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Encyclopedia > Juvenile delinquency
Criminology and Penology
Differential Association Theory
Labeling Theory
Rational Choice Theory
Social Control Theory
Social Disorganization Theory
Social Learning Theory
Strain Theory
Subcultural Theory
Symbolic Interactionism · Victimology
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See also: Wikibooks:Social Deviance
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Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... In criminology, Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. ... Deviant redirects here. ... Labeling Theory (or Labelling Theory)views given by Howard Becker (1963) is relevant to criminology and sociology explaining how criminal behavior is perpetuated by the police and other labelers. It relates to symbolic interactionism and to social reaction theory and it is concerned with the nature, application, and consequence of... In criminology, the Rational Choice Theory adopts a Utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. ... In criminology, Social Control Theory as represented in the work of Travis Hirschi fits into the Positivist School, Neo-Classical School, and, later, Right Realism. ... In criminology, the Social Disorganisation Theory was one of the most important theories developed by the Chicago School, related to ecological theories. ... In criminology, Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess (1966) developed the Social Learning Theory to explain deviancy by combining variables which encouraged delinquency (e. ... In criminology, the Strain Theories state that social structures within society may encourage citizens to commit crime. ... In criminology, Subcultural Theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. ... Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective which examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. ... Victimology is the study of why certain people are victims of crime and how lifestyles affect the chances that a certain person will fall victim to a crime. ... In criminology, blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by individuals of a higher social class. ... In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes either committed by a corporation, i. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... In the standard sense of the phrase, a political crime is an action deemed illegal by a government in order to control real or imagined threats to its survival, at the expense of a range of human rights and freedoms. ... In criminology public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as ...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently, i. ... In criminology, public order crime case law in the United States is essential to understanding how the courts interpret the policy of laws where the moral and social order of the state appears to be threatened by clearly identified behavior. ... In criminology, state crime is activity or failures to act that break the states own criminal law or public international law. ... In criminology, the concept of state-corporate crime refers to crimes that result from the relationship between the policies of the state and the policies and practices of commercial corporations. ... Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime has been defined by Edwin Sutherland ...as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Consensual crime. ... Deterrence is a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future mischief. ... Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. ... Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. ... The movement for Prisoners rights is based on the principle that prisoners, even though they are deprived of liberty, are still entitled to basic human rights. ... This theory of punishment is based on the notion that punishment is to be inflicted on a offender so as to reform him, or rehabilitate him so as to make his re-integration into society easier. ... Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. ... It has been suggested that Proportional justice be merged into this article or section. ... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... In law, a person who is not yet a legal adult is known as a minor (known in some places as an infant or juvenile). ...


Nature and causes

Juvenile delinquency may refer to either violent or non-violent crime committed by persons who are (usually) under the age of eighteen and are still considered to be a minor. There is much debate about whether or not such a child should be held criminally responsible for his or her own actions. There are many different inside influences that are believed to affect the way a child acts both negatively and positively, some of which are as follows:

Look up abandonment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about a sociological concept. ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ...

Definition and specifications

In the United States, a juvenile delinquent is a person who has not yet reached the age of majority, and whose behavior has been labeled delinquent by a court. The specific requirements vary from state to state. In the United States, the federal government enacted legislation to unify the handling of juvenile delinquents, the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Act of 1974. America has more than 1 million people in prison.[1]. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The act created the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) within the Justice Department to administer grants for juvenile crime-combating programs (currently about only 900,00 dollars a year), gather national statistics on juvenile crime, fund research on youth crime and administer four anticonfinement mandates regarding juvenile custody. Specifically, the act orders: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (or OJJDP) is an office of the United States Department of Justice and a component of the Office of Justice Programs. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ...

  • Deinstitutionalization: Youths charged with "status" offenses that would not be crimes if committed by adults, such as truancy, running away and being caught with alcohol or tobacco, must be "deinstitutionalized," which in this case really means that, with certain exceptions (e.g., minor in possession of a handgun), status offenders may not be detained by police or confined. Alleged problems with this mandate are that it overrides state and local law[1], limits the discretion of law enforcement officers and prevents the authorities' ability to reunify an offender with his family[1].
  • Segregation: Arrested youths must be strictly segregated from adults in custody. Under this "out of sight and sound" mandate, juveniles cannot be served food by anyone who serves jailed adults nor can a juvenile walk down a corridor past a room where an adult is being interrogated. This requirement forces local authorities to either free juveniles or maintain expensive duplicate facilities and personnel[1]. Small cities, towns and rural areas are especially hard hit, drastically raising those taxpayers' criminal justice costs.
  • Jail and Lockup Removal: As a general rule, youths subject to the original jurisdiction of juvenile courts cannot be held in jails and lockups in which adults may be detained. The act provides for a six-hour exception for identification, processing, interrogation and transfer to juvenile facilities, court or detention pending release to parents. The act also provides an exception of 24 hours for rural areas only[1].
  • Overrepresentation of minority youths: States must systematically try to reduce confinement of minority youths to the proportion of those groups in the population.

Theoretical Perspectives on Juvenile Delinquency and Crime

Robert Merton

Merton believes that there is a serious relationship between poverty and crime. He feels that there are institutionalized paths to happiness in our society. He believes in a society of equilibrium where goals = means. A society of disequilibrium would be adaptation. Merton's Strain Theory suggests five attributes. Editing Robert K. Merton This article is about the sociologist. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Institutionalization is a term used to describe both the treatment of, and damage caused to, vulnerable human beings by the oppressive or corrupt application of inflexible systems of social, medical, or legal controls by publicly owned or not-for-profit organisations originally created for beneficial purposes and intents. ... Young people interacting within a an ethnically diverse society. ... Price of market balance In economics, economic equilibrium or market equilibrium refers to a condition where the market clears: which is when the market for a product has attained the price where the amount supplied of a certain product equals the quantity demanded. ... In criminology, the Strain Theories state that social structures within society may encourage citizens to commit crime. ...

  1. Innovation: individuals who accept socially approved goals, but not necessarily the socially approved means.
  2. Retreatism: those who reject socially approved goals and the means for acquiring them.
  3. Ritualism: those who buy into a system of socially approved means, but lose sight of the goals. Merton believed that drug users are in this category.
  4. Conformity: those who conform to the system's means and goals.
  5. Rebellion: people who negate socially approved goals and means by creating a new system of acceptable goals and means.

Ongoing debate

One of the most notable causes of juvenile delinquency is fiat, i.e. the declaration that a juvenile is delinquent by the juvenile court system without any trial, and upon finding only probable cause. Many states have laws that presuppose the less harsh treatment of juvenile delinquents than adult counterparts’ treatment. In return, the juvenile surrenders certain constitutional rights, such as a right to trial by jury, the right to cross-examine, and even the right to a speedy trial. Notable writings by reformers such as Jerome G. Miller[2] show that very few juvenile delinquents actually broke any law. Most were simply rounded up by the police after some event that possibly involved criminal action. They were brought before juvenile court judges who made findings of delinquency, simply because the police action established probable cause. This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Juvenile courts or young offender courts are courts specifically created and given authority to try and pass judgments for crimes committed by persons who have not attained the age of majority. ... In United States criminal law, probable cause refers to the standard by which a police officer may make an arrest, conduct a personal or property search or obtain a warrant. ... A constitutional right is a right granted by a governments constitution (on the national or sub-national level), and cannot be legally denied by that government. ...

In 1967, the United States Supreme Court decided the case In re Gault, that established the protection of many, but not all, procedural rights of juveniles in court proceedings, such as the right to counsel and right to refuse self-incrimination. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... In re Gault, 387 U.S. 1 (1967) was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision which established that under the Fourteenth Amendment, juveniles accused of crimes in a delinquency proceeding must be accorded many of the same due process rights as adults such as the right to timely notification... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Self-incrimination is the act of accusing oneself of a crime for which a person can then be prosecuted. ...

Delinquency Prevention

Delinquency Prevention is the broad term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal, or other antisocial, activity. Increasingly, local, state, and federal governments are recognizing the importance of allocating resources for the prevention of delinquency. Websites such as the 'DelinquencyPrevention.Org'[3] are working toward unifying delinquency prevention efforts. Because it is often difficult for states to provide the fiscal resources necessary for good prevention, organizations, communities, and governments are working more in collaboration with each other to prevent juvenile delinquency.

Because the development of delinquent behavior in youth is influenced by numerous factors, so should prevention efforts be comprehensive in scope. Prevention services include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment; family counseling; youth mentoring; parenting education; educational support; and youth sheltering. Organizations such as the Prevent Delinquency Project *[1] concentrate their efforts on teaching parents the importance of parental supervision and guidance, and assist them in learning to identify the various threats that exist to children. Armed with this knowledge, parents are in a better position to intervene at the earliest signs of trouble, before their children wind up in the juvenile justice system. Although those who provide prevention services are often well educated, well trained, and dedicated, they are frequently underpaid, and under recognized for their work. Agencies that provide prevention services typically run on "shoe string budgets" and appreciate any financial help they can get from individuals, social organizations, and governments.


  1. ^ a b c d e The Long Arm of Federal Juvenile Crime Law Shortened. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  2. ^ Miller, Jerome G. (1991). Last One Over the Wall. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0-8142-0758-8. 
  3. ^ Delinquency Prevention and Youth Development. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ...


  • E. Mulvey, MW Arthur, ND Reppucci, "The prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency: A review of the research", Clinical Psychology Review, 1993.
  • Edward P. Mulvey, Michael W. Arthur, & N. Dickon Reppucci, "Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency: A Review of the Research", The Prevention Researcher, Volume 4, Number 2, 1997, Pages 1-4.
  • Regoli, Robert M. and Hewitt, John D. "Delinquency in Society", 6th ed., 2006.
  • Siegel, J Larry. "Juvenile Delinquency with Infotrac: theory, practices and law", 2002.
  • United Nations, Research Report on Juvenile Delinquency. [2]
  • Zigler E, Taussig C, Black K., "Early childhood intervention. A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency", Am Psychol. 1992 Aug;47(8):997-1006.
  • Gang Cop: The Words and Ways of Officer Paco Domingo (2004) by Malcolm W.Klein
  • The American Street Gang: Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control (1995), by Malcolm W. Klein
  • Street Gang Patterns & Policies (2006) by Malcolm Klein and Cheryl Maxson
  • American Youth Violence (1998) by Franklin Zimring
  • Street Wars: Gangs and the Future of Violence (2004) by Tom Hayden
  • Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun 1995() by Geoffrey Canada
  • Violence: Reflections on a National Epidemic (1996) by James Gilligan
  • Lost Boys: Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them (1999) by James Gabarino
  • Last Chance in Texas: The Redemption of Criminal Youth (2005) by John Hubner
  • Breaking Rank: A Top Cop’s Expose of the Dark Side of American Policing (2005) by Norm Stamper

Geoffrey Canada (born January 13, 1952) is an American social activist. ...

See also

Teen courts are authorized by law in many states to provide an alternative disposition for juveniles who have committed a delinquent act and are otherwise eligible for diversion. ... A status offense is an action that is a crime only if the perpetrator is a minor. ... Teen courts are authorized by law in many United States to provide an alternative disposition for juveniles who have committed a delinquent act and are otherwise eligible for diversion. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...   It has been suggested that Child discipline be merged into this article or section. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Youth activism is best summarized as youth voice engaged in community organizing for social change. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Civic engagement is the notion of belonging, the experience of investment, and the position of ownership a citizen feels throughout the local, regional, national, and international political communities to which they belong. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Juvenile delinquency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (548 words)
It is an important social issue because juveniles are capable of committing serious crimes, but most legal systems prescribe specific procedures and punishments for dealing with such crimes.
Juvenile Delinquency may refer to either violent or non-violent crime committed by persons who are (usually) under the adult age (In the United States, 18).
Juvenile Delinquency with Infotrac: theory, practices and law.
  More results at FactBites »



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