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Encyclopedia > Jute
Bundles of jute, showing the fibres of Corchorus olitorius (tossa jute fibre) and Corchorus capsularis (white jute fibre)

Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, family Tiliaceae. For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... Image File history File links Tossa-n-white. ... Image File history File links Tossa-n-white. ... Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper or cloth. ... Species About 40-100 species, including: Corchorus aestuans Corchorus capsularis Corchorus carnarvonensis Corchorus cunninghamii Corchorus erodiodes Corchorus junodi Corchorus olitorius Corchorus sidoides Corchorus tridens Corchorus walcottii Corchorus is a genus of about 40-100 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the... Genera Abelmoschus - Okra Abutilon - Abutilon Adansonia – Baobab Alcea - Hollyhock Althaea - Marsh mallow Bombax – Silk-cotton tree Callirhoe - Poppy mallow Ceiba – Kapok Chiranthodendron – Mexican Hand Tree Cola - Kola nut Corchorus - Jute Durio – Durian Fremontodendron – Flannelbush Gaya – Gaya Gossypium - Cotton plant Hibiscus - Hibiscus Hoheria – Lacebark Kosteletzkya - Saltmarsh mallow Lavatera - Tree mallow or...


Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin (major components wood fibre). It is thus a ligno-cellulosic fibre that is partially a textile fibre and partially wood. It falls into the bast fibre category (fibre collected from bast or skin of the plant) along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fibre is raw jute. The fibres are off-white to brown, and 1–4 meters (3–12 feet) long. Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences) is a class of hair-like materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to pieces of thread. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Bast fibre (fiber) or skin fibre is fibre collected from the Phloem (the inner bark or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of a certain mainly dicotyledonic plant. ... Binomial name Hibiscus cannabinus L. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a species of Hibiscus, probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Binomial name Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. ...

Jute plants (Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis)

Jute fibre is often called hessian; jute fabrics are also called hessian cloth and jute sacks are called gunny bags in some European countries. The fabric made from jute is popularly known as burlap in North America. Image File history File links These pictures were taken by the photographers of The Golden Fibre Trade Centre Limited (GFTCL): Leading Jute & Jute Goods Exporter of Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links These pictures were taken by the photographers of The Golden Fibre Trade Centre Limited (GFTCL): Leading Jute & Jute Goods Exporter of Bangladesh. ... The term Hessian refers to the inhabitants of the German state of Hesse. ... Burlap is a dense woven fabric, usually made of jute and allied vegetable fibers. ... North American redirects here. ...

Contents

Cultivation

Main article: Jute cultivation

Jute needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet climate) is offered by the monsoon climate during the monsoon season. Temperatures ranging 20˚ C to 40˚ C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation. Jute requries 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. Full grown Jute plant in field. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


White jute (Corchorus capsularis)

In several historical documents (especially, Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) during the era of the great Mughal Emperor Akbar (15421605) states that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. Simple handlooms and hand spinning wheels were used by the weavers, who used to spin cotton yarns as well. History also states that Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. The Ain-e-Akbari is a detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbars empire written by Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak, it also contains details of Hindu beliefs and practices as well as a history of India. ... Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak (Persian:ابو الفضل) also known as Abul-Fazl, Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbars reign. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ...


Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius)

Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is an Afro-Arabian variety and a member of the mallow family. It is quite popular for its leaves that are used as an ingredient in an okra slimy Arabian potherb called molokhiya (ملوخية a word of doubtful etymology). The Jewish Book of Job mentions this vegetable potherb as Jew's mallow. Species About 40-100 species, including: Corchorus aestuans Corchorus capsularis Corchorus carnarvonensis Corchorus cunninghamii Corchorus junodi Corchorus olitorius Corchorus sidoides Corchorus tridens Corchorus walcottii Corchorus is a genus of about 40-100 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. ... Mallow is the common name of several closely related genera of plant in the family Malvaceae: Althaea – Marsh mallow Callirhoe – Poppy mallow Kosteletzkya – Seashore mallow Lavatera – Tree mallow or rose mallow Malacothamnus – Santa Cruz Island bush-mallow Malva – Mallow Malvaviscus – Turks cap mallow Sidalcea – Greek mallow Sphaeralcea – Globemallow Plants... Binomial name (L.) Moench Okra (American English: , British English ), also known as ladys finger[1], bhindi (Hindustani) and gumbo, is a flowering plant in the mallow family (along with such species as cotton and cocoa) valued for its edible green fruits. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Species About 40-100 species, including: Corchorus aestuans Corchorus capsularis Corchorus carnarvonensis Corchorus cunninghamii Corchorus junodi Corchorus olitorius Corchorus sidoides Corchorus tridens Corchorus walcottii Corchorus is a genus of about 40-100 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Tossa jute fibre is softer, silkier, and stronger than white jute. This variety astonishingly showed good sustainability in the climate of the Ganges Delta. Along with white jute, tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal from the start of the 19th century. Currently, the Bengal region (West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh) is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety. Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (also Sunderban Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...


History

For centuries, jute has been an integral part of Bengali culture, which is shared by both Bangladesh and West Bengal of India. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, much of the raw jute fibre of Bengal were exported to the United Kingdom, where it was then processed in mills concentrated in Dundee ("jute weaver" was a recognised trade occupation in the 1901 UK census), but this trade had largely ceased by about 1970 due to the entrance of synthetic fibres. The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Margaret Donnelly I was a jute mill landowner in Dundee in the 1800s. She set up the first jute mills in India. In the 1950s and 1960s when nylon and polythene were rarely used, the United Pakistan (then the world leader in jute products) was earning money through jute of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. It was called the "Golden Fibre of Bangladesh", when it used to bring major portion of the foreign currency reserve for Bangladesh. But, as the use of polythene and other synthetic materials as a substitute for jute started to capture the market, most economists said that jute industry is experiencing a decline. For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Polyethylene or polyethene is one of the simplest and most inexpensive polymers. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


For several years, farmers in Bangladesh burnt their crops as they did not get an adequate price. Many exporters that were dealing with jute found other commodities in which to deal. The jute-related organisations and government bodies also experienced closures, change, and fund cutting. The long decline in demand forced the largest jute mill in the world (Adamjee Jute Mills) to close. Latif Bawany Jute Mills, the second largest, is still running but was nationalized by the government from prominent businessman, Yahya Bawany. But the farmers of Bangladesh surprisingly did not stop growing jute, mainly due to demand in the internal market. Recently (2004–2007), the jute market turned back again and the price of raw jute increased more than 50% due to high demand of jute products worldwide. Adamjee Jute Mill was established in Narayanganj, Bangladesh in 1951, immediately after Bawa Jute Mills (the first jute mill in Bangladesh). ...


During 1941, Henry Ford tested the strength of a car trunk made from soybean fibre. The trunk was made of soy-protein plastic reinforced with glass, which was stronger, lighter, and more flexible than conventional car panels. This experiment revolutionised the use of natural fibres in the automobile industry and made cars lighter, which in turn made them more fuel efficient. The previously used glass fibre proved to be very heavy and emitted poisonous gas when burnt. Therefore, most people died of poisonous gas inhalation, not by wounds during car accidents. This fact has driven the European Union to ban the use of glass fibre in automobiles. When Henry Ford's experiment gained huge response, the automobile companies started to search for other bast fibres, as soybean fibre had problems in moulding. They found that flax was the best bast fibre for the automobile interior production. For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Soy redirects here. ... Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... There is a disputed proposal to merge this article with glass-reinforced plastic. ... Automakers, also known as carmakers, automobile manufacturers, motor manufacturers, or the automobile industry are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... Fuel economy monitor from a 2006 Honda Airwave Fuel economy in automobiles is the amount of fuel required to move the automobile over a given distance. ... Bast fibre (fiber) or skin fibre is fibre collected from the Phloem (the inner bark or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of a certain mainly dicotyledonic plant. ...


It has been shown that flax, jute, and hemp fibres contain characteristics such as ductile structure and stiffness per unit of weight that result in benefits during side impacts. But, jute was recognised as the next to the best at a quite late time. In some cases, jute has become the better option over flax in producing car interiors. Moreover, jute proved to be the most cost effective fibre in this sector, as jute is the cheapest vegetable fibre with very high tensile strength. However, there are contrasting information regarding this history. Gold is a highly ductile metal Ductility is a mechanical property which describes how much plastic deformation a material can sustain before fracture occurs. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ...


Other uses for natural fibres now includes composite production of sheet moulding compound, resin transfer moulding, and vacuum pressing techniques and injection. Sheet moulding compound (SMC) or sheet moulding composite is a ready to mould fibre-reinforced polyester material primarily used in compression moulding. ...


Jute has entered various diversified sectors, where natural fibres are gradually becoming better substitution. Among these industries are paper, celluloid products (films), non-woven textiles, composites (pseudo-wood), and geotextiles. For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Nonwoven textiles are those which are neither woven nor knit, for example felt. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ...


Description

Jute matting being used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fibre is essential.
Jute matting being used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fibre is essential.

Jute matting being used to prevent flood erosion - US Department of Energy photo [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Jute Categories: Department of Energy images ... Jute matting being used to prevent flood erosion - US Department of Energy photo [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Jute Categories: Department of Energy images ...

Major fibre properties

Jute is one of the strongest natural fibers. The long staple fiber has high tensile strength and low extensibility. Its luster determines quality; the more it shines, the better the quality. It also has some heat and fire resistance. The biodegradable features of jute are becoming increasingly important.[1]


Production

Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh, India, China, and Thailand. The jute fibre comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. The fibres are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in low, running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins. Women and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibres from within the jute stem.[2]


Uses

Jute is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton; not only for cultivation, but also for various uses. Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. The fibres are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum. It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Paper bag redirects here. ... For religious use, see Veil. ... For other uses of chair, see chair (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... A linoleum kitchen floor Linoleum is a floor covering made from solidified linseed oil (linoxyn) in combination with wood flour or cork dust over a burlap or canvas backing. ...


While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses, some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable. Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established. Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ...


The fibres are used alone or blended with other types of fibres to make twine and rope. Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to make inexpensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads of jute can be separated out and made into imitation silk. As jute fibres are also being used to make pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase. Jute has a long history of use in the sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and construction fabric manufacturing industry. A spool of twine. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ...


Traditionally jute was used in traditional textile machineries as textile fibres having cellulose (vegetable fibre content) and lignin (wood fibre content). But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibres with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites. Therefore, jute has changed its textile fibre outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i.e. wood fibre. As a textile fibre, jute has reached its peak from where there is no hope of progress, but as a wood fibre jute has many promising features.[3] Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Jute can be used to create a number of fabrics such as Hessian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth (CBC), and canvas. Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibres, has its use in the name. CBC made of jute comes in two types. Primary CBC provides a tufting surface, while secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for an overlay. Jute packaging is used as an eco-friendly substitute.


Diversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. Among these are espadrilles, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance technical textiles, Geotextiles, composites, and more. A shelf of Catalonian Espadrilles found in Barcelona Espadrilles are casual flat or high-heel fashion sandals originating from the Pyrenees. ...


Jute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. The traditional Satranji mat is becoming very popular in home décor. Jute non-wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more.


Jute has many advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, color and light-fast fibre. Its UV protection, sound and heat insulation, low thermal conduction and anti-static properties make it a wise choice in home décor. Also, fabrics made of jute fibres are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles [4].


Jute is also used in the making of ghilie suits. Which are used as camoflauge and resemble grasses or brush.


Another diversified jute product is Geotextiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibres that is used for soil erosion control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and landscaping uses. The Geotextiles can be used more than a year and the bio-degradable jute Geotextile left to rot on the ground keeps the ground cool and is able to make the land more fertile. Methods such as this could be used to transfer the fertility of the [Ganges Delta to the deserts of Sahara or Australia[citation needed]. Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including but not limited to: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as Gardening efforts in the gestalt, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of...


Moreover, jute can be grown in 4–6 months with a huge amount of cellulose being produced from the jute hurd (inner woody core or parenchyma of the jute stem) that can meet most of the wood needs of the world. Jute is the major crop among others that is able to protect deforestation by industrialisation. Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance. ...


Thus, jute is the most environment-friendly fibre starting from the seed to expired fibre, as the expired fibres can be recycled more than once.


Food

Jute leaves are consumed in various parts of the world. It is a popular vegetable in West Africa. The Yoruba of Nigeria call it "ewedu" and the Songhay of Mali call it "fakohoy." It is made into a common mucilaginous (somewhat "slimy") soup or sauce in some West African cooking traditions. It is also a popular dish in the northern provinces of the Philippines, also known as saluyot. The leaves are rich in betacarotene, iron, calcium, and Vitamin C. The plant has an antioxidant activity with a significant α-tocopherol equivalent Vitamin E.  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa; the majority of them speak the Yoruba language (èdèe Yorùbá; èdè = language). ... The Songhai are an ethnic group living in western Africa. ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ...


Other

Diversified byproducts which can be cultivated from jute include uses in cosmetics, medicine, paints, and other products.


Features

Picture of cutting lower part of the long jute fibre. The lower part is hard fibre, which is called jute cuttings in Bangladesh and India (commonly called jute butts or jute tops elsewhere). Jute cuttings are lower in quality, but have commercial value for the paper, carded yarn, and other fibre processing indutries. Jute fibres are kept in bundles in the background in a warehouse in Bangladesh.
  • Jute fibre is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly.
  • It is a natural fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fibre.
  • It is the cheapest vegetable fibre procured from the bast or skin of the plant's stem.
  • It is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability.
  • It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
  • It helps to make best quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. It is one of the most versatile natural fibres that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend.
  • Unlike the fiber known as hemp, jute is not a form of (Cannabis). Therefore it can be much more easily distinguished from forms of Cannabis that produce a narcotic.
  • The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta, most of which is occupied by Bangladesh.
  • Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations.
  • Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibres, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, and pigment dyes. As the demand for natural comfort fibres increases, the demand for jute and other natural fibres that can be blended with cotton will increase. To meet this demand, it has been suggested that the natural fibre industry adopt the Rieter's Elitex system, in order to modernize processing. The resulting jute/cotton yarns will produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents.
  • Some noted disadvantages include poor drapability and crease resistance, brittleness, fibre shedding, and yellowing in sunlight. However, preparation of fabrics with castor oil lubricants result in less yellowing and less fabric weight loss, as well as increased dyeing brilliance. Jute has a decreased strength when wet, and also becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates. Jute can be processed with an enzyme in order to reduce some of its brittleness and stiffness. Once treated with an enzyme, jute shows an affinity to readily accept natural dyes, which can be made from marigold flower extract. In one attempt to dye jute fabric with this extract, bleached fabric was mordanted with ferrous sulphate, increasing the fabric's dye uptake value. Jute also responds well to reactive dyeing. This process is used for bright and fast coloured value-added diversified products made from jute.

Image File history File links Cutting_jute. ... Image File history File links Cutting_jute. ... Extensibility is a system design principle where the current implementation takes into consideration future growth. ... Waterproof fabrics are usually natural or synthetic fabrics that are laminated to or coated in some sort of permanently waterproofing material, such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU), silicone elastomer, and wax. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks. ... K value redirects here. ... Soundproofing is any means of to reducing the intensity of sound with respect to a specified source and receptor. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ♣Vat dyes are an ancient class of dyes, based on the natural dye, indigo, which is now produced synthetically. ... Sulfur dyes are the biggest volume dyes manufactured for cotton. ... In a reactive dye a chromophore contains a substituent that is activated and allowed to directly react to the surface of the substrate. ... Rieter is a producer of textile machinery and automobile components, based in Winterthur, Switzerland. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, subject to bounding, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves. ... “Brittle” redirects here. ... Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant, Ricinus communis, is not a member of the bean family). ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Iron(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula (FeSO4). ... In a reactive dye a chromophore contains a substituent that is activated and allowed to directly react to the surface of the substrate. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jute. (IJSG). Accessed 13 June 2007.
  2. ^ Jute. (IJSG). Accessed 13 June 2007.
  3. ^ The Golden Fibre Trade Centre Limited. (GFTCL) - Articles & Information on Jute, Kenaf, & Roselle Hemp. Accessed 22 March 2007.
  4. ^ Jute. (IJSG). Accessed 13 June 2007.

is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

References

  • Basu, G., A. K. Sinha, and S. N. Chattopadhyay. "Properties of Jute Based Ternary Blended Bulked Yarns". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 48, no. 9 (Sep. 2005): 350–353. (AN 18605324)
  • Chattopadhyay, S. N., N. C. Pan, and A. Day. "A Novel Process of Dyeing of Jute Fabric Using Reactive Dye". Textile Industry of India. Vol. 42, no. 9 (Sep. 2004): 15–22. (AN 17093709)
  • Doraiswamy, I., A. Basu, and K. P. Chellamani. "Development of Fine Quality Jute Fibres". Colourage. Nov. 6–8, 1998, 2p. (AN TDH0624047199903296)
  • Kozlowski, R., and S. Manys. "Green Fibres". The Textile Institute. Textile Industry: Winning Strategies for the New Millennium—Papers Presented at the World Conference. Feb. 10–13, 1999: 29 (13p). (AN TDH0646343200106392)
  • Madhu, T. "Bio-Composites—An Overview". Textile Magazine. Vol. 43, no. 8 (Jun. 2002): 49 (2 pp). (AN TDH0656367200206816)
  • Maulik, S. R. "Chemical Modification of Jute". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 10, no. 7 (Jul. 2001): 99 (8 pp). (AN TDH0648424200108473)
  • Moses, J. Jeyakodi, and M. Ramasamy. "Quality Improvement on Jute and Jute Cotton Materials Using Enzyme Treatment and Natural Dyeing". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 47, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 252–255. (AN 14075527)
  • Pan, N. C., S. N. Chattopadhyay, and A. Day. "Dyeing of Jute Fabric with Natural Dye Extracted from Marigold Flower". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 13, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 80–82. (AN 15081016)
  • Pan, N. C., A. Day, and K. K. Mahalanabis. "Properties of Jute". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 110, no. 5 (Feb. 2000): 16. (AN TDH0635236200004885)
  • Roy, T. K. G., S. K. Chatterjee, and B. D. Gupta. "Comparative Studies on Bleaching and Dyeing of Jute after Processing with Mineral Oil in Water Emulsion vis-a-vis Self-Emulsifiable Castor Oil". Colourage. Vol. 49, no. 8 (Aug. 2002): 27 (5 pp). (AN TDH0657901200208350)
  • Shenai, V. A. "Enzyme Treatment". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 114, no. 2 (Nov. 2003): 112–113. (AN 13153355)
  • Srinivasan, J., A. Venkatachalam, and P. Radhakrishnan. "Small-Scale Jute Spinning: An Analysis". Textile Magazine. Vol. 40, no. 4 (Feb. 1999): 29. (ANTDH0624005199903254)
  • Vijayakumar, K. A., and P. R. Raajendraa. "A New Method to Determine the Proportion of Jute in a Jute/Cotton Blend". Asian Textile Journal, Vol. 14, no. 5 (May 2005): 70-72. (AN 18137355)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Articles and resources related to jute

  • International Jute Study Group (IJSG) Resources about jute, kenaf and roselle plants.
  • Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University Some chemistry and medicinal information on tossa jute.
  • Jute fabric could be used for industrial applications as composites reinforcement in sandwich design for automotive or builting market. The sandwich technology using jute fabric could be viewed on http://daifa.fr/index.php?Page=71 at §4. DAIFA have reach a leading position to supply jute fabric on the european market.

Institutes related to jute

  • International Jute Study Group (IJSG). A UN collaboration for learning various aspects of jute and kenaf. Its headquarter is located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Bangladeshi Ministry of Jute and Textile (Jute Division). The ministry in Bangladesh directly concerned with jute.
  • Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). The Institute in Bangladesh dedicated to jute research.
  • Institute of Jute Technology, Kolkata, India. An institute for advanced research on jute and allied fibres.

  Results from FactBites:
 
channel4.com - Time Team - Jutes (0 words)
From the Jutes are descended the men of Kent, the Victuarri (that is to say the people who inhabit the Isle of Wight) and that people who are today called the Jutes and are located in the kingdom of the West Saxons, opposite the Isle of Wight.
He suggests, for example, that the Jutes (or Iutae) came from Jutland, which seems logical enough except that language experts insisted that the two names come from different roots.
She argues that the history of the Jutes was lost as a result of their defeat and conquest by the West Saxons, but that they occupied large parts of what is now south Hampshire, close to the location of the Live 2001 dig.
Jutes - LoveToKnow 1911 (194 words)
JUTES, the third of the Teutonic nations which invaded Britain in the 5th century, called by Bede Iutae or Iuti (see Britain, Anglo-Saxon).
In Kent, however, it seems to have soon passed out of use, though there is good reason for believing that the inhabitants of that kingdom were of a different nationality from their neighbours (see Kent, Kingdom Of).
With regard to the origin of the Jutes, Bede only says that Angulus (Angel) lay between the territories of the Saxons and the Iutae - a statement which points to their identity with the Iuti or Jyder of later times, i.e.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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