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Encyclopedia > Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig
Born 12 May 1803
Darmstadt, Germany
Died 18 April 1873
Munich, Germany
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Field Chemist
Institution University of Giessen
University of Munich
Alma Mater University of Bonn
University of Erlangen
Academic Advisor Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner
Notable Students Carl Schmidt
August Wilhelm von Hofmann
Known for Nitrogen
Law of the Minimum
Liebig condenser

Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. As a professor, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. He is known as the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his discovery of nitrogen as an essential plant nutrient, and his formulation of the Law of the Minimum which described the effect of individual nutrients on crops. He also developed a manufacturing process for beef extract, and founded a company that later trademarked the Oxo brand beef bouillon cube. PD image from [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hessen in Germany. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich: St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... A chemist pours from a Florence flask. ... The University of Gießen (Giessen), officially called Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen after its most famous member, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertilizer. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... The main building, viewed from the Hofgarten. ... Erlangen is a German city in Middle Franconia. ... Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783 - 1857) was a German chemist and natural scientist. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... August Wilhelm von Hofmann (April 8, 1818 _ May 5, 1892) was a German chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Liebigs Law of the Minimum, often referred to simply as Liebigs Law or the Law of the Minimum, is a law developed in agricultural science formulated by Justus von Liebig. ... Liebig condenser The Liebig condenser is a piece of laboratory equipment where a straight glass pipe goes through a water jacket (a glass cylinder through which water constantly flows). ... Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hessen in Germany. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich: St. ... A chemist pours from a Florence flask. ... Biology (from Greek Βìο meaning life and Λoγος meaning the study of, see below) is the study of life. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry. ... A professor giving a lecture The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... Michael Faraday, 19th century physicist and chemist, in his lab. ... spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... A nutrient is either element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... Liebigs Law of the Minimum, often referred to simply as Liebigs Law or the Law of the Minimum, is a law developed in agricultural science formulated by Justus von Liebig. ... A trademark, trade mark, â„¢ or ®[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an organization to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the organization and its products or services from those of other organizations. ... Various types of Oxo cube Oxo is a brand of stock cube manufactured by Campbell Soup UK in England. ... A bouillon cube (US) or stock cube (UK) is dehydrated broth (bouillon in French) or stock formed into a small cube (about 15 mm on a side). ...

Contents

Biography

Liebig was born into a middle class family of mixed German and Jewish descent. (Bernt Engelmann,"Germany without Jews". Translated from German by D.J. Beer, New York: Bantam Books, 1984, pp. 45, 107, 114.) Since childhood he was fascinated by chemistry and even was expelled from his grammar school for detonating an explosive device he had made at home from chemicals obtained from his father's drysaltery business. [This tale is probably apocryphal--there is no historical evidence that it occurred.] He was apprenticed to the apothecary Gottfried Pirsch (1792-1870) in Heppenheim. Grammar school can refer to various types of schools in different English-speaking countries. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Drysalters were dealers in a range of chemical products, including glue, varnish, dye and colourings. ... Link title Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... Cathedral and old town Cathedral and Starkenburg castle Heppenheim is a city in Hesse, Germany. ...


Liebig attended the University of Bonn, studying under Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner, a business associate of his father. When Kastner moved to the University of Erlangen, Liebig followed him and later took his doctorate from Erlangen. Liebig did not receive the doctorate until well after he had left Erlangen, and the circumstances are clouded by a possible scandal [see Munday (1990)]. Also at Erlangen, Liebig fell in love with the poet August von Platen (1796-1835), who wrote several sonnets dedicated to Liebig. He left Erlangen in March 1822, in part because of his involvement with the radical Korps Rhenania (a nationalist student organization) but also because of his hopes for more advanced chemical studies. The main building, viewed from the Hofgarten. ... Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783 - 1857) was a German chemist and natural scientist. ... Erlangen is a German city in Middle Franconia. ...


In autumn 1822 Liebig went to study in Paris on a grant obtained for him by Kastner from the Hessian government. He worked in the private laboratory of Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, and was also befriended by Alexander von Humboldt and Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Hesse (German: Hessen) is a state of Germany with an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. ... Michael Faraday, 19th century physicist and chemist, in his lab. ... Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ...


After leaving Paris, Liebig returned to Darmstadt and married Henriette Moldenhauer, the daughter of a state official. This ended Liebig's relationship with Platen.


In 1824 at the age of 21 and with Humboldt's recommendation, Liebig became a professor at the University of Giessen. He established the world's first major school of chemistry there. He received an appointment from the King of Bavaria to the University of Munich in 1852, where he remained until his death in 1873. He became Freiherr (baron) in 1845. A professor giving a lecture The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... The University of Gießen (Giessen), officially called Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen after its most famous member, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertilizer. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ...


He founded and edited from 1832 the journal Annalen der Chemie, which became the leading German-language journal of Chemistry. The volumes from his lifetime are often referenced just as Liebigs Annalen; and following his death the title was officially changed to Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie. Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and most historically important chemistry journals worldwide. ...


The authoritative biography is William H. Brock's Justus von Liebig: The Chemical Gatekeeper (Cambridge University Press, 1997). See also William H. Brock.


Research and development

Liebig improved organic analysis with the Kaliapparat-- a five-bulb device that used a potassium hydroxide solution to remove the organic combustion product carbon dioxide. He downplayed the role of humus in plant nutrition and discovered that plants feed on nitrogen compounds and carbon dioxide derived from the air, as well as on minerals in the soil. One of his most recognized and far-reaching accomplishments was the invention of nitrogen-based fertilizer. Liebig believed that nitrogen must be supplied to plant roots in the form of ammonia. Though a practical and commercial failure, his invention of fertilizer recognized the possibility of substituting chemical fertilizers for natural (animal dung, etc.) ones. He also formulated the Law of the Minimum, stating that a plant's development is limited by the one essential mineral that is in the relatively shortest supply, visualized as "Liebig's barrel". This concept is a qualitative version of the principles used to determine the application of fertilizer in modern agriculture. Humus is a word actually used for two different things, which are both related to soil and thus get used interchangeably. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ... spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Liebigs Law of the Minimum, often simply called Liebigs Law or the Law of the Minimum, is a principle developed in agricultural science by Justus von Liebig. ...


He was also one of the first chemists to organize a laboratory as we know it today. His novel method of organic analysis made it possible for him to direct the analytical work of many graduate students. The vapor condensation device he popularized for his research is still known as a Liebig condenser, although it was in common use long before Liebig's research began. Liebig's students were from many of the German states as well as Britain and the United States, and they helped create an international reputation for their Doktorvater. Liebig condenser The Liebig condenser is a piece of laboratory equipment where a straight glass pipe goes through a water jacket (a glass cylinder through which water constantly flows). ...


In 1835 he invented a process for silvering that greatly improved the utility of mirrors. Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance, originally silver, in order to create a mirror. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ...


Liebig's work on applying chemistry to plant and animal physiology was especially influential. At a time when many chemists such as Jons Jacob Berzelius insisted on a hard and fast separation between the organic and inorganic, Liebig argued that "...the production of all organic substances no longer belongs just to the organism. It must be viewed as not only probable but as certain that we shall produce them in our laboratories. Sugar, salicin [aspirin], and morphine will be artificially produced." [Liebig and Woehler (1838)] Jöns Jacob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist, who invented modern chemical notation and is considered one of the fathers of modern chemistry (along with John Dalton and Antoine Lavoisier). ...


Liebig's arguments against any chemical distinction between living (physiological) and dead chemical processes proved a great inspiration to several of his students and others who were interested in materialism. Though Liebig distanced himself from the direct political implications of materialism, he tacitly supported the work of Karl Vogt (1817-1895), Jacob Moleschott (1822-1893), and Ludwig Buechner (1824-1899).


Liebig played a more direct role in reforming politics in the German states through his promotion of science-based agriculture and the publication of John Stuart Mill's Logic. Through Liebig's close friendship with the Vieweg family publishing house, he arranged for his former student Jacob Schiel (1813-1889) to translate Mill's important work for German publication. Liebig liked Mill's Logic in part because it promoted science as a means to social and political progress, but also because Mill featured several examples of Liebig's research as an ideal for the scientific method. John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ...


Liebig is also credited with the notion that "searing meat seals in the juices."[1] This idea, still widely believed, is not true. Searing is a technique used in grilling, roasting, braising, sautéing, etc. ...


Working with Belgian engineer George Giebert, Liebig devised an efficient method of producing beef extract from carcasses. In 1865, they founded the Liebig Extract of Meat Company, marketing the extract as a cheap, nutritious alternative to real meat. Some years after Liebig's death, in 1899, the product was trademarked "Oxo". Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... French Advertising for Liebig Extract of Meat, circa 1900 Italian Advertising for Liebig Extract of Meat, circa 1900 The Liebig Extract of Meat Company (Lemco) was the originator of Liebig and Oxo meat extracts and later Oxo beef stock cubes. ... Flesh redirects here. ...


The University of Giessen today is officially named after him, "Justus-Liebig-Universität-Giessen". The University of Gießen (Giessen), officially called Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen after its most famous member, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertilizer. ...


Major works

  • Organic Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology (1840)
  • Organic Chemistry in its Application to Physiology and Pathology (1842)
  • Familiar Letters on Chemistry (1843)

See also

Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... This is a list of famous chemists: (alphabetical order) Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Emil Abderhalden, (1877–1950), Swiss chemist Richard Abegg, (1869–1910), German...

Notes

  1. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.  Page 161, "The Searing Question".

  Results from FactBites:
 
Justus von Liebig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (390 words)
Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany - April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist.
Liebig went to the University of Bonn, to study with Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner.
Liebig improved organic analysis, and discovered that plants feed on the nitrogen (actually microbes do the conversions to nitrogen compounds) and carbon dioxide in the air, as well as on minerals in the soil.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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