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Encyclopedia > Justinian I
Justinian I
Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire
Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna
Reign 9 August 527 - 13 or 14 November 565
Full name Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus
Born c. 482
Tauresium, province of Illyricum
Died 13 or 14 November 565
Constantinople
Predecessor Justin I
Successor Justin II
Consort Theodora
Dynasty Justinian Dynasty

Justinian I or Justinian the Great (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; 482/483November 13 or November 14, 565) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 until his death, and second member of the Justinian Dynasty, after his uncle Justin I. He is considered a saint amongst Eastern Orthodox Christians. He has also sometimes been considered the "Last Roman".[1] Justinian may refer to: Justinian I (483-565), Byzantine Emperor; noted for his codification of Law. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2074, 440 KB) Description: Title: de: Chormosaiken in San Vitale in Ravenna, Szene: Kaiser Justinian und Bischof Maximilianus und sein Hof, Detail: Büste des Justinian Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ravenna Current... The Basilica of San Vitale The Basilica of San Vitale is the most famous monument of Ravenna, Italy and is one of the most important examples of Byzantine Art and architecture in western Europe. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... (Redirected from 13 November) November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Events Qi Gao Di, ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Byzantine emperor Zeno I issues the Henotikon, an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Taor (Macedonian: Таор; Greek: Tαυρίσιο) is a small village near Skopje, in the Republic of Macedonia. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... (Redirected from 13 November) November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ... Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus or Justin The Divine (c. ... Theodora, detail of a Byzantine mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Events Qi Gao Di, ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Byzantine emperor Zeno I issues the Henotikon, an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Events March 13 - Pope Felix III succeeds Pope Simplicius The general Illus and Verina, mother-in-law of Byzantine emperor Zeno I, attempt to overthrow Zeno and place a general named Leontius on the throne. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the year. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Last of the Romans is a term that has been applied to various people: Gaius Asinius Pollio, one of the last great orators and writers of the Roman Republic, is sometimes referred to as such. ...


Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Byzantine Empire, the impact of his administration extending far beyond the boundaries of his time and his empire. Justinian's reign is marked by the ambitious but ultimately failed renovatio imperii, "restoration of the empire".[2] This ambition was expressed in the partial recovery of the territories of the Western Roman Empire, including the city of Rome itself; a still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states. His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded masterpieces such as the church of Hagia Sophia, which was to be the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity for many centuries. The devastating Plague of Justinian in the early 540's, however, marked the end of an age of splendor; after that, the empire entered a period of decline which would not be reversed until the 9th century. Justinian is considered a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church and is also commemorated by the Lutheran Church.[3] Byzantine redirects here. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Plague of Justinian (541-542) is the first known pandemic on record, and it also marks the first firmly recorded pattern of bubonic plague. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Procopius provides our primary source for the history of Justinian's reign. The Syriac chronicle of John of Ephesus, which does not survive, was used as a source for later chronicles, contributing many additional details of value. Both historians became very bitter towards Justinian and his empress, Theodora. Procopius also wrote the Anekdota (the so-called Secret History), which reports on various scandals at Justinian's court. Other sources include the histories of Agathias, Menander Protector, John Malalas, the Paschal Chronicle, the chronicles of Marcellinus Comes and Victor of Tunnuna. Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... John of Ephesus (or of Asia) (c. ... Theodora, detail of a Byzantine mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Agathias (c. ... Menander Protector (Greek for one of the imperial bodyguards), Byzantine historian, was born in Constantinople in the middle of the 6th century AD. The little that is known of his life is contained in the account of himself quoted by Suidas. ... John Malalas (or Malelas) (Syriac for orator ) (c. ... Chronicon Paschale (the Paschal Chronicle, also Chronicum Alexandrinum or Constantinopolitanum, or Fasti Siculi ) is the conventional name of a 7th-century Byzantine universal chronicle of the world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Victor of Tunnuna (d. ...

Contents

Life

Justinian was born into a Latin-speaking[4] peasant family in a small village called Tauresium (near Justiniana Prima, which he founded later), in what is today the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, around 482.[5][6] He was born as Petrus Sabbatius; the cognomen Justinianus, which he later took, is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin.[7] His mother was Vigilantia, the sister of Justin, who was in the imperial guard (the Excubitors) before he became emperor.[8] Justin adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople, and ensured the boy's education.[8] As a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence, theology and Roman history.[8] Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors but the details of his early career are unknown.[8] Taor (Macedonian: Таор; Greek: Tαυρίσιο); Albanian: Tanor is a small village near Skopje. ... Justiniana Prima (Serbian: Caričin grad) was an Byzantine city located in today southern Serbia near todays Leskovac. ... Events Qi Gao Di, ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Byzantine emperor Zeno I issues the Henotikon, an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


When Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, with significant help from Justinian.[8] During Justin's reign (518-527), Justinian was the emperor's close confidant. Justinian showed a lot of ambition, and it has been thought that he was functioning as virtual regent long before Justin made him associate emperor on April 1, 527, although there is no conclusive evidence for this.[9] As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the de facto ruler.[8] Justinian was appointed consul in 521, and later commander of the army of the east.[8][10]. Upon Justin I's death on August 1, 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign.[8] Look up Anastasius in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Events Future Byzantine emperor Justinian becomes consul. ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

The Barberini Ivory, which is thought to portray either Justinian or Anastasius I.
The Barberini Ivory, which is thought to portray either Justinian or Anastasius I.

As a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as "the Emperor who never sleeps" on account of his work habits. Nevertheless, he seems to have been amenable and easy to approach.[11] Justinian's family came from a lowly and provincial background, and therefore he had no power base in the traditional aristocracy of Constantinople. Instead, he surrounded himself with men and women of extraordinary talent, whom he selected not on the basis of aristocratic origin, but on the basis of merit. Around 525 he married Theodora, who was by profession a courtesan about 20 years his junior. Justinian would have, in earlier times, been unable to marry her because of her class, but his uncle Emperor Justin I had passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes.[12] Theodora would become very influential in the politics of the Empire, and later emperors would follow Justinian's precedent in marrying outside the aristocratic class. The marriage caused a scandal, but Theodora would prove to be very intelligent, "street smart", a good judge of character and Justinian's greatest supporter. Other talented individuals included Tribonian, his legal adviser; his finance ministers John the Cappadocian and Peter Barsymes, who managed to collect taxes more efficiently than any before, thereby funding Justinian's wars; and finally, his talented general Belisarius. Also Justinian inherited 400,000 pounds of gold in the treasury from Anastasius I and Justin I.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1859x2249, 2903 KB) Description: Barberini diptych. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1859x2249, 2903 KB) Description: Barberini diptych. ... Barberini Ivory on display at the Louvre. ... Events Bernicia settled by the Angles Ethiopia conquers Yemen The Daisan river, a tributary of the Euphrates, floods Edessa and within a couple of hours fills the entire city except for the highest parts. ... Theodora, detail of a Byzantine mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. ... A courtesan in mid-16th century usage was a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Tribonian (c. ... John the Cappadocian was a prefect in the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Justinian I. John was appointed to lead the first commission on Justinians new legal code, the Corpus Juris Civilis, and became Justinians chief legal advisor. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Pope Anastasius I -- Pope from 399-401 Anastasius I of the Byzantine Empire -- (c. ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ...


Justinian's rule was not universally popular; early in his reign he almost lost his throne during the Nika riots, and a conspiracy against the emperor's life by dissatisfied businessmen was discovered as late as 562.[13] The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ... For the area code 562 see Area Code 562 Events Nan Xiao Ming Di succeeds Nan Liang Xuan Di as ruler of the Chinese Nan Liang Dynasty. ...


Justinian was struck by the plague in the early 540's, but recovered. Theodora died, perhaps of cancer, in 548, at a relatively young age, and Justinian outlived her by almost twenty years. Justinian, who had always had a keen interest in theological matters and actively participated in debates on Christian doctrine,[14] became even more devoted to religion during the later years of his life. When he died, on the night of November 13-November 14, 565, he left no children. He was succeeded by Justin II, the son of his sister Vigilantia, who was married to Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora. Justinian's body was entombed in a specially built mausoleum in the Church of the Holy Apostles. The Plague of Justinian (541-542) is the first known pandemic on record, and it also marks the first firmly recorded pattern of bubonic plague. ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus or Justin The Divine (c. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of...


Legislative activities

Justinian achieved lasting fame through his judicial reforms, particularly through the complete revision of all Roman law, something that had not previously been attempted. The total of Justinian's legislature is known today as the Corpus juris civilis. It consists of the Codex Justinianus, the Digesta or Pandectae, the Institutiones, and the Novellae. Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is a fundamental work in jurisprudence issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Pandects (Lat. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ...


Early in his reign, Justinian appointed the quaestor Tribonian to oversee this task. The first draft of the Codex Justinianus, a codification of imperial constitutions from the 2nd century onward, was issued on April 7, 529. (The final version appeared in 534.) It was followed by the Digesta (or Pandectae), a compilation of older legal texts, in 533, and by the Institutiones, a textbook explaining the principles of law. The Novellae, a collection of new laws issued during Justinian's reign, supplements the Corpus. As opposed to the rest of the corpus, the Novellae appeared in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Empire; Latin, the traditional language of the Roman Empire, was only poorly understood by most citizens of the Eastern Empire. Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Tribonian (c. ... The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is a fundamental work in jurisprudence issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... For other uses, see number 529. ... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ... Pandects (Lat. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The Corpus forms the basis of Latin jurisprudence (including ecclesiastical Canon Law) and, for historians, provides a valuable insight into the concerns and activities of the later Roman Empire. As a collection it gathers together the many sources in which the leges (laws) and the other rules were expressed or published: proper laws, senatorial consults (senatusconsulta), imperial decrees, case law, and jurists' opinions and interpretations (responsa prudentum). Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Case law (also known as decisional law) is that body of reported judicial opinions in countries that have common law legal systems that are published and thereby become precedent, i. ...


Tribonian's law code ensured the survival of Roman law. It formed the basis of later Byzantine law, as expressed in the Basilica of Basil I and Leo VI the Wise. The only western province where the Justinianic code was introduced was Italy (after the conquest, by the so-called Pragmatic Sanction of 554),[15] from where it was to pass to Western Europe in the 12th century and become the basis of much European law code. It eventually passed to Eastern Europe where it appeared in Slavic editions, and it also passed on to Russia.[16] It remains influential to this day. St. ... Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudoxia Ingerina. ... This follis by Leo VI bears the Byzantine Emperors official title, BASILEVS ROMEON, Emperor of the Romans; translation of text: Leo, by the grace of God, King of Romans Leo VI the Wise or the Philosopher (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄, Leōn VI, Armenian: [1]), (September 19, 866 – May 11, 912) was Byzantine... A pragmatic sanction is a sovereigns solemn decree on a matter of primary importance and has the force of fundamental law. ... Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Nika riots

Main article: Nika riots

Justinian's habit of choosing efficient, but unpopular advisors nearly cost him his throne early in his reign. In January 532, partisans of the chariot racing factions in Constantinople, normally divided among themselves, united against Justinian in a revolt that has become known as the Nika riots. They forced him to dismiss Tribonian and two of his other ministers, and then attempted to overthrow Justinian himself and replace him by the senator Hypatius, who was a nephew of the late emperor Anastasius. While the crowd was rioting in the streets, Justinian considered fleeing the capital, but he remained in the city on the advice of Theodora. Shortly thereafter he ordered the brutal suppression of the riots by his generals Belisarius and Mundus. Procopius relates that 30,000[17] unarmed civilians were killed in the Hippodrome. Justinian had Anastasius' nephews executed.[18] The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ... For the card game, see 532 (Card Game). ... Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ... The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ... Tribonian (c. ... Hypatius was a Byzantine noble of imperial descent who was positioned as commander in the east in the days of Justin I, where he lost many important battles, and later became senator. ... Flavius Anastasius. ... Theodora, detail of a Byzantine mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Mundus (died 536) was a Byzantine general during the reign of Justinian I. Nothing is known of his early life, except that he was originally a Hunnic mercenary. ...


The destruction that had taken place during the revolt provided Justinian with an opportunity to tie his name to a series of splendid new buildings, notably the domed Hagia Sophia. For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ...


Military activities

One of the most spectacular features of Justinian's reign was the recovery of large stretches of land around the Western Mediterranean basin which had slipped out of imperial control in the 5th century.[19] As a Christian Roman emperor, Justinian considered it his divine duty to restore the Roman Empire to its ancient boundaries. Although he never personally took part in military campaigns, he boasted of his successes in the prefaces to his laws and had them commemorated in art.[20] The reconquests were in large part carried out by his general Belisarius.[21] Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Iberia Persian Empire Commanders Belisarius Sittas Gregory Maurice Kavadh I Firouz Azarethes The Iberian War was fought from 526 to 532 between the Eastern Roman Empire and Persian Empire over the country of Iberia // Origin After the Anastasian War, a seven-year truce was agreed on... For other uses, see Dara (disambiguation). ... Combatants Sassanid Empire, Lakhmid Allies Byzantine Empire, Ghassanid Allies Commanders Kavadh I, al-Mundhir IV Belisarius Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Nisibis took place between the armies of the Eastern Roman Empire under the command of General Belisarius and Sassanid Persians under the leadership of Kavadh... The Battle of Callinicum took place between the armies of the Eastern Roman Empire under the command of General Belisarius and Persians under Azarethes on April 19, 531 AD. Belisarius had been skirmishing with the Persian forces after the Battle of Dara in an attempt to incite a rout, but... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Vandals Commanders Belisarius Gelimer Strength 10,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry ca. ... Battle of Ad Decimum Conflict Wars of Justinian I Date September 13, 533 Place Near Carthage Result Roman victory The Battle of Ad Decimum took place on September 13, 533 between the armies of the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer and the eastern Roman Empire, under the command of general... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See Gothic War (376-382) for the war on the Danube. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Ostrogothic Kingdom Commanders Belisarius Witigis Strength <5,000 soldiers 5,600 reinforcements unknown number of conscripts ~45,000 men Wars of Justinian I Iberian War Dara - Nisibis - Callinicum Vandalic War Ad Decimum - Tricamarum Gothic War 1st Rome - Faventia - 2nd Rome - 3rd Rome - Taginae - Mons Lactarius - Volturnus... Combatants Ostrogoths Byzantine Empire Commanders Totila Strength 5,000 12,000 In the spring of 542, at the Battle of Faventia (modern Faenza), an Ostrogothic army scattered the larger Byzantine army in Italy and temporarily reversed the Byzantine conquest of Italy. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Commanders Narses Totila† Strength 20,000 unknown infantry 2,000 horsemen Casualties unknown 6,000 At the battle of Taginae (also known as the battle of Busta Gallorum) in July of 552, the Byzantine Empire under General Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogothic Kingdom Commanders Narses Teia The Battle of Mons Lactarius (also known as Battle of the Vesuvius) took place in 553 during the Gothic War waged on behalf of Justinian I against the Ostrogoths in Italy. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Franks, Alemanni Commanders Narses For the battle of the Italian Risorgimento, see Battle of the Volturnus (1860) The Battle of the Volturnus was fought in 554 between an army of the Eastern Roman Empire and a combined force of Franks and Alemanni. ... Capital Carthage Historical era Late Antiquity  - conquest of Vandal Kingdom 534  - Moorish revolt defeated 548  - reorganization into Exarchate 584 The Praetorian prefecture of Africa (Latin: Praefectura praetorio Africae) was a major administrative division of the Eastern Roman Empire, established after the reconquest of northwestern Africa from the Vandals in 533... The Lazic War, or Egrisi Great War as it is known in Georgian historiography, refers to the twenty-year war between Byzantium and Iran Sassanid Empire for controlling the western Georgian Kingdom of Egrisi/ Lazica in 542-562. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ...


From his uncle, Justinian inherited ongoing hostilities with the Sassanid Empire.[22] In 530 a Persian army was defeated at Daraa, but the next year saw the defeat of Roman forces under Belisarius near Callinicum. When king Kavadh I of Persia died (September 531), Justinian concluded an "Eternal Peace" (which cost him 11,000 pounds of gold)[23] with his successor Khosrau I (532). Having thus secured his eastern frontier, Justinian turned his attention to the West, where Arian Germanic kingdoms had been established in the territories of the former Western Roman Empire. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire, Heruli, Huns Sassanid Persians Commanders Belisarius, Hermogenes, John Firouz, Baresmanes† Strength 25,000 50,000 Casualties Unknown Over 5,000 The Battle of Daraa was fought between the Sassanids and the Byzantine Empire in 530. ... The Battle of Callinicum took place between the armies of the Eastern Roman Empire under the command of General Belisarius and Persians under Azarethes on April 19, 531 AD. Belisarius had been skirmishing with the Persian forces after the Battle of Dara in an attempt to incite a rout, but... Kavadh I also known as Qobad I (449–531), son of Peroz I of Persia (457–484), was a Sassanid King from 488 to 531. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... A coin of Khosrau I. Khosrau I, (Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531... For the card game, see 532 (Card Game). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...


Conquest of North Africa, 533–534

Main article: Vandalic War

The first of the western kingdoms Justinian attacked was that of the Vandals in North Africa. King Hilderic, who had maintained good relations with Justinian and the North African Catholic clergy, had been overthrown by his cousin Gelimer in 530. Imprisoned, the deposed king appealed to Justinian. Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Vandals Commanders Belisarius Gelimer Strength 10,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry ca. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Hilderic, King of the Vandals and Alans (c. ... Gelimer (480-553), King of the Vandals and Alans from 530 to 534, was the last ruler of the North African Kingdom of the Vandals. ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ...


In 533, Belisarius with a fleet of 92 dromons escorting 500 transports, landed at Caput Vada (modern Ras Kaboudia) in modern Tunisia with an army of about 15,000 men, as well as a number of barbarian troops. They defeated the Vandals, who were caught completely off-guard, at Ad Decimum on 14 September 533 and Tricamarum in December; Belisarius took Carthage. King Gelimer fled to Mount Pappua in Numidia, but surrendered the next spring. He was taken to Constantinople, where he was paraded in a triumph. Sardinia and Corsica, the Balearic Islands, and the stronghold Septem near Gibraltar were recovered in the same campaign.[24] Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Battle of Ad Decimum Conflict Wars of Justinian I Date September 13, 533 Place Near Carthage Result Roman victory The Battle of Ad Decimum took place on September 13, 533 between the armies of the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer and the eastern Roman Empire, under the command of general... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Gelimer (480-553), King of the Vandals and Alans from 530 to 534, was the last ruler of the North African Kingdom of the Vandals. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Ceuta is a Spanish exclave in North Africa, located on the northernmost tip of Morocco, on the Mediterranean coast near the Straits of Gibraltar. ...


An African prefecture was established in April 534,[25] but it would teeter on the brink of collapse during the next 15 years, amidst warfare with the Moors and military mutinies. The area was not completely pacified until 548,[26] but remained peaceful thereafter and enjoyed a measure of prosperity. The recovery of Africa cost the empire about 100,000 pounds of gold.[citation needed] Capital Carthage Historical era Late Antiquity  - conquest of Vandal Kingdom 534  - Moorish revolt defeated 548  - reorganization into Exarchate 584 The Praetorian prefecture of Africa (Latin: Praefectura praetorio Africae) was a major administrative division of the Eastern Roman Empire, established after the reconquest of northwestern Africa from the Vandals in 533... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ...


War in Italy, first phase, 535–540

Main article: Gothic War (535–554)

As in Africa, dynastic struggles in Ostrogothic Italy provided an opportunity for intervention. The young king Athalaric had died on 2 October 534, and a usurper, Theodahad, had imprisoned queen Amalasuntha, Theodoric's daughter and mother of Athalaric, on an island in Lake Bolsena, where he had her assassinated in 535. Thereupon Belisarius with 7,500 men[27] invaded Sicily (535) and advanced into Italy, sacking Naples and capturing Rome on 9 December 536. By that time Theodahad had been deposed by the Ostrogothic army, who had elected Vitigis as their new king. He gathered a large army and besieged Rome from February 537 to March 538 without being able to retake the city. Justinian sent another general, Narses, to Italy, but tensions between Narses and Belisarius hampered the progress of the campaign. Milan was taken, but was soon recaptured and razed by the Ostrogoths. Justinian recalled Narses in 539. By then the military situation had turned in favour of the Romans, and in 540 Belisarius reached the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna. There he was offered the title of Western Roman Emperor by the Ostrogoths at the same time that envoys of Justinian were arriving to negotiate a peace which would leave the region north of the river Po in Gothic hands. Belisarius feigned to accept the offer, entered the city in May 540, and reclaimed it for the Empire.[28] Then, having been recalled by Justinian, Belisarius returned to Constantinople, taking the captured Vitigis and his wife Matasuentha with him. See Gothic War (376-382) for the war on the Danube. ... Athalaric (516 - 2 October 534), king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, grandson of Theodoric the Great, became king on his grand-fathers death (526). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ... Theodahad (d. ... Amalasuntha (also known as Amalasuentha or Amalaswintha) (d. ... Theodoric was a first name frequently encountered in medieval European history. ... Lake Bolsena (Italian: Lago di Bolsena) is a crater lake of central Italy, of volcanic origin, which was formed 370,000 years ago following the collapse of a caldera of the Vulsini volcanic complex [1]. Roman historic records indicate activity of the Vulsini volcano occurred as recently as 104 BC... Events Beginning of the Western Wei Dynasty in China. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Events Beginning of the Western Wei Dynasty in China. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 8 - St. ... Theodahad (d. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Witiges or Vitiges (d. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Events Pope Silverius deposed by Belisarius at the order of Justinian, who appoints as his successor Pope Vigilius. ... March 12 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Events November 29 - Antioch struck by an earthquake. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Petty Officer, a Non-Commissioned Officer Rank in many Navies Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pilot Officer, a junior commissioned rank... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... Witiges or Vitiges (d. ...


War with the Sassanid Empire, 540–562

Modern or early modern drawing of a medallion celebrating the reconquest of Africa, c. 535
Modern or early modern drawing of a medallion celebrating the reconquest of Africa, c. 535

Belisarius had been recalled in the face of renewed hostilities by the Persians. Following a revolt against Byzantium in Armenia in the late 530s and possibly motivated by the pleas of Ostrogothic ambassadors, king Khosrau I broke the "Eternal Peace" and invaded Roman territory in the spring of 540.[29] He first sacked Beroea and then Antioch (allowing the garrison of 6,000 men to leave the city)[30], besieged Daras, and then went on to attack the small but strategically significant satellite kingdom of Lazica near the Black Sea, exacting tribute from the towns he passed along his way. He forced Justinian I to pay him 5,000 pounds of gold, plus 500 pounds of gold more each year.[31] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2580x1312, 507 KB) Drawing of a lost multiple solidi of Justinian figuring a lost equestrian statue of Justinian in Constantinople. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2580x1312, 507 KB) Drawing of a lost multiple solidi of Justinian figuring a lost equestrian statue of Justinian in Constantinople. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 480s - 490s - 500s - 510s - 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s Years: 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 Events and Trends Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, built (532-537) General Belisarius fights many campaigns defeating, among others, the Vandals... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... A coin of Khosrau I. Khosrau I, (Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Dara (fortress, compare Dura-Europos) was a Byzantine fort in Syria. ... The Lazic War, or Egrisi Great War as it is known in Georgian historiography, refers to the twenty-year war between Byzantium and Iran Sassanid Empire for controlling the western Georgian Kingdom of Egrisi/ Lazica in 542-562. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Belisarius arrived in the East in 541, but, after some success, was again recalled to Constantinople in 542. The reasons for his withdrawal are not known, but it may have been instigated by rumours of disloyalty on behalf of the general reaching the court.[32] The outbreak of the plague caused a lull in the fighting during the year 543. The following year Khosrau defeated a Byzantine army of 30,000 men[33], but unsuccessfully besieged the major city of Edessa. Both parties made little headway, and in 545 a truce was agreed upon for the southern part of the Roman-Persian frontier. After that the Lazic War in the North continued for several years, until a second truce in 557, followed by a Fifty Years' Peace in 562. Under its terms, the Persians agreed to abandon Lazica in exchange for an annual tribute of 400 or 500 pounds of gold (30,000 solidi) to be paid by the Romans.[34] Events January 1 - Flavius Basilius Junior appointed as consul in Constantinople, the last person to hold this office January 2 - Earthquake strikes Laodicea. ... Events The plague killed upwards of 100,000 in Constantinople and perhaps two million or more in the rest of the Byzantine Empire (possibly exaggerated). ... The Plague of Justinian (541-542) is the first known pandemic on record, and it also marks the first firmly recorded pattern of bubonic plague. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Şanlı Urfa. ... For other uses, see 545 (disambiguation). ... The Lazic War, or Egrisi Great War as it is known in Georgian historiography, refers to the twenty-year war between Byzantium and Iran Sassanid Empire for controlling the western Georgian Kingdom of Egrisi/ Lazica in 542-562. ... Events Beginning of the Northern Zhou Dynasty in northern China. ... For the area code 562 see Area Code 562 Events Nan Xiao Ming Di succeeds Nan Liang Xuan Di as ruler of the Chinese Nan Liang Dynasty. ...


War in Italy, second phase, 541–552

While military efforts were directed to the East, the situation in Italy took a turn for the worse. Under their respective kings Ildibad and Eraric (both murdered in 541) and especially Totila, the Ostrogoths made quick gains. After a victory at Faenza in 542, they reconquered the major cities of Southern Italy and soon held almost the entire peninsula. Belisarius was sent back to Italy late in 544, but lacked sufficient troops. Making no headway, he was relieved of his command in 548. Belisarius succeeded in defeating a Gothic fleet with 200 ships. During this period the city of Rome changed hands three more times, first taken and depopulated by the Ostrogoths in December 546, then reconquered by the Byzantines in 547, and then again by the Goths in January 550. Totila also plundered Sicily and attacked the Greek coastlines. Finally, Justinian dispatched a force of approximately 35,000 men (2,000 men were detached and sent to invade southern Visigothic Spain) under the command of Narses[35]. The Byzantine Roman army reached Ravenna in June 552, and defeated the Ostrogoths decisively within a month at the battle of Busta Gallorum in the Apennines, where Totila was slain. After a second battle at Mons Lactarius in October that year, the resistance of the Ostrogoths was finally broken. In 554, a large-scale Frankish invasion was defeated at Casilinum, and Italy secured for the Empire, even though it would take Narses several years to reduce the remaining Gothic strongholds. The recovery of Italy cost the empire about 300,000 pounds of gold.[2] Ildibad (or Heldebadus) (d. ... Eraric (d. ... Events January 1 - Flavius Basilius Junior appointed as consul in Constantinople, the last person to hold this office January 2 - Earthquake strikes Laodicea. ... Totila, born in Treviso, was king of the Ostrogoths, chosen after the death of his uncle Ildibad, having engineered the assassination of Ildibads short-lived successor his cousin Eraric in 541. ... Faenza is an old Italian cathedral town, situated 50 km southeast of Bologna. ... Events The plague killed upwards of 100,000 in Constantinople and perhaps two million or more in the rest of the Byzantine Empire (possibly exaggerated). ... Events Belisarius is sent back to Italy to once more fight the Ostrogoths who have been making reconquests in the area. ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Events The Ostrogoths under Totila retake Rome from the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Events July - Battle of Taginae: The Byzantine general Narses defeats and kills Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. ... At the battle of Taginae (also known as the Battle of Busta Gallorum) in July of 552, the Byzantine Empire under the eunuch Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy, and brought the entire peninsula under the rule of Constantinople. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogothic Kingdom Commanders Narses Teia The Battle of Mons Lactarius (also known as Battle of the Vesuvius) took place in 553 during the Gothic War waged on behalf of Justinian I against the Ostrogoths in Italy. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire, Heruli (Roman foederati) Franks, Alemanni Commanders Narses Butilinus Strength ca. ...


Other campaigns

In addition to the other conquests, the Eastern Empire established a presence in Visigothic Spain, when the usurper Athanagild requested assistance in his rebellion against king Agila. In 552, Justinian dispatched a force under the octogenarian Liberius, who had served under the Ostrogoth kings of Italy since the 490s. The Byzantines took Cartagena and other cities on the southeastern coast and founded the new province of Spania before being checked by their former ally Athanagild, who had by now become king. This campaign marked the apogee of Byzantine expansion. The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Athanagild (d. ... Agila (Agil or Akhila) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (549–554). ... Events July - Battle of Taginae: The Byzantine general Narses defeats and kills Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. ... Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius (ca. ... For other places with the same name, see Cartagena (disambiguation). ... The Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent under Justinian I. Justinians inherited empire in pink with his conquests, including Spania, in orange. ...


During Justinian's reign, the Balkans suffered from several incursions by the Turkic and Slavic peoples who lived north of the Danube. Here, Justinian resorted mainly to a combination of diplomacy and a system of defensive works. In 559 a particularly dangerous invasion of Sklavinoi and Kutrigurs under their khan Zabergan threatened Constantinople, but they were repulsed by the aged general Belisarius. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Events The Bulgars invade and raid Byzantine territory, but are driven back near Constantinople by Belisarius. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Kutrigurs (Kotrags/Kotzagerek/Kazarig) were an Horde of equestrian nomads that wandered the Eurasian plains during the dark ages. ... This article is about the title. ... Zabergan was ruler of the Bolgar Kutrigurs between 550 & 582. ...


Results

The enlargement of the Byzantine Empire's territory between the rise to power of Justinian (red, 527) and his death (orange, 565)
The enlargement of the Byzantine Empire's territory between the rise to power of Justinian (red, 527) and his death (orange, 565)

Justinian's ambition to restore the Roman Empire to its former glory was only partly realised. In the West, the brilliant early military successes of the 530s were followed by years of stagnation. The dragging war with the Goths was a disaster for Italy, even though its long-lasting effects may have been less severe than is sometimes thought.[36] The heavy taxes that the administration imposed upon its population were deeply resented. While the final victory in Italy and the conquest of the coast of southern Spain significantly enlarged the area over which Byzantium could project its power and influence, and while they must have contributed to the empire's prestige, most of the conquests proved ephemeral. The greater part of Italy would be lost to the invading Lombards three years after Justinian's death (568), and within a century and a half Africa and Spain were forever lost for the empire. Image File history File links Justinien_527-565. ... Image File history File links Justinien_527-565. ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 480s - 490s - 500s - 510s - 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s Years: 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 Events and Trends Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, built (532-537) General Belisarius fights many campaigns defeating, among others, the Vandals... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ...


Events of the later years of the reign showed that Constantinople itself was not safe from barbarian incursions from the north, and even the relatively benevolent historian Menander Protector felt the need to explain the emperor's failure to protect the capital from the weakness of his body in his old age.[37] In his efforts to renew the old Roman Empire, Justinian dangerously stretched the resources of the Eastern Empire while failing to take into account the changed realities of 6th-century Europe.[38] Paradoxically, Justinian's military successes probably contributed to the empire's subsequent decline.[39] Menander Protector (Greek for one of the imperial bodyguards), Byzantine historian, was born in Constantinople in the middle of the 6th century AD. The little that is known of his life is contained in the account of himself quoted by Suidas. ...


Religious activities

Religious policy

Justinian I, depicted on an AE Follis coin
Justinian I, depicted on an AE Follis coin

As with his secular administration, despotism appeared also in the emperor's ecclesiastical policy. He regulated everything, both in religion and in law. A coin of Byzantine Emperor, Justinian File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A coin of Byzantine Emperor, Justinian File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


At the very beginning of his reign, he deemed it proper to promulgate by law the Church's belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation; and to threaten all heretics with the appropriate penalties;[40] whereas he subsequently declared that he intended to deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy of the opportunity for such offense by due process of law.[41] He made the Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan creed the sole symbol of the Church,[42] and accorded legal force to the canons of the four ecumenical councils.[43] The bishops in attendance at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 recognized that nothing could be done in the Church contrary to the emperor's will and command;[44] while, on his side, the emperor, in the case of the Patriarch Anthimus, reinforced the ban of the Church with temporal proscription.[45] Justinian protected the purity of the church by suppressing heretics. He neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergy, for protecting and extending monasticism. He granted the monks the right to inherit property from private citizens and the right to receive solemnia or annual gifts from the imperial treasury or from the taxes of certain provinces and he prohibited lay confiscation on monastic estates. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ... The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople) was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held in 553. ... Events The Ostrogoth Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantines after the Battle of Mons Lactarius. ... Anthimus I was a Monophysite patriarch of Constantinople from 535-536. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ...


Although the despotic character of his measures is contrary to modern sensibilities, he was indeed a "nursing father" of the Church. Both the Codex and the Novellae contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, episcopal jurisdiction, etc. Justinian also rebuilt the Church of Hagia Sophia (which cost 20,000 pounds of gold)[46], the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots. The new Hagia Sophia, with its numerous chapels and shrines, gilded octagonal dome, and mosaics, became the centre and most visible monument of Eastern Orthodoxy in Constantinople. For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... This article is about a decorative art. ... ...


Religious relations with Rome

From the middle of the fifth century onward increasingly arduous tasks confronted the emperors of the East in ecclesiastical matters. For one thing, the radicals on all sides felt themselves constantly repelled by the creed adopted by the Council of Chalcedon to defend the biblical doctrine of the nature of Christ and bridge the gap between the dogmatic parties. The letter of Pope Leo I to Flavian of Constantinople was widely considered in the East as the work of Satan; so that nobody cared to hear of the Church of Rome. The emperors, however, had a policy of preserving the unity between Constantinople and Rome; and this remained possible only if they did not swerve from the line defined at Chalcedon. In addition, the factions in the East which had become stirred up and disaffected because of Chalcedon needed restraining and pacifying. This problem proved the more difficult because, in the East, the dissenting groups exceeded supporters of Chalcedon both in numerical strength and in intellectual ability. Tension from the incompatibility of the two aims grew: whoever chose Rome and the West must renounce the East, and vice versa. (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Pope Leo I or Leo the Great, was pope of Rome from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to whom the title the Great. ... Flavian or Phlabianus (d. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ...

Consular diptych Justinian (Constantinople 521)
Consular diptych Justinian (Constantinople 521)

Justinian entered the arena of ecclesiastical statecraft shortly after his uncle's accession in 518, and put an end to the Monophysite schism that had prevailed between Rome and Byzantium since 483. The recognition of the Roman see as the highest ecclesiastical authority[47] remained the cornerstone of his Western policy. Offensive as it was to many in the East, nonetheless Justinian felt himself entirely free to take a Despotic stance toward the popes such as Silverius and Vigilius. While no compromise could ever be accepted by the dogmatic wing of the church, his sincere efforts at reconciliation gained him the approval of the major body of the church. A signal proof was his attitude in the Theopaschite controversy. At the outset he was of the opinion that the question turned on a quibble of words. By degrees, however, Justinian came to understand that the formula at issue not only appeared orthodox, but might also serve as a conciliatory measure toward the Monophysites, and he made a vain attempt to do this in the religious conference with the followers of Severus of Antioch, in 533. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1886x1442, 896 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Justinian I ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1886x1442, 896 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Justinian I ... Events July 9 - Justin becomes Roman emperor September 29 - Severus, Patriarch of Antioch is deposed by a synod for his Monophysitism. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Events March 13 - Pope Felix III succeeds Pope Simplicius The general Illus and Verina, mother-in-law of Byzantine emperor Zeno I, attempt to overthrow Zeno and place a general named Leontius on the throne. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy sees, the term Holy See is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church) to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop of Rome, commonly called... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Silverius, pope (536 - 537), was a legitimate son of Pope Hormisdas, born before his father entered the priesthood. ... Vigilius was Pope from 537 to 555. ... The Scythian Monks is the name given to a community of monks from the region around the mouth of the Danube, who between the fourth and the sixth century played an influential role in the Christian life of the time, and by their works they had shaped the modern Christian... Severus, patriarch of Antioch (AD 512 - 519), a native of Sozopolis in Pisidia, by birth and education a pagan, baptized in the martyry of Leontius at Tripolis (Evagr. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ...


Again, Justinian moved toward compromise in the religious edict of March 15, 533,[48] and congratulated himself that Pope John II admitted the orthodoxy of the imperial confession.[49] The serious blunder that he had made at the beginning by abetting a severe persecution of the Monophysite bishops and monks and thereby embittering the population of vast regions and provinces, he remedied eventually. His constant aim now remained to win over the Monophysites, yet not to surrender the Chalcedonian faith. For many at court, he did not go far enough: Theodora especially would have rejoiced to see the Monophysites favored unreservedly. Justinian, however, felt restrained by the complications that would have ensued with the West. But in the condemnation of the Three Chapters Justinian tried to satisfy both the East and the West, but succeeded in satisfying neither. Although the pope assented to the condemnation, the West believed that the emperor had acted contrary to the decrees of Chalcedon. Though many delegates emerged in the East subservient to Justinian, many, especially the Monophysites, remained unsatisfied; all the more bitter for him because during his last years he took an even greater interest in theological matters. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... John II (born Mercurius) was Pope from 533 to 535. ... The Three Chapters (trîa kephálaia), a phase in the Monophysite controversy, was an attempt to reconcile the Christians of Syria and Egypt with Western Christendom, following the failure of the Henotikon. ...


Suppression of non-Christian religions

Justinian was one of the first emperors to be depicted wielding the cross on the obverse of a coin.
Justinian was one of the first emperors to be depicted wielding the cross on the obverse of a coin.

Justinian's religious policy reflected the imperial conviction that the unity of the Empire unconditionally presupposed unity of faith; and it appeared to him obvious that this faith could be only the Orthodox (Nicaean). Those of a different belief had to recognize that the process of consolidation, which imperial legislation had effected from the time of Constantius II, would now vigorously continue. The Codex contained two statutes[50] which decreed the total destruction of paganism, even in private life; these provisions were zealously enforced. Contemporary sources (John Malalas, Theophanes, John of Ephesus) tell of severe persecutions, even of men in high position. Justinian I. 527-565 AD. Æ Half Follis (11. ... Justinian I. 527-565 AD. Æ Half Follis (11. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... John Malalas (or Malelas) (Syriac for orator ) (c. ... Theophanes (died 817 or 818) was a Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... John of Ephesus (or of Asia) (c. ...


Perhaps the most noteworthy event occurred in 529 when the Neoplatonic Academy of Athens was placed under state control by order of Justinian, effectively strangling this training-school for Hellenism. Paganism was actively suppressed. In Asia Minor alone, John of Ephesus claimed to have converted 70,000 pagans.[51] Other peoples also accepted Christianity: the Heruli,[52] the Huns dwelling near the Don,[53] the Abasgi,[54] and the Tzani in Caucasia.[55] For other uses, see number 529. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The Caucasus is a region in eastern Europe and western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


The worship of Amun at Augila in the Libyan desert was abolished;[56] and so were the remnants of the worship of Isis on the island of Philae, at the first cataract of the Nile.[57] The Presbyter Julian[58] and the Bishop Longinus[59] conducted a mission among the Nabataeans, and Justinian attempted to strengthen Christianity in Yemen by despatching a bishop from Egypt.[60] Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... Awjila is an oasis after which an Eastern Berber language spoken there is named. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... Philae (or Pilak or Paaleq [Egyptian: remote place or the end or the angle island]; [Arabic: Anas el Wagud]) is an island in the Nile River and the previous site of an Ancient Egyptian temple complex in southern Egypt. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The Jews, too, had to suffer; for not only did the authorities restrict their civil rights,[61] and threaten their religious privileges,[62] but the emperor interfered in the internal affairs of the synagogue,[63] and forbade, for instance, the use of the Hebrew language in divine worship. The recalcitrant were threatened with corporal penalties, exile, and loss of property. The Jews at Borium, not far from Syrtis Major, who resisted Belisarius in his Vandal campaign, had to embrace Christianity; their synagogue became a church.[64] A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Borium is a generic name for tungsten carbide crystals embedded in a carrier material, usually used to provide traction for horses. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ...


The emperor had much trouble with the Samaritans, finding them refractory to Christianity and repeatedly in insurrection. He opposed them with rigorous edicts, but yet could not prevent hostilities towards Christians from taking place in Samaria toward the close of his reign. The consistency of Justinian's policy meant that the Manicheans too suffered severe persecution, experiencing both exile and threat of capital punishment.[65] At Constantinople, on one occasion, not a few Manicheans, after strict inquisition, were executed in the emperor's very presence: some by burning, others by drowning.[66] For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Building activities, learning, art and literature

Justinian was a prolific builder; the historian Procopius bears witness to his activities in this area.[67] Under Justinian's patronage the San Vitale in Ravenna, which features two famous mosaics representing Justinian and Theodora, was completed. [8] Most notably, he had the Hagia Sophia, originally a basilica style church that had been burnt down during the Nika riots, splendidly rebuilt according to a completely different ground plan. This new cathedral, with its magnificent dome filled with mosaics, remained the centre of eastern Christianity for centuries. Another prominent church in the capital, the Church of the Holy Apostles, which had been in a very poor state near the end of the 5th century, was likewise rebuilt.[68] Works of embellishment were not confined to churches alone: excavations at the site of the Great Palace of Constantinople have yielded several high-quality mosaics dating from Justinian's reign, and a column topped by a (now lost) bronze statue of Justinian on horseback and dressed in a military costume was erected in the Augustaeum in Constantinople in 543.[69] It is possible that rivalry with other, more established patrons from the Constantinopolitan aristocracy may have enforced Justinian's building activities in the capital.[70] San Vitale is the Italian name for Saint Vitalis. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... St. ... The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ...


Justinian also strengthened the borders of the empire through the construction of fortifications, and assured Constantinople of its water supply through construction of underground cisterns. During his reign a bridge over the river Sangarius was built, securing a major trade route. Furthermore, Justinian restored cities damaged by earthquake or war and built a new city near his place of birth called Justiniana Prima. // Getting water out of a cistern A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, box, from Greek kistê, basket) is a receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. ... The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ... Justiniana Prima (Serbian: Caričin grad) was an Byzantine city located in today southern Serbia near todays Leskovac. ...


In Justinian's era, and partly under his patronage, Byzantine culture produced noteworthy historians, including Procopius and Agathias, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary and Romanus the Melodist flourished during his reign. On the other hand, centers of learning as the Platonic Academy in Athens and the famous law school of Beirut[71] lost their importance during his reign. Another ancient institution, the Roman consulate, was abolished in 541.[72] Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Agathias (c. ... Paul the Silentiary, also known as Paul Silentiarus was a Byzantine peot noted for his ecphrases which descibed the Hagia Sophia as if it were a meadow of marble (due to the many colours of marble employed in its construction). ... Romanos, also known as Saint Romanos the Melodist, Greek hymn-writer, the Pindar of rhythmic poetry, was born at Emesa (Hems) in Syria. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte after his coup detat in France had conducted the manners of French governmant under dictatorship and in a consulate. ... Events January 1 - Flavius Basilius Junior appointed as consul in Constantinople, the last person to hold this office January 2 - Earthquake strikes Laodicea. ...


Economy and administration

As was the case under Justinian's predecessors, the empire's economic health rested primarily on agriculture. In addition long-distance trade flourished, reaching as far north as Cornwall where tin was exchanged for Roman corn.[73] Within the empire, convoys sailing from Alexandria provided Constantinople with corn, and Justinian made the traffic more efficient by building a large granary on the island of Tenedos for storage and further transport to Constantinople.[74] Justinian also tried to find new routes for the eastern trade, which was suffering badly from the wars with the Persians. One important luxury product was silk, which was imported and then processed in the empire. In order to protect the manufacture of silk products, Justinian granted a monopoly to the imperial factories in 541.[75] In order to bypass the Persian landroute, Justinian established friendly relations with the Abyssinians, whom he wanted to act as trade mediators by transporting Indian silk to the empire; the Abyssinians, however, were unable to compete with the Persian merchants in India.[76] Then, in the early 550s, two monks succeeded in smuggling eggs of silk worms from Central Asia back to Constantinople,[77] and silk became an indigenous Byzantine product. For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Events January 1 - Flavius Basilius Junior appointed as consul in Constantinople, the last person to hold this office January 2 - Earthquake strikes Laodicea. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 500s - 510s - 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s - 590s - 600s Years: 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 Events and Trends Categories: 550s ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...

Scene from daily life on a mosaic from the Great Palace of Constantinople, 5th century
Scene from daily life on a mosaic from the Great Palace of Constantinople, 5th century

Under Justinian's rule, measures were taken to counter corruption in the provinces and to make tax collection more efficient. Greater administrative power was given to both the leaders of the prefectures and of the provinces, while power was taken away from the vicariates of the dioceses, of which a number were abolished. The overall trend was towards a simplification of administrative infrastructure.[78] According to Brown (1971), the increased professionalisation of tax collection did much to destroy the traditional structures of provincial life, as it weakened the autonomy of the town councils in the Greek towns.[79] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 1499 pixel, file size: 538 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Justinian I Istanbul... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 1499 pixel, file size: 538 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Justinian I Istanbul... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... The term prefecture has been used to denote a self-governing body or area since the time of Constantine I, who divided the Roman Empire into 4 districts (each divided into dioceses). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ...


Throughout Justinian's reign, the cities and villages of the East prospered, although Antioch was struck by two earthquakes (526, 528) and sacked and evacuated by the Persians (540). Justinian had the city rebuilt, but on a slightly smaller scale.[80] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ... Events February 13 - Justinian appoints a commission (including the jurist Tribonian) to codify all imperial laws that were still in force from Hadrian to the current date. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ...


Despite all these measures, the empire suffered several major setbacks in the course of the 6th century. The first one was the plague, which lasted from 541 to 543 and, by decimating the empire's population, probably created a scarcity of labour and a rising of wages.[81] The lack of manpower also led to a significant increase in the number of "barbarians" in the Byzantine armies after the early 540s.[82] The protracted war in Italy and the wars with the Persians themselves laid a heavy burden on the empire's resources, and Justinian was criticized for curtailing the government-run post service, which he limited to only one eastern route of military importance.[83] Also under Justinian I, the army which had once numbered 645,000 men in Roman times, shrank to 150,000 men.[84] The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Plague of Justinian (541-542) is the first known pandemic on record, and it also marks the first firmly recorded pattern of bubonic plague. ... Events January 1 - Flavius Basilius Junior appointed as consul in Constantinople, the last person to hold this office January 2 - Earthquake strikes Laodicea. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 490s - 500s - 510s - 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s - 590s Years: 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 Events and Trends The Eastern Roman Empire conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital of Ravenna in 540. ...


See also

The Plague of Justinian (541-542) is the first known pandemic on record, and it also marks the first firmly recorded pattern of bubonic plague. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ For instance by G.P. Baker (Justinian, New York 1931), or in the Outline of Great Books series (Justinian the Great).
  2. ^ J.F. Haldon, Byzantium in the seventh century (Cambridge, 2003), 17-19.
  3. ^ In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Justinian is commemorated on November 14 according to the Julian calendar, which currently equals to November 27 on the Gregorian calendar. He is commemorated on November 14 of the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church.
  4. ^ Justinian referred to Latin as being his native tongue in several of his laws. See Moorhead (1994), p. 18.
  5. ^ M. Meier, Justinian, 29: "481 or 482"; Moorhead (1994), p. 17: "about 482"; Maas (2005), p. 5: "around 483".
  6. ^ There has been some debate concerning Justinian's ethnic origins. According to Vasiliev (1952), "The theory of Justinian's Slavonic origin must (...) be discarded at present. Justin and Justinian were probably Illyrians or perhaps Albanians" (p. 129). According to the New Cambridge Medieval History, II, Justinian's uncle Justin I was "a peasant from Illyria" (p. 97). Justinian was "born at Tauresium (Illyricum, probably near Niš)" and was "of Latin-speaking peasant stock" (Joseph R. Strayer (ed.), Dictionary of the Middle Ages, New York 1982-2004). The Lexikon des Mittelalters, likewise, has: "Sohn eines (illyr.?) Bauern". According to J.R. Martindale, Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, II (Cambridge 1980), Justinian was "called Thrax apo Bederianas" (p. 645, Greek transcribed), while early sources (Evagrius, John Malalas, the Paschal Chronicle etc.) describe Justin I as being "of Thracian descent" (p. 648). Alternatively, he is sometimes said to be "Macedonian".
  7. ^ The sole source for Justinian's full name, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, are consular diptychs of the year 521 bearing his name.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Robert Browning. "Justinian I" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume VII (1986).
  9. ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 21-22, with a reference to Procopius, Secret History 8.3.
  10. ^ This post seems to have been titular; there is no evidence that Justinian had any military experience. See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in: Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113-133 (pp. 113-114).
  11. ^ See Procopius, Secret history, ch. 13.
  12. ^ M. Meier, Justinian, p. 57.
  13. ^ See De Imperatoribus Romanis: Justinian.
  14. ^ Theological treatises authored by Justinian can be found in Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 86.
  15. ^ Kunkel, W. (translated by J.M. Kelly) An introduction to Roman legal and constitutional history. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1966; 168
  16. ^ Russia and the Roman law
  17. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 200
  18. ^ Vasiliev (1958), p. 157.
  19. ^ For an account of Justinian's wars, see Moorhead (1994), pp. 22-24, 63-98, and 101-109.
  20. ^ See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in: Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113-133 (pp. 113-114). For Justinian's own views, see the texts of Codex Justinianus 1.27.1 and Novellae 8.10.2 and 30.11.2.
  21. ^ Justinian himself took the field only once, during a campaign against the Huns in 559, when he was already an old man. This enterprise was largely symbolic and although no battle was fought, the emperor held a triumphal entry in the capital afterwards. (See Browning, R. Justinian and Theodora. London 1971, 193.)
  22. ^ See Geoffrey Greatrex, "Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century", in: Michael Maas (ed.). Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 477-509.
  23. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 195
  24. ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 68
  25. ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 70
  26. ^ Procopius, De Bello Vandalico II.XXVIII
  27. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 215
  28. ^ See Moorhead (1994), pp. 84-86.
  29. ^ See for this section Moorhead (1994), p. 89 ff., Greatrex (2005), p. 488 ff., and H. Boerm, "Der Perserkoenig im Imperium Romanum", in: Chiron 36, 2006, p. 299ff.
  30. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 229
  31. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 229
  32. ^ Procopius mentions this event both in the Wars and in the Secret History, but gives two entirely different explanations for it. The evidence is briefly discussed in Moorhead (1994), pp. 97-98.
  33. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 235
  34. ^ Moorhead ((1994), p. 164) gives the lower, Greatrex ((2005), p. 489) the higher figure.
  35. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 251
  36. ^ See Lee (2005), p. 125 ff.
  37. ^ W. Pohl, "Justinian and the Barbarian Kingdoms", in: Maas (2005), pp. 448-476; 472
  38. ^ See Haldon (2003), pp. 17-19.
  39. ^ See Pohl, ibidem.
  40. ^ Cod., I., i. 5.
  41. ^ MPG, lxxxvi. 1, p. 993.
  42. ^ Cod., I., i. 7.
  43. ^ Novellae, cxxxi.
  44. ^ Mansi, Concilia, viii. 970B.
  45. ^ Novellae, xlii.
  46. ^ P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians, 283
  47. ^ cf. Novellae, cxxxi.
  48. ^ Cod., L, i. 6.
  49. ^ Cod., I., i. 8.
  50. ^ Cod., I., xi. 9 and 10.
  51. ^ F. Nau, in Revue de l'orient chretien, ii., 1897, 482.
  52. ^ Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, ii. 14; Evagrius, Hist. eccl., iv. 20
  53. ^ Procopius, iv. 4; Evagrius, iv. 23.
  54. ^ Procopius, iv. 3; Evagrius, iv. 22.
  55. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 15.
  56. ^ Procopius, De Aedificiis, vi. 2.
  57. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 19.
  58. ^ DCB, iii. 482
  59. ^ John of Ephesus, Hist. eccl., iv. 5 sqq.
  60. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 20; Malalas, ed. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1831, pp. 433 sqq.
  61. ^ Cod., I., v. 12
  62. ^ Procopius, Historia Arcana, 28;
  63. ^ Nov., cxlvi., February 8, 553
  64. ^ Procopius, De Aedificiis, vi. 2.
  65. ^ Cod., I., v. 12.
  66. ^ F. Nau, in Revue de l'orient, ii., 1897, p. 481.
  67. ^ See Procopius, Buildings.
  68. ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 189
  69. ^ Brian Croke, "Justinian's Constantinople", in: Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 60-86 (p. 66)
  70. ^ See Croke (2005), p. 364 ff., and Moorhead (1994).
  71. ^ Following a terrible earthquake in 551, the school at Beirut was transferred to Sidon and had no further significance after that date. (Vasiliev (1952), p. 147)
  72. ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 192.
  73. ^ John F. Haldon, "Economy and Administration", in: Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 28-59 (p. 35)
  74. ^ John Moorhead, Justinian (London/New York 1994), p. 57
  75. ^ Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London 1971), pp. 157-158
  76. ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 167
  77. ^ See Moorhead (1994), p. 167; Procopius, Wars, 8.17.1-8
  78. ^ Haldon (2005), p. 50
  79. ^ Brown (1971), p. 157
  80. ^ Kenneth G. Holum, "The Classical City in the Sixth Century", in: Michael Maas (ed.), Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 99-100
  81. ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 100-101
  82. ^ John L. Teall, "The Barbarians in Justian's Armies", in: Speculum, vol. 40, No. 2, 1965, 294-322.[1]
  83. ^ Brown (1971), p. 158; Moorhead (1994), p. 101
  84. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 259

The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church. ... Dictionary of the Middle Ages: Supplement 1 (2003) The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989, with a supplemental volume added in 2003. ... For other uses, see Secret history (disambiguation). ... A titular head is a person in an official position of leadership who possesses few, if any, actual powers. ... The Patrologia Graeca is an edited collection of writings by the Christian Church Fathers in the Greek language in 161 volumes, produced in 1857–1866 by J.P. Migne It includes both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Latin became predominant the West in the 3rd... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Evagrius Scholasticus, an ecclesiastical historian, who wrote six books, embracing a period of 163 years, from the second Council of Ephesus AD 431 to the 12th year of the emperor Maurice I, AD 594. ... Barthold Georg Niebuhr. ... Historic Town Hall of Bonn (view from the market square). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religion.

Bibliography

  • Bury, J. B. (1958). History of the later Roman Empire, Vol. 2. New York (reprint).
  • Cameron, Averil et al.(eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 14, Second Edition, Cambridge 2000.
  • Evans, James Allan. The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-313-32582-0).
  • Maas, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, Cambridge 2005.
  • Meier, Mischa. Das andere Zeitalter Justinians. Kontingenzerfahrung und Kontingenzbewältigung im 6. Jahrhundert n. Chr. Göttingen, 2003.
  • Meier, Mischa. Justinian. Herrschaft, Reich, und Religion. Munich, 2004.
  • Moorhead, John. Justinian, London 1994.
  • Rosen, William. Justinian's Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe, Viking Adult, 2007. ISBN 978-0670038558.
  • Rubin, Berthold (1960). Das Zeitalter Iustinians. Berlin. — German standard work; partially obsolete, but still useful.
  • Sarris, Peter. Economy and society in the age of Justinian. Cambridge, 2006.
  • Vasiliev, A. A. History of the Byzantine Empire, 324-1453. Second edition. Madison, 1952.

John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 &#8211; 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Vasiliev (1867-1953) was considered the foremost authority on Byzantine history and culture in the mid-20th century. ...

External links

Justinian I
Born: 482/483 Died: 13 November/14 November 565
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Justin I
Byzantine Emperor
527565
with Justin I (527)
Succeeded by
Justin II
Preceded by
Flavius Rusticius,
Flavius Vitalianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
520
with Flavius Valerius
Succeeded by
Flavius Symmachus,
Flavius Boethius
Preceded by
Vettius Agorius Basilius Mavortius (alone)
Consul of the Roman Empire
528
Succeeded by
Flavius Decius
Preceded by
Iterum post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis
Consul of the Roman Empire
533
III post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis
Succeeded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus IV,
Flavius Decius Paulinus
Preceded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus III,
III post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis (West)
Consul of the Roman Empire
534
with Flavius Decius Paulinus
Succeeded by
Flavius Belisarius, Post consulatum Paulini (West)


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Justinian I (1376 words)
Justinian and Theodora hoped for children; indeed years later Theodora was to ask for the prayers of Mar Saba that she might conceive, but the saint refused to beseech God on behalf of a Monophysite.
Justinian respected his wife's beliefs; he promised her when she was on her deathbed in 548 that he would continue to protect the Monophysite heretics whom she sheltered in the palace of Hormisdas in Constantinople.
In the midst of the plague of 542, Constantinople was shaken by an earthquake.
Justinian I. - Wikipedia (5219 words)
Justinian gilt als einer der bedeutendsten Herrscher der ausgehenden Spätantike.
In der Frage innerkirchlicher Häresien scheiterten Justinians Ausgleichsbemühungen, seine Verurteilung der monophysitischen Lehre, welcher unter anderem selbst Kaiserin Theodora folgte, verschärfte nur die schon existierenden Spannungen zwischen den monophysitischen Kirchen Syriens und Ägyptens und der antimonophysitisch, bzw.
Justinian ist bis in die jüngste Vergangenheit hinein als eine der leuchtendsten Herrscherfiguren der Spätantike gefeiert worden, und fraglos zählt er neben Diokletian und Konstantin zu den wichtigsten spätrömischen Kaisern.
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