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Encyclopedia > Juvenal
Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle
Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle

Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, Anglicized as Juvenal, was a Roman satiric poet of the late 1st century and early 2nd century. He is known for coining the phrase "panem et circenses" ("bread and circuses") to describe the primary pursuits of the Roman populace. The rhetorical question "Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?", "Who shall guard the guardians?" comes from his satire On Women, and arises in a discussion concerning the usefulness of having eunuchs guard your women. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1436x1488, 791 KB) Summary Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle, created in the late 1400s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1436x1488, 791 KB) Summary Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle, created in the late 1400s. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Depiction of God creating the world Juvenal The Nuremberg Chronicle is one of the best documented early printed books. ... Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ... Octavian, widely known as Augustus, founder of the Roman empire The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The World According To Ronald Reagan - a Finnish satirical poster from 1984 Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which exposes the follies of its subject (for example, individuals, organizations, or states) to ridicule, often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The phrase panem et circenses (bread and circuses) is attributed to Juvenal, a Roman satiric poet of the 1st century AD, to describe the primary pursuits of the Roman populace. ... A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer. ... Satire VI of Juvenal is often titled Against Women in English translation. ... A eunuch can be either a castrated man or, in ancient terms, any man who is impotent with women for a wide variety of reasons. ...

Concerning his life almost nothing is known with any certainty. There is a somewhat ambiguous inscription which, if it does in fact refer to Juvenal's family, would place his hometown at Aquinum in Italy. Ronald Syme points out that there were many people with Juvenal's same last name in Spain, and many modern scholars believe that he was the son of a Spanish freedman. He described himself as middle-aged at the time of publication of his first satire, which was sometime in the 100s. The latest known date for his activity is 127. The biographical material in ancient biographies of Juvenal, of which thirteen survive, appears to be extrapolated from the satires themselves. Some modern scholars, most notably Gilbert Highet, have also attempted to glean biographical material about Juvenal the man from his satires. They believe that for a time he was very poor and was dependent on the rich people in Rome, and that he was (for some time) exiled in Egypt and possibly in Britain. These ideas concerning the life of Juvenal have largely fallen into disfavor among scholars over the last fifty years. The only known contemporary reference to him is in a poem addressed to him by his friend, the poet Martial. Aquino is a small town in the south-central Italian province of Frosinone, in the Lazio region. ... Ronald Syme Sir Ronald Syme (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989), New Zealand-born historian, was the preeminent classicist of the 20th century. ... A Freedman or freedwoman (gender-neutral: freedperson) is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s - 100s - 110s 120s 130s 140s 150s 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 Events and trends donknjiwegtuiewgtuiweorhwefioyr weiouygweuigry u9weuiwegweuieui wetui weuiweguiwe uiwe w eui gweui weuiwer uiwe uiwe guiwe weui weui wefg weuiwe Significant... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Gilbert Highet, Scottish-American classicist, academic, writer, intellectual, critic, and literary historian, born June 22, 1906, in Glasgow, Scotland; died 1978. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711.
Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711.

His surviving work consists of sixteen satires in hexameter. Through his satires, Juvenal portrays an anger and contempt towards his fellow contemporaries, which gives us an insight into Roman values and morality, rather than real life. His satire is frequently lewd although, in the tradition of Roman satire, he prefers euphemism to outright obscenity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (578x928, 106 KB) Summary Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (578x928, 106 KB) Summary Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius. ... In architecture, a frontispiece constitutes the elements that frame and decorate the main, or front, door to a building; especially when the main entrance is the chief face of the building, rather than being kept behind columns or a portico. ... Persius, in full Aulus Persius Flaccus (AD 34-62), was a Roman poet and satirist. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 9, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known as the Age of Dryden. ... Hexameter is a literary and poetic form, consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. ...


  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau's motto, vitam impendere vero "to devote life to truth" is taken from Juvenal's satire 4, verse 91.
  • "Who watches the watchers?", the popular translation of "Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?", was used by Alan Moore as the inspiration for the title of his acclaimed comic book series Watchmen, in which the phrase is translated "Who watches the watchmen?"

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Geneva-born philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Alan Moore Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton, England) is a British writer most famous for his work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels, Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Watchmen is a twelve-issue comic book written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Dave Gibbons. ...

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Juvenal - definition of Juvenal in Encyclopedia (183 words)
His surviving work consists of 16 satires in hexameter.
Original Latin and English verse translation of Juvenal's "Third Satire": Juvenal (http://www.vroma.org/~araia/satire3.html)
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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christmas (4660 words)
1724) makes Julius write thus to Juvenal of Jerusalem (c.
Usener, arguing from the "Laudatio S. Stephani" of Basil of Seleucia (c.
-- P.G., LXXXV, 469), thinks that Juvenal tried at least to introduce this feast, but that Cyril's greater name attracted that event to his own period.
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