FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Justification (theology)
The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico
The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico

In Christian theology, justification is God's act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. Justification, from the Greek δικαιοω (dikaioō), "to declare/make righteous", is a Scriptural term, occurring in the books of Romans, Galatians, Titus, and James; the root noun δικαιοσ,-η,-ον righteous is occurs throughout both Old and New Testaments.[1] The concept of justification occurs also in many Old and New Testament books. The extent, means, and scope of justification are of significant debate for all in the Western church. Justification is seen by historians as being the theological fault line that divided Catholic from Protestant during the Reformation.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x2811, 613 KB) Description: Title: de: Freskenzyklus im Dominikanerkloster San Marco in Florenz, Szene: Höllenfahrt Christi, Erlösung alttestamentarischer Personen (Adam) Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Florenz Current location (gallery): de: Museo... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x2811, 613 KB) Description: Title: de: Freskenzyklus im Dominikanerkloster San Marco in Florenz, Szene: Höllenfahrt Christi, Erlösung alttestamentarischer Personen (Adam) Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Florenz Current location (gallery): de: Museo... Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Righteousness is an important concept in the theology of Judaism and Christianity. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...

Contents

Justification in the Bible

Part of a series of articles on
Christianity
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church · Christian Theology
New Covenant · Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles · Kingdom · Gospel
History of Christianity · Timeline
Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. ...


Bible
Old Testament · New Testament
Books · Canon · Apocrypha
Septuagint · Decalogue
Birth · Resurrection
Sermon on the Mount
Great Commission
Translations · English
Inspiration · Hermeneutics The Bible is the collection of sacred writings or books of Judaism and Christianity. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


Christian Theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of · Theology · Apologetics
Creation · Fall of Man · Covenant · Law
Grace · Faith · Justification · Salvation
Sanctification · Theosis · Worship
Church · Sacraments · Eschatology
Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys purported transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine) is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


History and Traditions
Early · Councils
Creeds · Missions
Great Schism · Crusades · Reformation
Great Awakenings · Great Apostasy
Restorationism · Nontrinitarianism
Thomism · Arminianism
Congregationalism The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus and the foundation of the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch in the 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... The Great Apostasy is a disparaging term used by some religious groups to allege a general fallen state of traditional Christianity, or especially of Catholicism, magisterial Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy, that it is not representative of the faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles: in short, that... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to unaffiliated religious movements that attempted to circumvent Protestant denominationalism and orthodox Christian creeds to restore Christianity to their constructions of its original form. ... Nontrinitarianism is any of various Christian beliefs that reject the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being, (the Trinity). ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Eastern Christianity
Eastern Orthodox · Oriental Orthodox
Syriac Christianity · Eastern Catholic
Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Western Christianity
Western Catholicism · Protestantism
Anabaptism · Lutheranism · Calvinism
Anglicanism · Baptist · Methodism
Evangelicalism · Fundamentalism
Unitarianism . Liberalism
Adventism · Pentecostalism
Latter Day Saints · Christian Science
Jehovah's Witnesses · Unity Church
Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, and developed in the Anglican Communion. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... Liberal Christianity, sometimes called liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically-informed religious movements and moods within late 18th, 19th and 20th century Christianity. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (First published in 1875). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Topics in Christianity
Movements · Denominations
Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer
Music · Liturgy · Calendar
Symbols · Art · Criticism
Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... This article is about the Liturgical year; for Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


Important Figures
Apostle Paul · Church Fathers
Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine
Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe
Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley
Arius · Marcion of Sinope
Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...

Christianity Portal

This box: view  talk  edit

Old Testament

The Old Testament stressed the need for righteousness and opened up the possibility of cleansing from sin. The early church saw the Mosaic Law as creating an impossibly high standard of righteousness which left the individual in need of cleansing. The prophets spoke of the need for cleansing from sin. [3] The sacrifices required in Leviticus 1:1-7:1 also spoke to the need for cleansing from sin. However, the prophets were clear that the sacrifices of themselves did not accomplish cleansing. [4] Hence, the early church understood the sacrifices to be figurative of the sacrifice of Jesus.[5] This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ...


The Gospels

The Gospels do not give any extended discourse of Jesus on justification. Jesus did use the concept of justification, but never related it to his death. For instance, ‘you are the ones who justify (dikaiountes) yourselves in the eyes of men, but God knows your hearts.’[6]; ‘I tell you that this man (the tax collector) rather than the other (the Pharisee) went home justified (dedikaiomenos) before God.’[7]; ‘for by your words you will be justified (dikaiothese), and by your words you will be condemned (katadikasthese).[8] Jesus used the idea of ransom, or redemption when referring to his work – specifically pointing to his death.[9] This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Concerning the need for righteousness, Jesus says "I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven."[10] Concerning his own death and speaking at the Last Supper, he says, ". . .this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."[11] He also speaks often of forgiveness of sins. [12] The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ...


Paul

Thomas Cole's Expulsion of Adam and Eve.
Thomas Cole's Expulsion of Adam and Eve.

It was Paul who developed the term justification in the theology of the church. Justification is a major theme of the epistles to the Romans and to the Galatians in the New Testament, and is also given treatment in many other epistles. In Romans, Paul develops justification by first speaking of God's just wrath at sin (Rom. 1:18 - 3:20). Justification is then presented as the solution for God's wrath.[13] One is said to be 'justified by faith apart from works of the Law.'[14] Further, Paul writes of sin and justification in terms of two men, Adam and Christ.[15] Through Adam, sin came into the world; through Jesus, righteousness came into the world, bringing justification.[16] In this connection, Paul speaks of Adam's sin being 'imputed' or 'accounted' and speaks of justification as acting in analogy to sin.[17] In chapter 8, Paul connects justification with predestination and glorification.[18] He further states that those who are justified cannot be separated from the love of Christ.[19] Several of these passages are central in the debate between Catholics, and the various streams of Protestantism (there is no common understanding of Justification among Protestant denominations), who understand them in quite different ways. In Galatians, Paul emphatically rejects justification by works of the Law, a rejection sparked apparently by a controversy concerning the necessity of circumcision for salvation.[20] Image File history File links Cole_Thomas_Expulsion_from_the_Garden_of_Eden_1828. ... Image File history File links Cole_Thomas_Expulsion_from_the_Garden_of_Eden_1828. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ...


Other New Testament Writers

The epistle to the Hebrews also takes up the theme of justification, declaring that Jesus' death is superior to the Old Testament sacrifices in that it takes away sin once for all (Heb. 10). In Hebrews, faith in Jesus' sacrifice includes steadfast perseverance.[21] James discusses justification briefly but significantly, declaring that a faith that is apart from works cannot be a justifying faith, because faith is made perfect or completed by works.[22] Indeed, works are required for justification because "man is justified by works, and not by faith alone."[23] Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ...


The Early Church and Justification

After the apostolic era, the concept of justification was secondary to issues such as martyrdom. Justification as a concept is mentioned in the works of early church fathers [24] and in the sermons of John Chrysostom), but it is not developed until Augustine's conflict with Pelagius. John Chrysostom (349–407, Greek: , Ioannes Chrysostomos) was the archbishop of Constantinople. ...


Pelagius taught that one became righteous through the exertion of one's will to follow the example of Jesus' life. Over against this, Augustine taught[25] that we are justified by God [26], as a work of His grace [27]. Augustine took great pains in his anti-Pelagian works to refute the notion that our works could serve as the proper basis for our justification. The church affirmed most of Augustine's teachings and rejected all of those of Pelagius. Pelagius (c. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Pelagius (c. ...


Hence, in the early church, justification was a work of God leading to righteousness, and saving us from God's wrath; but few of the controversial questions mentioned above were addressed in any detail, save that justification definitely requires the work of God in us. However, the language used in describing justification would encompass the modern terms of both "justification" and "sanctification"[28].


Views of different traditions

Christian traditions answer questions about the nature, function and meaning of justificationq quite differently. These issues include: Is justification and event occuring instantaneously or is it as an ongoing process? Is justification is effected by divine action alone (monergism), by divine and human action together (synergism) or by human action? Is justification permanent or can be lost? What is the relationship of justification to sanctification, the process whereby sinners become righteous and are enabled by the Holy Spirit to live lives pleasing to God? // Origins Monergism in Christian theology is the theory that the Holy Spirit alone can act to bring about the conversion of men. ... Synergy or synergism (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ...

Tradition Process
or
Event
Type
of
Action
Permanence Justification
&
Sanctification
Catholic Process Synergism Can be lost via mortal sin Part of the same process
Lutheran Event Divine monergism Can be lost via loss of faith Separate from and prior to sanctification
Methodist Event Synergism Can be lost Dependent upon continued sanctification
Mormonism Process Eternal progression Can be lost Earned through obedience to all sacred obligations
Orthodox Process Synergism Can be lost via mortal sin Part of the same process of theosis
Reformed Event Divine monergism Cannot be lost Basis for sanctification

... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine) is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...

Catholic views

After the East-West Schism in 1054, the doctrine of the atonement continued to develop in the West. The contributions of Anselm and Thomas Aquinas had a strong influence on the present-day Catholic doctrine of justification. To Catholics, justification is "a translation, from that state wherein man is born a child of the first Adam, to the state of grace, and of the adoption of the sons of God, through the second Adam, Jesus Christ, our Savior" [29], including the transforming of a sinner from the state of unrighteousness to the state of holiness. This transformation is made possible by accessing the merit of Christ, made available in the atonement, through faith and the sacraments [30]. For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Anselm may refer to any of several historical figures: Saint Anselm, 8th-century Abbot of Nonantula Saint Anselm of Canterbury (ca 1033 - 1109), Archbishop of Canterbury Anselm of Laon (died 1117), Medieval theologian Anselm of Liège (1008-1056), chronicler Saint Anselm of Lucca (ca 1036 - 1086) This is a... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


In Catholic theology, all are born in a state of original sin, meaning that both the guilt and sin nature of Adam are inherited by all. Following Augustine, the Catholic church asserts that people are unable to make themselves righteous; instead, they require "justification." [31]


Catholic theology holds that God's righteousness is infused into the sinner when he or she partakes of the sacrament of baptism, combined with faith.[citation needed] This is termed initial justification or "being cleansed of sin", the entrance into the Christian life. As the individual then progresses in his Christian life, he continues to receive God's grace both directly through the Holy Spirit as well as through the sacraments. This has the effect of combatting sin in the individual's life, causing him to become more righteous both in heart and in action. This is progressive justification, or "being made righteous."[citation needed] It is also the case, according to Robert Sungenis, that God views those who are in the process of being justified through the lens of grace, so that He sees them as beloved children despite their sin [32]. Robert A. Sungenis (born 1955), is a controversial American Catholic apologist and founder of Catholic Apologetics International. ...


At the final judgment, the individual's works will then be evaluated [33]. At that time, those who are righteous will be shown to be so. This is the "final justification."


Orthodox views

Eastern Christianity, including both Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy, tends to de-emphasize justification compared to Roman Catholicism or Protestantism — so much so that justification often has no separate treatment in Eastern theological works.[citation needed] The Greek term for justification (δικαιωσις, dikaiōsis) is not understood by most Eastern theologians to mean simply being pardoned of one's sins. This justice is understood as applying not only to justice, but also to the concepts of righteousness, virtue, and morality.[citation needed] In large part, this de-emphasis on justification is historical. First, the doctrine of the atonement developed differently in the East and the West.[clarify] The Eastern church sees humanity as inheriting the disease of sin from Adam, but not his guilt; hence, there is no need in Eastern theology for any forensic justification.[34] Second, the Reformation was the catalyst for extremes in precision regarding justification[clarify][citation needed]; however, the Eastern and Western churches had already divided long prior to that event. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Righteousness is an important concept in the theology of Judaism and Christianity. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ...


The Orthodox see salvation as a process of theosis, in which the individual is united to Christ and the life of Christ is reproduced within him. Thus, in one sense, justification is an aspect of theosis.[35]. However, it is also the case that those who are baptized into the church and experience Chrismation are considered to be cleansed of sin.[36][clarify] Hence, the Orthodox concept of justification cannot be reconciled to Protestant concepts, while it is not considered as being in disagreement to Catholic concepts. In the words of one Orthodox Bishop: In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine) is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...

Justification is a word used in the Scriptures to mean that in Christ we are forgiven and actually made righteous in our living. Justification is not a once-for-all, instantaneous pronouncement guaranteeing eternal salvation, regardless of how wickedly a person might live from that point on. Neither is it merely a legal declaration that an unrighteous person is righteous. Rather, justification is a living, dynamic, day-to-day reality for the one who follows Christ. The Christian actively pursues a righteous life in the grace and power of God granted to all who continue to believe in Him.[37]

Lutheran views

See also: Theology of Martin Luther

"This one and firm rock, which we call the doctrine of justification," insisted Martin Luther, "is the chief article of the whole Christian doctrine, which comprehends the understanding of all godliness."[38] He also called this doctrine the articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae ("article of the standing and falling church"): "…if this article stands, the Church stands; if it falls, the Church falls."[39] Lutherans follow Luther in this when they call this doctrine "the material principle" of theology in relation to the Bible, which is "the formal principle."[40] They believe justification by grace through faith in Christ's righteousness alone is the gospel, the core of the Christian faith around which all other Christian doctrines are centered and based. The theology of Martin Luther was fairly instrumental in influencing the Protestant Reformation, specifically topics dealing with Justification by Faith, the relationship between the Law and the Gospel (also an instrumental component of Reformed theology), and various other theological ideas. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... In Christian theology, a material principle is the central teaching of a religion, religious tradition or movement, religious body or organization. ... In Christian theology, a formal principle is the authority which forms or shapes the doctrinal system of a religion, religious movement or tradition or a religious body or organization. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


Luther came to understand justification as being entirely the work of God. Against the teaching of his day that the righteous acts of believers are done in cooperation with God[citation needed], Luther asserted that Christians receive that righteousness entirely from outside themselves; that righteousness not only comes from Christ, it actually is the righteousness of Christ, imputed to us (rather than infused into us) through faith. "That is why faith alone makes someone just and fulfills the law," said Luther. "Faith is that which brings the Holy Spirit through the merits of Christ"[41]. Thus faith, for Luther, is a gift from God, and ". . .a living, bold trust in God's grace, so certain of God's favor that it would risk death a thousand times trusting in it."[41] This faith grasps Christ's righteousness and appropriates it for itself in the believer's heart.


Traditionally, Lutherans have taught forensic (or legal) justification. This doctrine holds that God on His throne declares a sinner "not guilty" for Christ’s sake. Christians, who were once sinners are now righteous because Christ’s righteousness applies to them (i.e., it is imputed to them, or counted as their own). For Lutherans, it is necessary that justification is independent of and in no way depends upon works performed, thoughts had, or attitudes cultivated by believers. They believe sanctification occurs only after a person has been justified by faith.[42] Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...


For Lutherans, justification provides the power by which Christians can grow in holiness. Such improvement comes only after one has been made new in Christ. Finally, while children of God do grow to become more and more like God, they never can entirely remove sin from their lives. Christians are always "saint and sinner at the same time" (simul iustus et peccator)[citation needed] — saints because they are holy in God's eyes, for Christ's sake, and do works that please Him; sinners because they continue to sin until death.


Reformed views

Calvin's understanding of justification was in substantial agreement with Luther's. However, he expanded it by emphasizing that justification is a part of one's union with Christ. His theological center was different from Luther's, and his terminology was more systematic.[citation needed][opinion needs balancing] The center of Calvin's salvation theology was our Union with Christ (Inst., III.xi.10). For Calvin, one is united to Christ by faith, and all of the benefits of Christ come from being united to him. Therefore, anyone who is justified will also receive all of the benefits of salvation, including sanctification. Thus, while Calvin agreed in substance with the "simultaneously saint and sinner" formulation (Inst. III.xiii), he was more definite in asserting that the result of being justified is a consequent sanctification (III.xiv.19; III.xvi). Calvin also used more definite language than Luther, spelling out the exchange notion of imputed righteousness: that the good works that Jesus did in his life are imputed to his people, while their sins were imputed to him on the cross. POV, as opposed to NPOV, in an article means that it is affected by an editors point of view. ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... Imputed righteousness is a concept in Christian theology directly related to the Protestant doctrine of justification. ...


For Calvin, Adam and Jesus functioned as federal heads, or legal representatives, meaning that each one represented his people through his actions (II.i.8). When Adam sinned, all of Adam's people were accounted to have sinned at that moment. When Jesus achieved righteousness, all of his people were accounted to be righteous at that moment. In this way Calvin attempted to simultaneously solve the problems of original sin, justification, and atonement.


Some of the technical details of this union with Christ are tied into Calvin's understanding of the atonement and of predestination (q.v.). The satisfaction view of the atonement (also known as the penal or punishment theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed circles. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ...


One outcome of Calvin's change in center over against Luther was that he saw justification as a permanent feature of being connected to Christ: since, for Calvin, people are attached to Christ monergistically, it is therefore impossible for them to lose justification if indeed they were once justified. This idea was expressed by the Synod of Dort as the "perseverance of the saints." xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ...


In recent times, two controversies have arisen in the Reformed churches over justification. The first concerns the teaching of "final justification" by Norman Shepherd; the second is the exact relationship of justification, sanctification, and church membership, which is part of a larger controversy concerning the Federal Vision. The Federal Vision (also called Auburn Avenue Theology) is a Reformed Evangelical theological position that focuses on covenant theology, trinitarian thinking, the sacraments of Baptism and Communion, biblical theology and typology, justification, and postmillennialism. ...


Methodist views

John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, was heavily influenced by the thoughts of Jacob Arminius and the Governmental theory of atonement. Hence, he held that God's work in us consisted of Prevenient grace, which undoes the effects of sin sufficiently that we may then freely choose to believe. An individual's act of faith then results in becoming part of the body of Christ, which allows one to appropriate Christ's atonement for oneself, erasing the guilt of sin.[43] According to the Articles of Religion in the Book of Discipline of the Methodist Church: John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Jacobus Arminius (also spelt Jacob Arminius, James Arminius, Jacob Harmenszoon, Jakob Hermann) (1560-1609) was a Dutch Reformed theologian and (until 1603) professor in theology at de University of Leiden. ... The governmental view of the atonement (also known as the moral government theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology concerning the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Arminian circles that draw primarily from the works of Hugo Grotius, the governmental theory... Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Augustinian theology[1] and embraced primarily by Arminian Christians who are influenced by the theology of John Wesley and who are part of the Methodist movement. ... The Articles of Religion are an official doctrinal statement of American Methodism. ... Book of Discipline could refer to any of the following: Book of Discipline (Church of Scotland): the Book of Discipline of the Church of Scotland. ...

We are accounted righteous before God only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, by faith, and not for our own works or deservings. Wherefore, that we are justified by faith only is a most wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort.[44]

However, once the individual has been so justified, one must then continue in the new life given; if one fails to persevere and in fact falls away from God in total unbelief, the attachment to Christ — and with it, justification — may be lost.[45]

Latter-Day Saint views

To Latter-Day Saints, the law of justification is ""all covenants, contracts, bonds, obligations, oaths, vows, performances, connections, associations, or expectations"[46] in which men must abide to be saved and exalted.[47] A person is justified when the Holy Spirit approves or ratifies the good works done by that person as worthy of salvation.[47] God established justification "to assure that no unrighteous performance will be binding on earth and in heaven, and that no person will add to his position or glory in the hereafter by gaining an unearned blessing. [47]


Mormons believe this justification is available by God's grace because of the atoning sacrifice of Christ, but becomes operative only on the condition of personal righteousness. For them, justification is neither by faith alone nor by works alone.[47]


Other views

Universalism became a significant minority view in the 18th century, popularized by thinkers such as John Murray (not to be confused with John Murray the Scottish theologian). Universalism holds that Christ's death on the cross has entirely paid for the sin of humanity; hence, God's wrath is satisfied towards all. Different varieties of universalism then go in different directions. Unitarian Universalism holds that many different religions all lead to God. Others teach that God's love is sufficient to cover for sins, thus embracing some form of the Moral Influence theory of Abelard. For the universalist, justification is an event entirely in the past, accomplished on the cross; or else it is unnecessary altogether. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Murray (1741–1815) though sometimes recalled as founder of the Universalist denomination in the United States, might more fairly be described as a pioneer minister and an inspirational figure, as his theological legacy to the later Universalist denomination was minimal. ... John Murray (October 14, 1898–May 8, 1975) was a Scottish-born Reformed theologian who taught at Princeton Seminary and then left to help found Westminster Theological Seminary, where he taught for many years. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... The Moral influence view of the atonement is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and, while originating in the Middle Ages, has been largely taught in liberal Christian circles, most famously by Charles G. Finney, whose Systematic Theology exounded...


Interactions between various doctrines

sola fide

Main article: Sola Fide

Luther's reformulation of justification introduced the phrase sola fide, or by faith alone. That phrase has been one of the uniting factors among various Protestant denominations; despite the wide variety of doctrines and practices amongst Protestants, they all agree that one is saved (often meaning "justified") by faith alone. Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ...


Catholics from the Diet of Worms and Council of Trent until the present day (e.g., Sungenis) have criticized this phrase on several grounds. First and foremost, it appears to them to indicate that one can be justified without any actual change of life. Hence the strong language of Trent: If any one saith, that men are justified, either by the sole imputation of the justice of Christ, or by the sole remission of sins, to the exclusion of the grace and the charity which is poured forth in their hearts by the Holy Ghost, and is inherent in them; or even that the grace, whereby we are justified, is only the favour of God; let him be anathema [48]. Luther Before the Diet of Worms, photogravure after the historicist painting by Anton von Werner (1843–1915) in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Second, Catholics point out that the only use of the formula "faith alone" (sola fide) is in James 2:24, which appears to deny the sola fide concept: "You see that a man is justified by works, and not by faith alone." Hence, they claim that Scripture upholds their rejection of sola fide justification.


Third, Catholics claim that the term sola fide has many different subtleties of meaning among different groups of Protestants. They maintain that these differences cast doubt on the coherence of the concept of sola fide.


Within Protestantism, there is debate as to how strongly sanctification is tied to justification. Thus, in modern times, the "Lordship Salvation" controversy between some faculty at Dallas Seminary (Charles Ryrie and Zane Hodges) and others (John MacArthur and R.C. Sproul) has resulted in serious thinking on this question: can one be justified without any evidence of sanctification whatsoever?


Looking at this controversy from the outside, Catholics claim that "justification by faith alone" does not have a coherent meaning.


Protestants meanwhile hold tenaciously to the sola fide formula, charging that without it, the Christian is led down a path that is inevitably Pelagian and Judaizing They charge that the abuses Luther saw were a logical outworking of a Catholic system that includes good works as a necessary condition for justification. They respond to the argument from James 2:24 (above) by asserting that the passage in question refers to demonstrating one's justification before men, rather than achieving justification before God. Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ...


Despite these differences, some Catholics and Lutherans believe that they have found much agreement on the subject of justification. Other Lutherans, especially Confessional Lutherans, maintain that this agreement fails to properly define the meaning of faith, sin, and other essential terms and thus do not support the Lutheran World Federation's agreement. In July of 2006 the World Methodist Council, representing 70 million Wesleyan Christians, including The United Methodist Church, "signed on" to the Joint Declaration on Justification between Catholics and the Lutheran World Federation. The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification [1] is a document created by and agreed to by clerical representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the current denomination africa. ...


Also, Anglican Bishop N.T. Wright has spoken and written extensively on the topic of Justification.[49] His views are troubling to many evangelicals, and has sparked no small amount of debate. Those concerned with his view of justification, worry that he marginalizes the importance of the penal substitutionary transaction that takes place at salvation. Defenders of Wright reply that while the Bishop indeed sees penal substitution in many biblical texts, he doesn't see it in as many of them as others. They go on to warn attackers of Wrights theology to 'read him well' (a tough assignment, given Wright's many writings) before making pre-mature criticisms. Nicholas Thomas Tom Wright (b. ...


References

  1. ^ Fred. W. Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, 4th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000) especially the entry "δικαιοω."
  2. ^ For example, Kurt Aland, A History of Christianity, vol. 2, trans. James Schaaf (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986) p. 13-14.
  3. ^ Zech. 3; Ezek. 36:25-31.
  4. ^ Is. 1:11; Hos. 8:13)
  5. ^ See for example Heb. 10.
  6. ^ Lk 16:15.
  7. ^ Lk 18:14.
  8. ^ Mt 12:37.
  9. ^ Mt 20:28, Mk 10:45.
  10. ^ Matt. 5:20.
  11. ^ Mt 26:28; see also: Luke 2:76, 77; John 1:29; John 3
  12. ^ e.g., Luke 5:17-26.
  13. ^ Rom. 3:21 - 26, 5:1.
  14. ^ Rom. 3:28
  15. ^ Rom. 5.
  16. ^ Rom. 5:15 - 17
  17. ^ ελλογειται, Rom. 5:13; Rom. 5:18.
  18. ^ Rom. 8:30.
  19. ^ Rom. 8:33-39
  20. ^ Gal. 2:16, 5:4; see also Rom. 5:1 - 12
  21. ^ Heb. 10:19-23, 12:1
  22. ^ James chapter 2, especially 2:22
  23. ^ Jas. 2:24
  24. ^ Clement of Rome, To the Corinthians 32.4
  25. ^ St. Augustin. Anti-Pelegian writings. online at Calvin college
  26. ^ ibid. Chapter 19 – Sin is from Natural Descent, as Righteousness is from Regeneration.
  27. ^ ibid. Chapter 5 – The Will of Man Requires the Help of God..
  28. ^ ibid. Chapter 9 – The Beginning of Renewal.
  29. ^ Council of Trent, "Decree on Justification" chapter 4
  30. ^ "Decree on Justification", chap. 7
  31. ^ Council of Trent, "Decree on Original Sin," ch. 1, 7, 8.
  32. ^ Robert Sungenis, Not by Faith Alone, pp. 75-80
  33. ^ Mt. 25
  34. ^ Orthodox Church in America, online doctrine. Redemption.; Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America web site The Dogmatic Tradition of the Orthodox Church.
  35. ^ Bishop Dmitri, Orthodox Christian Teaching, (Syosset, New York: Orthodox Church of America, 1983), p. 77.
  36. ^ ibid The Fundamental Teachings of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
  37. ^ Holy Trinity Orthodox Mission, Bishop Alexander (editor), The Orthodox Church.
  38. ^ Selected passages from Martin Luther, "Commentary on Galatians (1538)" as translated in Herbert J. A. Bouman, "The Doctrine of Justification in the Lutheran Confessions," Concordia Theological Monthly 26 (November 1955) No. 11:801.[1]
  39. ^ In XV Psalmos graduum 1532-33; WA 40/III.352.3
  40. ^ Herbert J. A. Bouman, ibid., 801-802.
  41. ^ a b Martin Luther's Definition of Faith
  42. ^ Herbert J. A. Bouman, ibid., 805.
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ The United Methodist Church: The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church - Article IX—Of the Justification of Man
  45. ^ [3]
  46. ^ Doctrines and Covenants 132:7.
  47. ^ a b c d Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, Second Edition (Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1966), 408
  48. ^ [4]
  49. ^ See N.T. Wright, "The Shape of Justification" on The Paul Page; "Justification: The Biblical Basis and It's Relevance for Contemporary Evangelicalism" on N.T. Wright Page

The male given name Zechariah is derived from the Hebrew זְכַרְיָה, meaning God has remembered. ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... ... Bruce R. McConkie Bruce Redd McConkie (July 29, 1915–April 19, 1985) was an influential theologian and apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...

See also

Ecumenical & General The Lutheran World Federation and The Roman Catholic Church. ... The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification [1] is a document created by and agreed to by clerical representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the...

External links

Ecumenical

Orthodox

Catholic

Arminian/Methodist

John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ...

Calvinist

John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...

Lutheran

Sources

  • Apology of the Augsburg Confession Article IV: Of Justification by Philip Melanchthon
  • Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord Article III: Concerning the Righteousness of Faith before God
  • Luther's definition of faith
  • LCMS FAQ: Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification
  • Christian Cyclopedia on Justification

Melancthon, in a portrait engraved by Albrecht Dürer, 1526 Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. ...

Essays

  • Bouman, H. J. A. "The Doctrine of Justification in the Lutheran Confessions." Concordia Theological Monthly 26 (1955) no. 11:801-819.
  • Hein, David. "Austin Farrer on Justification and Sanctification." The Anglican Digest 49 (2007) No. 1: 51–54.
  • Klann, Richard. "Contemporary Lutheran Views of Justification" Concordia Theological Quarterly 45 (1981) no. 4:281-296.
  • Martens, Gottfried. "Agreement and Disagreement on Justification by Faith Alone" Concordia Theological Quarterly 65 (2001) no. 3:195-223.[5]
  • Mueller, Theodore. "Justification: Basic Linguistic Aspects and the Art of Communicating It." Concordia Theological Quarterly 46 (1982) no. 1:21-38.
  • Preus, Robert D. "Luther and the Doctrine of Justification" Concordia Theological Quarterly 48 (1984) no. 1:1-15.
  • Warth, Martim C. ".Justification through Faith in Article Four of the Apology" Concordia Theological Quarterly 46 (1982) no. 2-3:105-126.
  • Online Essays on Justification from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary

Sources

This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Justification - Christianity Knowledge Base - a Wikia wiki (3682 words)
In Christian theology, justification is God's act making a sinner righteous before Him by His grace, received through the faith given to the person by God, for Christ's sake, because of his life, death, and resurrection.
The relationship of justification to atonement, the expiation of sins.
Justification is the precursor, pre-requisite and efficient cause of sanctification.
Justification (theology) (3591 words)
Justification is a major theme of the epistles to the Romans and to the Galatians in the New Testament, and is also given treatment in many other epistles.
Justification as a concept is mentioned in the early church fathers (e.g., Clement to the Corinthians, 32.4 [2] and in the sermons of John Chrysostom), but it is not developed until Augustine's conflict with Pelagius.
Hence, justification for Wesley and the Wesleyans is:
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m