifteen months later. ...


Vladimir Kryuchkov, the last of the KGB chairmen, grew dismayed at Gorbachev’s efforts to open up Soviet society (glasnost) and was one of the principal organizers of the 1991 coup. However, declining respect for the KGB and other factors had fatally weakened the Soviet regime, and following the coup’s failure, the KGB was disbanded, officially on November 6, 1991. Its successor agency, the FSB, now performs most of the functions of the former KGB, though the largest, most important directorate of the KGB, the FCD, was broken off to become the SVR (Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki). Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ...


Former Russian President and current prime minister Vladimir Putin started out his career in the KGB working in the Fifth Directorate, monitoring the activities of the students of the Leningrad University. He later worked for the KGB in East Germany. List of Presidents of Russia Boris Yeltsin1 (July 10, 1991 – December 31, 1999) two terms. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ...


KGB operations within the United States

// Browder, Golos and Peters By the mid to late 1920s, there were three elements of Soviet power operating in the United States, despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the Comintern, military intelligence or GRU, and the forerunner of the KGB, the GPU. The Comintern was the dominant arm, though...

Pre-Cold War

As the Soviet regime had viewed the United States as a lower priority target than Britain and other European countries, the KGB had been slow to establish an agent network there. Responsibilities for infiltration thus fell to the GRU, which recruited Julian Wadleigh and possibly Alger Hiss, who began providing documents from the State Department. Henry Julian Wadleigh, former employee of Dean Acheson in the United States Department of State in the 1940s. ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ...


The KGB, at that time called the NKVD, first made its presence known in 1935 with the establishment of a legal residency under Boris Bazarov and an illegal residency under Iskhak Akhmerov. The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) and its general secretary Earl Browder assisted with recruitment efforts, and soon the KGB’s network was providing high-grade intelligence from within the United States government and defense and technology firms. Boris Jakovlevich Bazarov was born in 1893 in Kovno gubernia of Russian Empire (modern Lithuania). ... Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov (1901–1975) was of Tartar background and joined the Bolshevik Party in 1919. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891–June 27, 1973) was an American socialist and leader of the Communist Party USA. // Early years Browder was born in Wichita, Kansas. ...


Among the most important agents gathering political intelligence recruited during this time period were Laurence Duggan and Michael Whitney Straight, who passed classified State Department documents, Harry Dexter White, who performed a similar role in the Treasury Department, and Lauchlin Currie, an economic adviser to President Roosevelt. A notorious spy ring, the Silvermaster Group, run by Greg Silvermaster, also operated at this time, though it was somewhat detached from the KGB itself. The KGB thus succeeded in penetrating major branches of the United States government at a time when the US had no significant countervailing espionage operations in the Soviet Union. When Whittaker Chambers, a former courier for Hiss and others, approached Roosevelt with information fingering Duggan, White, and others as Soviet spies, his claims were dismissed as nonsense. At the Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam Conferences during World War II, Stalin was vastly more knowledgable about what cards the United States held in its bargaining deck than Roosevelt, or his successor Truman, were about Stalin and Soviet intelligence. Laurence Duggan, head of the South American desk at the United States Department of State during World War II. Duggan was recruited by journalist Hede Massing as a Soviet spy since the mid 1930s. ... Michael Straight Michael Whitney Straight, (September 1, 1916 – January 4, 2004) was an American magazine publisher, novelist, patron of the arts, and a member of the prominent Whitney family. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Harry Dexter White (left) and John Maynard Keynes (right) at the Bretton Woods Conference Harry Dexter White (October 1892 – August 16, 1948) was an American economist and senior U.S. Treasury department official. ... The U.S. Treasury building today. ... Lauchlin Currie in 1939 Lauchlin Bernard Currie (October 8, 1902 – December 23, 1993) was a Canadian-born economist from New Dublin, Nova Scotia, Canada, a U.S. economist, and an alleged Soviet Agent. ... FDR redirects here. ... Nathan Gregory Silvermaster or Greg Silvermaster (1898–1964) born in Russia, attended school in China, received a B.A. from the University of Washington in Seattle and a Ph. ... Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer, editor, Communist party member and spy for the Soviet Union who defected and became an outspoken opponent of communism. ... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


In scientific intelligence, the KGB achieved an even more spectacular success. British physicist Klaus Fuchs, recruited by the GRU in 1941, was part of the British team collaborating with the United States in the Manhattan Project, which developed the first atomic bomb. Fuchs was the most prominent agent involved in Julius and Ethel Rosenberg's spy ring. The New York City residency also infiltrated Los Alamos National Laboratory (where much of the work on the atomic bomb program was done) with its recruitment of then nineteen-year-old Harvard physicist Theodore Hall in 1944; Lona Cohen served as his courier. The stealing of the secrets to the atomic bomb was only the capstone of the Soviet espionage effort in the American scientific community. Soviet agents reported back information on advancements in the fields of jet propulsion, radar, and encryption, among other concepts. Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 25, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American citizens who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Theodore Halls ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... Lona Theresa Cohen, Leontine, a. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Encrypt redirects here. ...


The unraveling of the KGB’s network came about as a result of some key defections, like that of Elizabeth Bentley and Igor Gouzenko, and the Venona project decrypts. Bentley, a courier to the Silvermaster group, had fallen out with Akhmerov and started informing on her former spy colleagues to the FBI in 1945. Her efforts, and the resulting "spy mania" in the United States, led to the recall of most of the senior KGB staff, leaving the spy network temporarily headless in the US. Information on VENONA, which threatened to compromise the entire spy network, caused shock and panic within KGB headquarters. However, damage was minimized as KGB agent Bill Weisband and then-SIS Washington Kim Philby passed on information about VENONA and agents it identified from 1947 onwards, five years before the CIA was informed. Still, the KGB had to rebuild most of its operations from scratch, and never again would achieve such thorough penetration of a foreign power. For the writer, see Elizabeth Bentley (writer). ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. ... Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov (1901–1975) was of Tartar background and joined the Bolshevik Party in 1919. ... William Weisband (1908–1967) was an American cryptographic code analyst and Soviet NKVD agent (code name LINK), best known for his role in revealing U.S. decryptions of Soviet diplomatic codes to Soviet intelligence. ... Kim Philby Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Unions NKVD and KGB. In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of...


Cold War

The KGB attempted, largely without success, to rebuild its illegal residencies in the United States during the Cold War. The residual effects of the Red Scare and McCarthyism and the evisceration of the CPUSA severely damaged KGB recruitment efforts. The last major illegal, "Willie" Vilyam Fisher, better known as Rudolf Abel, was betrayed by his assistant Reino Häyhänen in 1957, in all likelihood leaving the KGB without a single illegal residency in the United States, at least for a major span of time. Political cartoon of 1919 depicting a European anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... Col. ...


Legal residencies became more successful in the absence of illegals. The KGB’s recruitment efforts turned towards mercenary agents recruited because of monetary, not ideological, reasons. It was particularly successful in gathering scientific intelligence, as firms such as IBM retained lax security while security within the government tightened. The one notable and significant exception was the highly successful Walker spy ring, which enabled the Soviets to decipher over one million classified US messages, and directly led to the development of the Akula class submarine, which addressed a significant advantage over what the US had in submarine technology. As the Walkers were taken offline in 1985, the KGB scored its most important intelligence coup of the Cold War with the walk-ins of Aldrich Ames (that same year) and Robert Hanssen (who started spying in 1979), who compromised dozens of undercover Soviet agents, including Gordievsky, who was now on the verge of being appointed as head of the British legal residency. Walker, Ames, and Hanssen began their careers by simply walking into the Soviet embassy in Washington, DC, and volunteering their positions in exchange for money. They were paid millions of dollars each for their efforts. For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... John Anthony Walker, Jr. ... This article is about the submarine class with NATO reporting name Akula. For the submarine class with the Soviet name Akula, see Typhoon class submarine. ... Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst, who, in 1994, was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union. ... This article is about a former FBI official and convicted spy. ...


When Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated President John F. Kennedy in 1963, some observers suspected that he was acting at the behest of the KGB. But investigators were never able to find evidence to support this. However, a 2007 analysis [5] of the 1964 murder of Mary Pinchot Meyer, Kennedy's main girlfriend and confidante during his White House years, indicated that it had been arranged by the KGB. A statement by her ex-husband, former senior CIA official Cord Meyer, then was reinterpreted to mean that the KGB had also organized the assassination of Kennedy, the motive being revenge for the humiliation of the USSR in the Cuban Missile Crisis.[6]


KGB operations in the Soviet Bloc

The KGB, along with its satellite state intelligence agency allies, monitored extensively public and private opinion, subversion, and possible revolutionary plots in the Soviet Bloc during the Cold War. It played an instrumental role in the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the destruction of the 1968 Prague Spring and "socialism with a human face," and general operations to prop up Soviet-friendly puppet states in the Bloc. During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Socialism with a human face (in Czech: socialismus s lidskou tváří, in Slovak: socializmus s luďskou tvárou) was a political programme announced by Alexander Dubček and his colleagues when he became the chairman of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in January 1968. ...


During the Hungarian uprising, KGB chairman Ivan Serov personally visited Hungary in order to supervise the "normalization" of Hungary following the invasion of the Red Army. The KGB monitored incidences of "harmful attitudes" and "hostile acts" in the satellite states as minute as listening to pop music. But it was during the Prague Spring that the KGB was to have the greatest role in bringing down a regime. Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov (Иван Александрович Серов in Russian) (8. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ...


The KGB began preparing the way for the Red Army by infiltrating Czechoslovakia with a large number of illegals posing as Western tourists. In classic KGB fashion, they attempted to gain the confidence of some of the most outspoken proponents of the new Alexander Dubček government in order to pass on information about their activities. Additionally, the illegals were tasked with planting evidence, in order to justify a Soviet invasion, that rightist groups with the help of Western intelligence agencies were planning to overthrow the government. Finally, the KGB prepared hardline, pro-Soviet members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPC), such as Alois Indra and Vasil Biľak, to assume power following the invasion. The betrayal of the often courageous leaders of the Prague Spring did not leave untouched the KGB's own agents, however; the famous defector Oleg Gordievsky would later remark "It was that dreadful event, that awful day, which determined the course of my own life" (The Sword and the Shield, 261). Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... RSDr. Vasil Biľak (born 11 August 1917 in Krajná Bystrá) was Slovak Communist leader of Rusyn origin. ... Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ...


The KGB’s success in Czechoslovakia would be matched by a relatively unsuccessful suppression of the Solidarity labor movement in Poland in the 1980s. The KGB had forecast future instability in Poland with the election of the first Polish Pope, Karol Wojtyla, known better as Pope John Paul II, who had been categorized as subversive through his sermons criticizing the Polish regime. Though it accurately foresaw the coming crisis in the Polish government, the KGB was hindered in its attempts to crush the nascent Solidarity-backed movement against the one-party state by the Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP) itself, who feared an explosion of bloodshed if they imposed martial law like the KGB suggested. The KGB, with the help of their Polish counterparts in the Służba Bezpieczeństwa (SB), succeeded in installing spies in Solidarity and the Catholic Church, and coordinated the declaration of martial law along with Wojciech Jaruzelski and the PUWP (Operation X). However, the PUWP’s vacillating, conciliatory approach had blunted the KGB’s effectiveness, and the movement would fatally weaken the PUWP government later on in 1989. Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... SÅ‚użba BezpieczeÅ„stwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw WewnÄ™trznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until its... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: ) (born July 6, 1923) is a Polish statesman, former Communist political and military leader. ...

Monument to the victims of KGB terror in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Monument to the victims of KGB terror in Vilnius, Lithuania.

Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ...

Suppression of dissent

One of the KGB’s chief preoccupations during the Cold War was the suppression of unorthodox beliefs, the persecution of the Soviet dissidents, and the containment of their opinions. Indeed, this obsession with "ideological subversion" only increased throughout the Cold War, primarily due to the rise of Yuri Andropov in the KGB and his appointment as chairman in 1967. Andropov declared that every instance of dissent including all and every religious movements which rejected the Communist Party and did not worship the Secretary General were a threat to the Soviet state that must be challenged and he mobilized the resources of the KGB to achieve this goal. Soon after Yuri Andropov's appointment one of the KGB departments was assigned to deal with religious leaders, churches and its members. Most dissidents were apprehended by the KGB and sent to gulags for indefinite periods, where their dissent would lack the strength it might have had in public. Documents from the archive of Yale University [2] indicate the principal role of the heads of KGB, Yuri Andropov and then Vitali Fedorchuk, was the repression of dissidents. Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death fifteen months later. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Yale redirects here. ... For the Pearl Jam song, see Dissident (song). ...


Under Khrushchev, the tight controls over subversive beliefs had been partially relaxed following his denunciation of Stalinist-era terror in a secret speech. This resulted in the reemergence of critical literary works, most notably the publication in One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich in 1962 by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. However, following Khrushchev’s fall from power, the Soviet state and the KGB quickly moved to crack down on all forms of dissent. The KGB routinely searched the homes and monitored the movements of prominent dissidents in an attempt to find incriminating documents. For example, a search in 1965 of Moscow dissidents turned up manuscripts given by Solzhenitsyn (codenamed PAUK, or spider, by the KGB) to a friend that contained allegedly "slanderous fabrications." For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... On the Personality Cult and its Consequences (Russian: ), commonly known as the Secret Speech was a report to the 20th Party Congress on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, in which he denounced the actions of Joseph Stalin. ... One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Russian: ) is a story by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, originally published in November 1962 in the Soviet literary magazine Novy Mir. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ...


The KGB also tracked down writers who published their work anonymously abroad. The infamous case of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel, who were put on trial in 1965 for their writing of subversive texts, illustrates the reach and obsession of the KGB in its ideological war. Sinyavsky, going by the pseudonym of "Abram Tertz," and Daniel, using the alias of "Nikolai Arzhak," were caught by Soviet surveillance of their apartment flats in Moscow after a tip-off from a KGB agent planted within the Moscow literary world. Andrei Sinyavsky Andrei Donatovich Sinyavsky (Russian language: Андрей Донатович Синявский) (1925 - 1997) was a Russian writer, dissident, gulag survivor, emigrant, Professor of Sorbonne University, magazine founder and publisher. ... Yuli Markovich Daniel (Russian: ; November 15, 1925 — December 30, 1988) was a Soviet dissident writer, poet, translator, political prisoner and gulag survivor. ...


Soon after the Prague Spring, Andropov set up a Fifth Directorate whose express purpose was to monitor and crack down on dissent. Andropov was especially concerned with the activities of the two leading Soviet dissidents, Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov, both declared to be "Public Enemy Number One" (The Sword and the Shield, 325) by Andropov. Andropov was unsuccessful in expelling Solzhenitsyn until 1974, while Sakharov was exiled to the closed Soviet city of Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod) in 1980. The prevention of the Nobel Peace Prize being awarded to Sakharov in 1975 (which failed) and the same award being given to Yuri Orlov in 1978 (which succeeded, but probably not due to the KGB’s efforts) were missions of the highest importance and personally overseen by Andropov himself. Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Yuri Feodorovich Orlov (Russian: , born August 13, 1924) is a prominent nuclear physicist, a former Soviet dissident, and a human rights activist. ...


The KGB employed multiple methods to infiltrate the dissident community. It planted agents who appeared to sympathize with the dissidents’ cause, employed smear campaigns to discredit the more public figures like Sakharov, and prosecuted dissidents in show trials or harassed the more prominent ones. In prison, Soviet interrogators attempted to wear down their charges while sympathetic KGB informants tried to gain their confidence. Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This page is about a political tactic. ... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Eventually, with the emergence of Mikhail Gorbachev and his policy of glasnost, persecution of dissidents was given relaxed priority in the KGB, as Gorbachev himself began to implement some of the policy changes first demanded by the dissidents. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ...


Other notable operations

  • The OGPU scored a number of successes against counter-revolutionary elements like the White Guards by luring prominent leaders into the Soviet Union to be executed with skillful, imaginative use of agents provocateurs (Trust Operation).
  • The KGB's predecessor, the NKVD, was used by Stalin to infiltrate and undermine Trotskyists’ movements. Trotsky himself was assassinated by an NKVD agent, Ramón Mercader, in Mexico in 1940.
  • The KGB favored the spread of disinformation to discredit its enemies. Disinformation efforts, termed active measures, were headed by Service A of the FCD.
  • The KGB planned elaborate sabotage operations in the event of the outbreak of war behind enemy lines, planting arms caches in strategic locations.

James Jesus Angleton, the CIA's counter-intelligence chief from the 1950s to the 1970s, acting on information provided by KGB defector Anatoliy Golitsyn, feared that the KGB had moles in two key places: (i) the CIA's counter-intelligence section, and (ii) the FBI's counter-intelligence department. With those moles in place, the KGB would be aware of and therefore could control US counter-spy efforts to detect, capture, and arrest their spies; it could protect their moles by safely redirecting investigations that might uncover them, or provide them sufficient advance warning to allow their escape. Moreover, KGB counter-intelligence vetted foreign sources of intelligence, so that moles in that area were positioned to stamp their approval of double agents sent against the CIA. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2145x1226, 182 KB) Summary Title {{{KGB House Main. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2145x1226, 182 KB) Summary Title {{{KGB House Main. ... The Lubyanka is the popular name for the headquarters of the KGB and affiliated prison on Lubyanka Square in Moscow. ... Stalin ordered all the historic Lubyanka churches to be demolished in order to highlight the dominant position of the NKVD headquarters. ... Aleksey Viktorovich Shchusev (Russian: ) (September 26, 1873, Kishinev - May 24, 1949, Moscow) was an acclaimed Russian architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalins Empire Style. ... White Army redirects here. ... Trust or Trest Operation (операция Трест) was an operation presented as a spectacular counterintelligence success of OGPU in 1921-1926. ... Jaume Ramon Mercader del Rio Hernández (February 7, 1914 – October 18, 1978) was a Catalan Communist who served as a foreign agent of the NKVD during Joseph Stalins time as ruler of the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... Active Measures (Russian: Активные мероприятия) are a form of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB, and SVR) to influence the course of world events,[1] in addition to collecting intelligence. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Operative James Jesus Angleton James Jesus Angleton (December 9, 1917–May 12, 1987), known to friends and colleagues as Jim and nicknamed the Kingfisher, was a long-serving chief of the Central Intelligence Agencys (CIA) counter-intelligence (CI) staff (Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Counterintelligence/ADDOCI). ... Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Golitsyn CBE (Russian: ;born August 25, 1926 in Piryatin, Ukrainian SSR) is a Soviet KGB defector and conspiracy theorist. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ...


In retrospect, in the context of the capture of the Soviet moles Aldrich Ames and Robert Hanssen, it appears Angleton's fears—then deemed excessively paranoid—were well-grounded, although both Ames and Hanssen operated and were exposed long after Angleton left the CIA in 1974. Still, his officially disbelieved assertions cost him his counter-intelligence post in the CIA. Soviet redirects here. ... A mole is a spy who works for an enemy nation and works within his nations government. ... Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst, who, in 1994, was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union. ... This article is about a former FBI official and convicted spy. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ...


Occasionally, the KGB conducted assassinations abroad, mainly of Soviet Bloc defectors, and often helped other Communist country security services with their assassinations. An infamous example is the September 1978 killing of Bulgarian émigré Georgi Markov in London, where Bulgarian secret agents used a KGB-designed umbrella gun to shoot Markov dead with a ricin-poisoned pellet. Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... A defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Security Service can mean: The British internal security service, MI5 A secret service or secret police agency ... Georgi Ivanov Markov Georgi Ivanov Markov (Bulgarian: ) (March 1, 1929 - September 11, 1978) was a Bulgarian dissident. ... This article is about the video game. ... Castor beans Ricin (pronounced ) is a protein toxin that is extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


There are also disputed allegations that the KGB was behind the assassination attempt against Pope John Paul II in 1981 and the death of Dag Hammarskjöld in an air crash in 1961[citation needed]. Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ...


Template:Cite Italian Panel: Soviets Behind Pope Attack


The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa, described his conversation with the head of the Romanian Communist Party Nicolae Ceauşescu who told him about "ten international leaders the Kremlin killed or tried to kill": "Laszlo Rajk and Imre Nagy of Hungary; Lucretiu Patrascanu and Gheorghiu-Dej in Romania; Rudolf Slansky, the head of Czechoslovakia, and Jan Masaryk, that country’s chief diplomat; the shah of Iran; Palmiro Togliatti of Italy; American President John F. Kennedy; and China's Mao Zedong." Pacepa provided some additional details, such as a plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao organized by KGB and noted that "among the leaders of Moscow’s satellite intelligence services there was unanimous agreement that the KGB had been involved in the assassination of President Kennedy."[7] Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928 in Bucharest, Romania) is the highest-ranking intelligence official ever to have defected from the former Eastern Bloc. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... László Rajk (8 May 1909 - 15 October 1949) was a Hungarian communist leader who unsuccessfully opposed the Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi in the post-World War II period. ... Imre Nagy. ... Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu, (November 4, 1900, Bacău–April 17, 1954) was a leading member of the Communist Party of Romania, a lawyer, sociologist and economist. ... For the city in Romania formerly known as Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, see Onesti Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (November 8, 1901, Bârlad - March 19, 1965, Bucharest) was the Communist leader of Romania from 1948 until his death in 1965. ... Rudolf Slánský (July 31, 1901 – December 2, 1952) joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia at the partys founding in 1929 and became a senior lieutenant of leader Klement Gottwald. ... Jan Masaryk (September 14, 1886 – March 10, 1948) was a Czechoslovak diplomat and politician. ... // Born in Genoa to a middle class family, Togliatti began his political life in the Italian Socialist Party prior to the First World War. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Mao redirects here. ... Mao redirects here. ... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ...


Organization

The KGB was a national intelligence and security agency for the Soviet Union, and directly controlled the republic-level KGB organizations; however, as Russia was the core republic of the Soviet Union, the KGB itself was also Russia's republic-level KGB. As everything in the Soviet Union, the KGB was controlled by the CPSU. An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... Security agency is an organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation, state or organization. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


Senior staff

The Senior staff consisted of a Chairman, one or two First Deputy Chairmen, and four to six Deputy Chairmen.


Collegium—a Chairman, deputy chairmen, Directorate chiefs, and one or two republic-level KGB organization chairmen—affected key policy decisions. The collegia were government departments in Imperial Russia, established in 1717 by Peter the Great. ...


The Directorates

The KGB was organized into several directorates, with certain directorates assigned a “chief” status due to their importance. Some were:

  • The First Chief Directorate (Foreign Operations) — responsible for foreign operations and intelligence-gathering. This chief directorate had many sub-directorates of its own.
  • The Second Chief Directorate — responsible for counter-intelligence and internal political control of citizens and foreigners in the Soviet Union.
  • The Third Chief Directorate (Armed Forces) — controlled military counter-intelligence and the political surveillance of the Soviet armed forces.
  • The Fourth Directorate (Transportation Security)
  • The Fifth Chief Directorate — also responsible for internal security; originally combated political dissent; later assumed tasks of the Second Chief Directorate, such as controlling religious dissent, monitoring artists, and the censorship of media; it was renamed Directorate Z (to Protect the Constitutional Order) in 1989.
  • The Sixth Directorate (Economic Counterintelligence and Industrial Security)
  • The Seventh Directorate (Surveillance) — handled surveillance, providing equipment to follow and monitor activities of both foreigners and Soviet citizens.
  • The Eighth Chief Directorate — responsible for communications, monitoring foreign communications, and the cryptologic systems used by KGB divisions, KGB transmissions to overseas stations, and the development of communications technology.
  • The Ninth Directorate(Guards) (later the KGB Protection Service) — 40,000-man uniformed guard force providing bodyguard services to the principal CPSU leaders (and families) and major Soviet government facilities (including nuclear-weapons stocks). It operated the Moscow VIP subway system, and the secure government telephone system linking high-level government and CPSU officers; it became the Federal Protective Service (FPS) under Boris Yeltsin.
  • The Fifteenth Directorate (Security of Government Installations)
  • The Sixteenth Directorate (Communications Interception and SIGINT) — upgraded from Department to Directorate, operated the Soviet Union's government telephone and telegraph systems, thus ensuring successful interception of all communications of interest to the KGB.
  • The Border Guards Directorate — 245,000-man border security force dealt with smuggling along the Soviet Union's borders with terrestrial, naval, and air force contingents.
  • The Operations and Technology Directorate encompasses all the laboratories and scientific research centers for creating bugging, taping, and shooting devices (including Laboratory 12 which developed poisons and manufactured psychotropic substances).

The First Chief Directorate (Russian: Первое Главное Управление) [or-PGU] of the Committee for State Security (KGB), was the organization responsible for foreign operations and intelligence collection activities by the training and management of covert agents, intelligence collection management, and the collection of political, scientific and technical intelligence. ... The First Chief Directorate (Russian: Первое Главное Управление) [or-PGU] of the Committee for State Security (KGB), was the organization responsible for foreign operations and intelligence collection activities by the training and management of covert agents, intelligence collection management, and the collection of political, scientific and technical intelligence. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... The Ninth Chief Directorate of the KGB was the organization responsible for providing bodyguard services to the principal CPSU leaders (and families) and major Soviet government facilities (including nuclear-weapons stocks). ... The Metro 2 in Moscow, Russia is a secret underground metro system which parallels the public Moscow Metro. ... In the Russian Federation, the Federal Protective Service was formerly the Ninth Chief (aka The Guards) Directorate of the KGB and is now an independent organization. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... NKVD border guards watching the frontier Soviet Border Troops, (Russian: Пограничные войска СССР, Pogranichnyie Voiska SSSR) were the militarized border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to Cheka, than to NKVD and, finally, to to KGB. Accordingly, they were known as NKVD Border Troops and... A bug is the common name for a covert listening device, usually a combination of a miniature radio transmitter with a microphone. ... Taping is a form of strapping. ... // Poison laboratory of the Soviet secret services, also known as Laboratory 1, Laboratory 12 and The Chamber, was a covert poison research and development facility of the Soviet secret police agencies. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ...

Other sections

The KGB also contained these independent sections and detachments:

  • KGB Personnel Department
  • Secretariat of the KGB
  • KGB Technical Support Staff
  • KGB Finance Department
  • KGB Archives
  • Administration Department of the KGB, and
  • The CPSU Committee.
  • KGB OSNAZ, (Spetsnaz or Special Operations) detachments such as:
    • The Alpha Group
    • The Vympel, etc.; missions and command-control structures remain unknown.
  • Kremlin Guard Force — beyond control of the Ninth Guards Directorate. The uniformed Kremlin Guard Force were the bodyguard of the Presidium, et al.; it later became the Federal Protective Service (FPS).

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... OSNAZ (Russian: [voiska] osobogo naznacheniya, ОСНАЗ = [войска] особого назначения, special purpose [detachments]) or ChON (Russian: chasti osobogo naznacheniya, ЧОН= Части особого назначения were special forces troops within the KGB (its predecessors and its successor, Federal Security Service) and the MVD. OSNAZ has always been shrouded in a veil of mystery and remains so even to this day. ... Russian special forces training For the Swedish EBM band, see Spetsnaz (band). ... Special forces or special operations forces is a term used to describe relatively small military units raised and trained for reconnaissance, unconventional warfare and special operations. ... A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... Emblem of Vympel Vympel (Russian: Вымпел meaning Pennant, also known as Vega Group or Spetsgruppa V) is a Russian counter-terrorism unit. ... Ensign of the Kremlin Regiment. ... The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Президиум Верховного Совета СССР in Russian, or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental body. ... Federal Protective Service is a title used in a number of countries In the United States the FPS is responsible for the security of Federal buildings. ...

The Evolution of the KGB

(as depicted in The Sword and the Shield, page xv)

Dates Organization
December 1917 Cheka
February 1922 Incorporated into NKVD (as GPU)
July 1923 OGPU
July 1934 Reincorporated in NKVD (as GUGB)
February 1941 NKGB
July 1941 Reincorporated in NKVD (as GUGB)
April 1943 NKGB
March 1946 MGB
October 1947 – November 1951 Foreign Intelligence transferred to KI
March 1953 Combined with MVD to form enlarged MVD
March 1954 KGB
November 1991 FSK
April 1995 FSB

(as depicted in The Sword and the Shield, Appendix A)

Organization Chairman Dates
Cheka/GPU/OGPU Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky 1917–1926
OGPU Vyacheslav Rudolfovich Menzhinsky 1926–1934
NKVD Genrikh Grigoryevich Yagoda 1934–1936
Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov 1936–1938
Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria 1938–1941
NKGB Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov 1941 (February–July)
NKVD Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria 1941–1943
NKGB/MGB Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov 1943–1946
MGB Viktor Semyonovich Abakumov 1946–1951
Semyon Denisovich Ignatyev 1951–1953
Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria 1953 (March–June)
Sergei Nikiforovich Kruglov 1953–1954
KGB Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov 1954–1958
Aleksandr Nikolayevich Shelepin 1958–1961
Vladimir Yefimovich Semichastny 1961–1967
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov 1967–1982
Vitali Vasilyevich Fedorchuk 1982 (May–December)
Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov 1982–1988
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov 1988–1991
Vadim Viktorovich Bakatin 1991 (August–November)

Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Polish: Feliks DzierżyÅ„ski, Russian: Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский, Belarusian: Фелікс Эдмундавіч Дзяржынскі; September 11, 1877 [O.S. August 30] –July 20, 1926) was a Polish Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, later known by many names during the history of the Soviet... Vyacheslav Menzhinsky. ... Genrikh Yagoda Genrikh Grigorevich Yagoda (Генрих Григорьевич Ягода) (1891 - March 15, 1938) was the head of the Soviet secret police, the NKVD, from 1934 to 1936. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov (Николай Иванович Ежов) (May 1, 1895–February 4?, 1940) was a head of the Soviet secret police, the NKVD (1936–1938), during the Great Purge (sometimes known as the Yezhovschina (Yezhovshchina, Ежовщина, Yezhov era) after him). ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (Russian: Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия) (29 March 1899 - 23 December 1953), Soviet politician and police chief, is remembered chiefly as the executor of Joseph Stalins Great Purge of the 1930s, although in fact he presided only over the closing stages of the Purge. ... Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov (Всеволод Николаевич Меркулов in Russian) (10. ... Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია, Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov (Всеволод Николаевич Меркулов in Russian) (10. ... Viktor Abakumov Viktor Semyonovich Abakumov (Russian: Виктор Семёнович Абакумов) (1894 - December 18, 1954), Soviet police official, was a protege and subordinate of Lavrenty Beria, head of the Soviet political police aparatus from 1938 to 1953. ... Semyon Ignatyev (1904 - 1983) He replaced Viktor Abakumov as the leader of the MGB in 1951 and was the leader until 1954. ... Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია, Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Sergei Nikiforovich Kruglov (Russian: Сергей Никифорович Круглов) (1907 - 1977) was the minister of the interior of the USSR from March of 1953 until March of 1954. ... Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov (Иван Александрович Серов in Russian) (8. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Shelepin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Шелепин, born 1918) was the head of KGB from December 25, 1958 to November 13, 1961. ... Vladimir Yefimovich Semichastny (Russian: Владимир Ефимович Семичастны?, born 1924) was the head of the KGB from November 1961 to April 1967. ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death fifteen months later. ... Vitaly Vasilyevich Fyodorchuk (Vitaly Fedorchuk) (born 1918) was a Ukrainian Soviet administrator. ... Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov (April 27, 1923 - July 2, 1999) was a Soviet Union spy and head of the KGB from 1982 to 1988. ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Vadim Viktorovich Bakatin (born 1937) was a Russian Soviet political figure. ...

See also

Active Measures (Russian: Активные мероприятия) are a form of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB, and SVR) to influence the course of world events,[1] in addition to collecting intelligence. ... The Soviet Union had a succession of secret police agencies over the course of its existence. ... Coming to power as a clandestine organization, having been schooled in the secret police tactics of the Czarist Okhranka the new Soviet government of the Soviet Union tended to overestimate the degree to which the other European powers of the day, especially Britain were plotting its destruction. ... For other uses, see FSB. Minor emblem of FSB The FSB (Federal Security Service) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) is a domestic state security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor of the Soviet Cheka, NKVD, and KGB. Its headquarters are in Lubyanka Square, Moscow. ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ... Coat of Arms of FAPSI FAPSI (Russian: ) or Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information (Russian: ) is a Russian government agency, one of the successors of KGB. It also sometimes is referred by its English acronym FAGCI. // History FAPSI was created on the basis of 8th (Government Communications) and 16th... In the Russian Federation, the Federal Protective Service was formerly the Ninth Chief (aka The Guards) Directorate of the KGB and is now an independent organization. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin. ... Presidential Security Service or PSS is a title which exists in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Soviet propaganda poster: Peoples of world do not want the hardship of war again! (I. Stalin) The World Peace Council (or World Council of Peace) was formed in 1949 in order to promote peaceful coexistence and nuclear disarmament. ... The acronym MVD can stand for: Mitral valve disease, or Mitral regurgitation. ...

References

  1. ^ Safe as houses: the KGB-proof mansion - Times Online
  2. ^ a b http://www.yale.edu/annals/sakharov/sakharov_list.htm, The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov edited by Joshua Rubenstein and Alexander Gribanov; Russian and English versions are available
  3. ^ http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/buk.html archieve of documents about KPSS and KGB, collected by Vladimir Bulovsky.
  4. ^ Eyes of the Kremlin
  5. ^ Did the KGB Murder President Kennedy's Girlfriend?
  6. ^ Did the KGB Arrange the Assassination of John F. Kennedy?
  7. ^ The Kremlin’s Killing Ways - by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review Online, November 28, 2006

a test for stationarity of a signal. ...

Sources

  • Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 0-14-028487-7 Basic Books (1999), hardcover, ISBN 0-465-00310-9; trade paperback (September, 2000), ISBN 0-465-00312-5
  • John Barron, "KGB: The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents",Reader's Digest Press (1974), ISBN 0-88349-009-9
  • Vasili Mitrokhin and Christopher Andrew, The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World, Basic Books (2005) hardcover, 677 pages ISBN 0465003117

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Further reading

  • Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia — Past, Present, and Future. Farrar Straus Giroux (1994) ISBN 0-374-52738-5.
  • John Barron. KGB: The Secret Works Of Soviet Secret Agents. Bantam Books (1981) ISBN 0-553-23275-4
  • Vadim J. Birstein. The Perversion Of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science. Westview Press (2004) ISBN 0-8133-4280-5 (describes a secret KGB lab engaged in development and testing of poisons)
  • John Dziak, Chekisty: A History of the KGB, Lexington Books (1988) ISBN 978-0669102581
  • Бережков, Василий Иванович (2004). Руководители Ленинградского управления КГБ : 1954-1991. Санкт-Петербург: Выбор, 2004. ISBN 5-93518-035-9 (in Russian)

Yevgenia Markovna Albats (Russian: ; born 5 September 1958 [1] [2]) is a Russian investigative journalist, political scientist, writer, and radio host. ...

External links

  • KGB Information Center from FAS.org
  • Chebrikov, Viktor M., et al, eds. Istoriya sovetskikh organov gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti. (1977) [1]
  • Slaves of KGB. 20th Century. The religion of betrayal (Russian) - book by Yuri Shchekochikhin
Yuri Petrovich Shchekochikhin (Ю́рий Петро́вич Щекочи́хин) (June 9, 1950, Kirovabad - July 3, 2003, Moscow) was a Russian journalist, writer, and liberal lawmaker. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... -1... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , Slovak: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: , Slovak: ) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... THE CUBAN REVOLUTION The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... The Kitchen Debate was an impromptu debate (through interpreters) between Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, on July 24, 1959. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Belligerents MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] Soviet Union UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire United States Commanders Agostinho Neto José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Holden Roberto Casualties and losses Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began in... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Directorate was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ... The Main Directorate of State Security (Russian: Glavnoe Upravlenie Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti) was the name of the Soviet secret police from July 1934 to April 1943. ... The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB - was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20 1941, and again from 1943 to 1946, and then renamed into the Ministry for State Security, or MGB. // On... The Ministry of State Security (MGB) ( Russian: Министерство государственной безопасности (Ministerstvo Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti)) was the name of the Soviet secret police agency from 1946 to 1953. ... The Directorate of State Security, or Sigurimi (Full name:Drejtorija e Sigurimit të Shtetit) was Albanias secret police agency during the communist regime. ... The Committee for State Security (Bulgarian: , Komitet za darzhavna sigurnost; abbreviated КДС, CSS), popularly known as State Security (Държавна сигурност, Darzhavna sigurnost; abbreivtated ДС) was the name of the Bulgarian secret service during the Communist rule of Bulgaria and the Cold War (until 1989). ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The State Protection Authority (Hungarian: or ÁVH) was the secret police force of Hungary from some time in 1944 or 1945 until 1956. ... Ministry of Public Security of Poland (Polish: ) was the organ established and controlled by Soviet Union officers to provide collaborationist government in Poland with secret police, intelligence and counter-espionage services from 1945 to 1954. ... SÅ‚użba BezpieczeÅ„stwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw WewnÄ™trznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until its... The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... UDBA or Uprava državne bezbednosti/sigurnosti/varnosti (Serbian Cyrillic: УДБА or Управа државне безбедности) (State Security Administration, literally state security directorate) was the secret police organization of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...

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KGB - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5139 words)
On July 5, 1978 the KGB was re-christened as the "KGB of the Soviet Union", with its chairman holding a ministerial council seat.
The KGB traces its ideological mission to the “sword and shield” of the Cheka: “the shield to defend the revolution, the sword to smite its foes” (The Sword and the Shield, 23).
KGB agents practiced standard espionage craft such as the retrieval and photographing of classified documents using concealed cameras, codenames in communication to disguise agents, contacts, and targets, and the use of dead letter boxes to relay intelligence.
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