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Encyclopedia > Jute cultivation
Full grown Jute plant in field.

Jute is one of the most important Natural fibers after cotton in terms of cultivation and usage. Cultivation is dependent on the climate, season, and soil. Almost 85% of the world's jute cultivation is concentrated in The Ganges delta. Image File history File links Juteswarl. ... Image File history File links Juteswarl. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ...


This fertile geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India (West Bengal). China also has a dominating place in jute cultivation. In small scale, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan, Nepal, and Bhutan also cultivates jute. West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ...

Jute harvesting by farmers.

Contents

Image File history File links Harvesting. ... Image File history File links Harvesting. ...

Cultivation of Jute

To grow jute, farmers scatter the seeds on cultivated soil. When the plants are about 15-20 cm tall, they are thinned out. About four months after planting, harvesting begins. The plants are usually harvested after they flower, but before the flowers go to seed. The stalks are cut off close to the ground. The stalks are tied into bundles and soaked in water (retting) for about 20 days. This process softens the tissues and breaks the hard pectin bond between the bast & Jute hurd (Inner woody fiber stick) and the process permits the fibres to be separated. The fibres are then stripped from the stalks in long strands and washed in clear, running water. Then they are hung up or spread on thatched roofs to dry. After 2-3 days of drying, the fibres are tied into bundles. The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Retting Retting, n. ... Pectin is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of plants. ... Bast are the strong fibers in the phloem of some plants. ...


The suitable climate for growing Jute is a warm and wet climate, which is offered by the Monsoon Climate during the Fall Season, immediately followed by Summer. Temperature ranging 70º-100º F and relative humidity of 70%-80% are favorable for successful cultivation. Jute requries 2"-3" of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. [1]


Retting of Jute

Pre-retting of Jute Stalk. If the bast fiber is easily separatable from the jute hurd or core, then the jute is deemed to be ready for harvesting.
Pre-retting of Jute Stalk. If the bast fiber is easily separatable from the jute hurd or core, then the jute is deemed to be ready for harvesting.

Retting is the process of extracting fiber from the stem or bast of the Bast fiber plants. The available retting processes are: mechanical retting (hammering), chemical retting (boiling & applying chemicals), steam/vapor/dew retting, and water or microbial retting. Among them, the water or microbial retting is a century old but the most popular process in extracting fine bast fibers. However, selection of these retting processes depends on the availability of water and the cost of retting process. Image File history File links Pre-retting. ... Image File history File links Pre-retting. ... Retting Retting, n. ... Bast Fiber or Skin Fiber: The fiber is collected from the skin or bast surrounding the stem of the plant. ...


To extract fine fibers from jute plant, a small stalk is harvested for pre-retting. Usually, this small stalk is brought before 2 weeks of harvesting time. If the fiber can easily be removed form the Jute hurd or core, then the crop is ready for harvesting.


After harvesting, the jute stalks are tied into bundles and submerged in soft running water. The stalk stays submerged in water for 20 days. However, the retting process may require less time if the quality of the jute is better. In most cases, the fiber extraction process of bast fibers in water retting is done by the farmers while standing under water.

Retting of Jute Stalk. Hitting the fiber with wooden hammer, pulling out the fiber from the hurd or core, washing with water, squeezing out the water, and stocking.
Retting of Jute Stalk. Hitting the fiber with wooden hammer, pulling out the fiber from the hurd or core, washing with water, squeezing out the water, and stocking.

When the jute stalk is well retted, the stalk is grabbed in bundles and hit with a long wooden hammer to make the fiber loose from the jute hurd or core. After loosing the fiber, the fiber is washed with water and squeezed for dehydration. The extracted fibers is further washed with fresh water and allowed to dry on bamboo poles. Finally, they are tied into small bundles to be sold into the primary market. Image File history File links Retting. ... Image File history File links Retting. ...

Major Producers

The Ganges Delta contributes more than 80% of the Jute production in the world. The Ganges Delta can be sub-divided into the following geo-graphical regions in terms of Jute Cultivation: Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ...


* [['Jat Area']]' (Brahmaputra Alluvium): This comprises part of the districts of Dhaka, Mymensingh, Tangail, and Comilla of Bangladesh. The area annually receives fresh deposit of silts carried down by the flood water. Soils are acidic in , the texture varies from sand loam to clay loam. According to commercial quality, the best quality Jute, the Jat type, grows in this area. Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Đhaka; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Mymensingh is one of the districts of Dhaka division, Bangladesh, and is bordered on the north by Meghalaya state of India and Garo Hills, on the south by Gazipur district, on the east by districts of Netrokona and Kishoreganj, and on the west by districts of Sherpur, Jamalpur and Tangail. ... Tangail is a district (zila) in central region of Bangladesh. ... Comilla (3085. ... Picture of flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ...

  • District Area (Ganges Alluvium): This comprises part of the districts of Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna, Rajshahi, Pabna, and Dhaka of Bangladesh and major portion of West Bengal of India. This area has soil of slight alkaline clay loam to light loam in gray to dark gray color. The type of Jute grown in this area is known as District Jute, which is next to Jat Jute in order of quality. The Jute Fiber grown in this region is further divided into two major varieties, such as: Hard District Jute and Soft District Jute.
  • Northern Area (Teesta Silt): This comprises part of Dinajpur, Rangpur districts, East Bogra, and Sirajganj of Bangladesh and some parts of West Bengal of India. The region has sandy soil with low moisture retention capacity. Soil retention is slightly acidic. Northern type of Jute is inferior quality of the three commercial types.

Kushtia is a district in south-western Bangladesh. ... Jessore is a district in south western region of Bangladesh. ... Khulna (population 1. ... Padma River flows besides Rajshahi City Rajshahi (Bangla: রাজশাহী) is a city in Rajshahi District in northwestern Bangladesh. ... Pabna is a city in the west-central region of Bangladesh. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Đhaka; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Dinajpur is a district in Northern Bangladesh. ... Rangpur, city in Bangladesh, not to be confused with Rampur, the names of a city and a former state in India. ... Bogra is a town in Northern Bangladesh. ... Sirajganj is a town in central Bangladesh, lying just west of the Brahmaputra River and about 70 mi. ... West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...

Strengths of Major Jute Producing Countries

India, China, and Bangladesh are the three major producers in the cultivation or production of jute fiber. The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ...

  • India has taken advantage of recent improvements the cultivation of jute to become the largest producer or cultivator of jute in the world. Using advanced production techniques, India also has dominance over the worldwide jute products market. Due to national law to use jute as packaging materials, Indian is the largest consumer of Jute in the world.
  • Bangladesh is currently the second largest producer of jute fiber, now over taken by India. The Jat Area, popular for highest quality of jute fiber is located in Bangladesh. Therefore, Bangladesh is able to supply the highest quality Jute fiber in the world. However, Bangladesh falls behind her other competitors in applying recent technological advancements. In terms of world export of Jute fiber, Bangladesh's share is more than 70%, which makes Bangladesh the largest exporter of Jute fiber in the world.
  • China is the 3rd largest in terms of jute cultivation. Due to China's huge population, the Chinese are not emphasizing the cultivation of jute, as it has to compete hard with other necessary crops. Due to modern effective agriculture, they have the highest yield of jute fiber in the world.

The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Jute Fiber is also called Raw Jute in the industrial world. ... Jat Area is a term of Jute cultivation that indicates the inner North-Estern part of Bangladesh. ... Jute Fiber is also called Raw Jute in the industrial world. ... Jute Fiber is also called Raw Jute in the industrial world. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ... Jute Fiber is also called Raw Jute in the industrial world. ...

References

External links

  • Ministry of Textile & Jute, Bangladesh

Flowchart from sowing to fiber extraction.


 
 

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