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Encyclopedia > Juris Doctor

Juris Doctor (abbreviated J.D. or D.Jur., from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a professional[1] graduate degree[2][3][4] and professional doctorate[5][6][7][8][9][10] in law offered by universities and law schools in a number of countries. JD is the IATA code for Japan Airlines domestic service JD or jd may also stand for: Job Description Juris Doctor, a law degree possessed by some lawyers in certain countries Judgment Day John Doe Jewish defense, the concept of the defense of the Jewish People. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A professional degree or professional membership is an academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular career or profession, fields where scholarly research and academic activity are not the work, but rather a profession such as law, medicine, logistics, optometry, architecture, accounting, engineering, religious ministry, or education. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... In the United States, the institution where future lawyers obtain a legal degree is called a law school. ...

Contents

History of educational credentialing prerequisite to the practice of law

Today, in the U.S. the J.D. from an approved U.S. university or law school is the degree required for admission to the bar in all but seven states and territorial jurisdictions.[11] In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted to a lawyer to practice law. ...


However, in the United States law was originally learned by apprenticeship through reading the law and the inn of courts system brought from England. One who sought to join the profession would apprentice with a member of an inn. After several years, the lawyer would file a motion with a local court for admission of the apprentice to the bar and the court would enter an order admitting the apprentice as an attorney.[citation needed] Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ...


After the concept of law as an elite profession collapsed during the era of Andrew Jackson,[12] legal education in the United States took inspiration from the approach taken in the U.K., suggested by the famous Judge Blackstone of England, which emphasized the importance in legal training of a foundation of broad liberal education in history and philosophy. Legal skills were later learned in an apprenticeship. However, most law schools in the 19th century did not require any post-secondary education before pursuing legal studies. As a result, these undergraduate programs mixed much theoretical study with their curriculum.[13] For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ...


In the mid-19th century there was much concern about the quality of legal education in the United States. Christopher Columbus Langdell, who served as dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895, dedicated his life to reforming legal education in the United States; the historian Robert Stevens wrote that "it was Langdell's goal to turn the legal profession into a university educated one — and not at the undergraduate level, but through a three-year post baccalaureate degree."[14] This graduate level study would allow the intensive legal training that Langdell had developed, known as the case method (a method of studying landmark cases) and the socratic method (a method of examining students on the reasoning of the court in the cases studied). Therefore, a graduate high level law degree was established, the Juris Doctor, implementing the case and socratic methods as its didactic approach.[15] The J.D. was established as the equivalent of the J.U.D. in Germany to reflect the advanced study required to be an effective lawyer. It was not a conversion of the LL.B. degree, but a graduate degree to be distinguished from undergraduate programs. It was established by the faculty of law at Harvard first, and while it was pending the approval of the administration, the degree was introduced at all the best law schools in the nations, such as Stanford, Pennsylvania, and Berkeley. Subsequently, other law schools tried to also implement the degree in order to boost the prestige of their universities, but the programs did not meet the rigorous standards of those at the better law schools. The University of Chicago Law School was the first institution to offer the J.D. exclusively.[16] Christopher Columbus Langdell (May 22, 1826 _ July 6, 1906), American jurist, was born in New Boston, Hillsborough county, New Hampshire, of English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... The University of Chicago Law School, having recently celebrated its centennial in the 2002-2003 school year, has established itself as a high profile part of the University of Chicago. ...


Because of tradition, and concerns about less famous universities implementing a J.D. program, there was some reluctance by some institutions, such as Yale Law School, to implement the J.D. as the only law degree. By the 1960s every law school except Yale offered a J.D. as its sole professional law degree. Yale continued to confer the LL.B. as a second-entry professional degree in law until 1971.[17]


Marcus Schoenfeld, a law professor in the 1960’s, studied the history of the creation of the Juris Doctor and the debates surrounding this degree. He compared the J.D. to that of the LL.B. and other graduate degrees, such as a masters degree. He concluded that “the first degree in law should be a Doctorate simply because the very high level of achievement over three years is not sufficiently rewarded by a Mastership”.[18] This is evidence that the J.D. has met the goals of Professor Langdell in his establishment of a rigorous graduate law degree.


The Paul M. Hebert Law Center on the campus of Louisiana State University in the U.S. confers on the graduates of its law program a combined J.D. / B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) in view of the Louisiana civil law components in the program and the additional (i.e., 7th) semester of study.[citation needed] Facade of the Paul M. Hebert Law Center The Paul M. Hebert Law Center is a law school in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, part of the Louisiana State University System and located on the main campus of Louisiana State University. ... For other uses, see LSU. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ...


The Juris Doctorate today

In general, the purpose of pursuing the conferral of the Juris Doctor, Juris Doctorate or Doctor of Jurisprudence degree is to attain the professional training necessary for those students who wish to become qualified educationally as a lawyer. The degree is typically earned and conferred after the successful completion of a curriculum of three years of full-time (four years of part-time) study subsequent to conferral of at least a bachelor's degree, although many law students enter J.D. programs after first completing both undergraduate and graduate degrees. However, like any doctoral program in any discipline of study, study leading to the conferral of the J.D. does not require as a prerequisite the conferral of a graduate (often called a "Masters") degree. For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ...


In most programs, as a condition of admission to study for the degree of Juris Doctor, an applicant must have obtained a baccalaureate in some academic subject. One's undergraduate academic grades and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) score thus usually are the primary determinates for admission. However, many law schools consider such other factors as life experiences, work history, undergraduate extracurricular activities, and writing ability when determining whether to admit an applicant.[citation needed] A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... In the United States, grading is done with several different systems. ... The Law School Admission Test (LSAT) is an examination administered by the Law School Admission Council (LSAC), intended to provide law schools in the United States and Canada with (to quote LSAC) a standard measure of acquired reading and verbal reasoning skills that law schools can use as one of...


No particular undergraduate major or course of study is required for admission, and many law schools prefer that a student arrive as a tabula rasa as far as legal subjects and preconceptions are concerned. While actual standards are left to individual institutions, law schools that wish to be professionally accredited by the American Bar Association require a bachelor's degree[19] and an admission exam[20] (the LSAT remains the de facto standard exam) as a condition of admission. For other uses, see Tabula rasa (disambiguation). ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ...


A few law schools not accredited by the American Bar Association have combined baccalaureate-J.D. programs which permit a student to commence study for the Juris Doctor before completing the bachelor's degree, thereby allowing the student to obtain both baccalaureate and Juris Doctor within a combined six-year period during which the student must satisfy the usual credit hours for each degree. Nonetheless, these institutions award the baccalaureate degree to the student before the credits for the J.D. degree are complete. Other law schools have combined J.D. programs with other graduate programs, so that students earn the J.D. jointly with, for example, an M.B.A..[21] American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ... Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a tertiary degree in business management. ...


The course of study usually takes three years for full-time students and four years for part-time students. The American Bar Association previously required at least 36 and no more than 84 months of study for a school to receive approval. In 2005, the ABA amended the rules to permit as few as 24 months of study; however the total amount of instruction required was unchanged.[22] Interestingly, the ABA does not mandate a specific number of credit hours for graduation. Instead, it mandates the number of minutes of instruction each student must receive. Currently, schools with ABA accreditation must require that graduating students have completed 58,000 minutes of instruction time during their course of study. According to the ABA, this typically translates to 83 semester hours or 129 quarter hours.[23] American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ...


Diversity in student population has become a common goal among law school admission boards, and recruiting non-traditional students with real world experience is often difficult as few professionals are willing to abandon careers for a full-time day program. Night school is an attractive option for such students, and the longer program duration (4–5 years for a part-time program, depending on summer coursework) reduces the annual cost outlay.


Examples of admission prerequisities to J.D. study

Yale University implemented the didactical changes of Harvard University and University of Chicago, and required a B.A. to enter their law program, but resisted creating the J.D. on their campus, and did not do so until 1971[24]. When it was implemented graduates who were awarded the L.L.B. prior to the renaming were allowed to, retroactively, claim that they held the J.D.[25] Another point raised is that when Yale University offers a joint-degree programs in which the J.D. is coupled with a masters degree, the joint degree is a masters-level degree; when the J.D. is coupled with a doctoral-level degree, the joint degree is a doctoral-level degree.[citation needed] Because of this history at Yale many wrongly conclude that the degree was created by merely renaming the LL.B. as J.D., which ignores the history of the creation of the degree[26]


Joint degree programs that include the study of law

Some programs also offer joint degree programs, such as Juris Doctor-Master of Business Administration (JD/MBA), a Juris Doctor-Master of Arts (JD/MA), and Juris Doctor/Master of Science (JD/MS), and Juris Doctor-Bachelor of Civil Law (JD/BCL). MBA redirects here. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ...


In Australia and Canada the LL.B. is offered as a combined program (usually with an arts degree: BA/LLB) or as a graduate-entry [2],[3], [4],[5] bachelor's degree, rather than as a first-entry bachelor's degree. This degree path typically requires at least five years of undergraduate study to achieve both the first and second bachelor's degree. Many of these countries (e.g. Australia, Canada, Hong Kong and India) also offer the doctorate level J.D., which typically requires three years of graduate study to complete.


In the United States, the curriculum usually involves no fewer than six semesters or nine quarters (formerly measured as three academic years, excluding summers), and many programs place explicit limits on the minimum amount of time that a student must spend in the program. U.S. post-baccalaureate degree programs, including the J.D., have an informal "industry standard" of requiring that post-graduate programs be completed in no more than six calendar years (inclusive of summers, leaves of absence, etc).[citation needed]


Admission to the practice of law ("being called to the Bar")

In order to practice as a lawyer, one must be licensed and admitted to the bar of a state or territory, and/or the bar of the federal courts. Generally speaking, graduation from an ABA-accredited law school satisfies the academic educational prerequisite for taking a bar examination and for the admission to practice law, and is far and away the most common preparation for sitting for a state's bar exam.[citation needed] For other uses, see Graduation (disambiguation). ... Look up ABA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in that system. ...


Some U.S. states accept only a degree from an ABA-accredited school for this. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts allows non-ABA accredited law school graduates to sit for its bar exam, most notably, graduates of the Massachusetts School of Law. Other states will accept foreign legal education, with or without subsequent U.S. legal education, but typically require that the foreign degree be earned in a country where the basic law is the common law of England. A few states – California and New York among them – do not require a law degree for admission to practice as an attorney. California, for example, will allow students to sit for the bar exam from non-ABA-approved law schools, including correspondence and "on-line" law schools (such as Concord Law School) that are actually located within the state of California; however, those students are required to take an additional examination after their first year of law school in order to be eligible to take the bar exam after graduation. New York allows those who complete a certified clerkship under a lawyer, essentially a form of apprenticeship, to sit for the bar examination, but this route is almost never used today.[citation needed] The state of California accredits law schools within the state, but this never includes "on-line" law schools, which can only be "registered" with the state bar. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A bar examination is an series of tests conducted at regular intervals to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given American examination usually consists of the following: complicated essay questions concerning that jurisdictions law; the Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized, nationwide examination containing generalized... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Online means being connected to the Internet or another similar electronic network, like a bulletin board system. ... Concord Law School is a four-year, part-time legal education program based in Los Angeles, California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A bar examination is an series of tests conducted at regular intervals to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given American examination usually consists of the following: complicated essay questions concerning that jurisdictions law; the Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized, nationwide examination containing generalized... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Online means being connected to the Internet or another similar electronic network, like a bulletin board system. ...


Course of study leading to the conferral of the Juris Doctorate

The first year curriculum is highly standardized, with only minor variations: first-year students generally take semester-length courses in Contracts, Torts, Civil Procedure, Criminal Law, Property, and Constitutional Law. There is also a pair of semester-length courses covering legal writing and research, which may be offered under various titles or as a single year-long course in Lawyering Skills. The first-year schedule is simply prescribed for new students, who have no choice in selection of courses. By contrast, selection of second- and third-year courses is largely up to students, although all ABA-accredited schools require Professional Responsibility[27] and an upper-division substantial writing project.[28] A contract is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides a remedy. ... In the common law, a tort is a civil wrong for which the law provides a remedy. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... Legal writing is a type of technical writing used by legislators, lawyers, judges, and others in law to express legal analysis and legal rights and duties. ... // Legal research is the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support legal decision-making. ... Professional responsibility is the area of legal practice that encompasses the duties of attorneys to act in a professional manner, obey the law, avoid conflicts of interest, and put the interests of clients ahead of their own interests. ...


At some law schools it is now possible to take a series of courses as a second-year law student and third-year student in a specialization which is then mentioned on a graduate's diploma and transcript. Some law schools have introduced "integrated," "honors lawyering," and certification programs which include research components.[29] Certificates in public interest law, environmental law, intellectual property law, international law, and employment law have become commonplace in U.S. law schools. These programs generally involve a specific curriculum and often a brief thesis, terminal project, or internship to qualify for certification.[citation needed] Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest—supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Employment law is the branch of the law that deals with employment related issues. ...


Commonly-held misconceptions leading to confusion between the "Bachelor of Laws" (LL.B) and "Juris Doctor" (J.D.)

In most common law nations other than the United States the first degree in law is the LL.B., or Bachelor of Laws degree, though some law schools in Canada,[30] Hong Kong,[31][32] and Australia[33] offer a J.D. as well, usually for students who already have a first degree in another field. Until and unless these misconceptions are dispelled, transcripts of study are the "litmus test" of whether the title conferred constitutes a "Bachelor"-level or a doctoral-level degree. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... LLB redirects here. ...


Comparatively unique politico-legal discontinuities across jurisdictions

In contrast to many other disciplines of study, where qualifications accrued are to the most extent substantially similar across various accreditation areas, the holder of a J.D. degree conferred by an accredited law school in one common-law jurisdiction may not necessarily qualify a graduate of a law school accredited in that jurisdiction to qualify to attempt to be called to the bar in another common-law jurisdiction. The regulatory body for the law profession (e.g., bar or law society) in a common-law jurisdiction may require additional training, or a traineeship, not required of holders of a professional law degree in that jurisdiction.


For example, in the U.S. states that require a J.D. from an approved U.S. law school to sit for the bar exam, a J.D. or a LL.B. from another common-law jurisdiction is insufficient.[34] It must be kept in mind that each law degree is created for a specific jurisdiction, therefore comparing law degrees across these different jurisdictions is problematic.


For example, between the United States and Canada, to solve some of these problems, a few universities have allied or associated themselves in some kind of an official capacity academically to create "international dual degree" programs. For example, the University of Detroit Mercy School of Law and the University of Windsor Faculty of Law have collaborated to create a unique joint law degree program. Another example of such a cooperative program is that between the University College London Faculty of Laws and Columbia Law School--which have collaborated, creating a 4-year joint law degree programme. After 3 years of study, successful graduates receive both their U.S. law degree (J.D.) and their foreign (in these cases Canadian, or British, law degree (LL.B.)--which these institutions hope will afford graduates of these specializations greater employment opportunities across jurisdictions, between nations, or worldwide. [6]


Law degrees in other nations

In Asia, schools in the Philippines have been offering the J.D. since 1991. In addition to the standard requirements prescribed for the Ll.B., the Philippine J.D. also requires students to engage in an apprenticeship, take elective subjects, as well as write and defend a thesis. Since 2004, the J.D. degree is also awarded in Japan where it is known as Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士)[35] and has become a requisite degree for the practice of law. This degree title is almost identical to that in Hong Kong, where the degree is known as 法律博士 (Faat Leot Bok Si in Cantonese, or Falü Boshi in Mandarin).[36] The characters 博士 in Japanese and Chinese mean "doctor" and this is the same title given to holders of both professional and academic doctorate degrees.[37] Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Bachelor of Laws degree (LL.B.) is the standard law degree in many common law countries (e.g., the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, etc.). In most commonwealth nations, the LL.B. is a three to four-year undergraduate degree. LLB redirects here. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ...


Australia

Australian universities offer two methods of entry to the LL.B. If a student has the required secondary school marks, they can undertake a joint degree programme where a B.A., B.Sc., or B.Com. and an LL.B. are taught concurrently over five and a half to six years. An Australian student may also transfer into a four year LL.B. programme after a minimum of one year's study of any other discipline. Finally, the LL.B. is taught as an American-style, three year postgraduate qualification. ANU, Bond University, University of Queensland, University of Southern Queensland, University of Melbourne (Melbourne JD), Monash University, University of New England, University of Technology Sydney, and the University of Notre Dame Australia offer the J.D.[38] ANU also offers the JSD degree as a shorter (three year) part-coursework alternative to a PhD in Law. The University of Notre Dame Australia is a private Roman Catholic university established in 1990 in the Western Australian port city of Fremantle, . While the University of Notre Dame Australia has strong collegial links[1] with the American University of Notre Dame located in South Bend, Indiana, they are separate...


Canada

For entry into common law LL.B. programs, Canadian universities require either a first bachelor's degree or three years of undergraduate studies towards the first bachelor's degree. The University of Toronto has renamed its LL.B. degree to J.D.; the law faculties at Osgoode Hall Law School, Queen's University, University of British Columbia, and the University of Western Ontario have recently voted to do the same. For entry into bachelor's degree programs (LL.B., B.C.L., or LL.L.) in Quebec civil law, universities in Quebec and the University of Ottawa generally require a CEGEP diploma. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, is a Canadian law school, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Queens University, generally referred to simply as Queens, is a coeducational, non-sectarian public university located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna. ... The University of Western Ontario (known as Western, as well as UWO or Western Ontario) is a research university located in London, Ontario. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ... For the university in Ottawa, Kansas, see Ottawa University. ... A CEGEP (IPA: or ; French: Cégep) is a post-secondary education institution exclusive to the province of Quebec in Canada. ...


Germany

In Germany the Doctor of Law, an academic degree, is the most advanced degree in law awarded as Dr. iur. (Doctor iuris) based on a dissertation. It usually requires the grade of Fully Satisfactory in the student's first Staatsexamen though having successfully passed the second Staatsexamen (the German equivalent to the bar exam) is required. After getting the Master-Degree (Austrian: Magister) (equivalent to LL.M.) the Volljurist (roughly "completed jurist") or Rechtsassessoren (lat.: assessor juris, "assessor of law")is able to postgraduate to the Doctor of Law. Approximately only 8% of German jurisprudents are Doctors of law. German students of law have to take two examinations not held by their law school or bar association, but by the state (Staatsexamen), separated by an apprenticeship of two years. In some jurisdictions, an assessor is a judges or magistrates assistant. ...


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong the J.D. degree has been introduced as a professional degree for graduates from other departments, following the practice of some Australian universities. Both the Chinese University of Hong Kong and City University of Hong Kong award the J.D. degree, or 法律博士, which in Cantonese Chinese is pronounced Faat Leot Bok Si.


Japan

In Japan the J.D. is known as Homu Hakushi (法務博士). It is offered by every major university and has become the required degree for admission to practice, as a result of an intensive study done by the government.[39] This is notable since Japan has a civil law system, and is the only civil law country with universities that even offer the J.D. degree at all. www.reds.msh-paris.fr/communication/docs/foote.pdf


Philippines

In the Philippines, the J.D. degree exists alongside the more common Ll.B. The J.D. program is a four-year law program. Like the standard Ll.B. program, the J.D. curriculum covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. Unlike the Ll.B., the J.D. program requires students to finish the core bar subjects in 2 1/2 years, take elective subjects, as well as undergo an apprenticeship and prepare a thesis.[40] The J.D. degree was first conferred by the Ateneo Law School in 1991, and by the University of the Philippines College of Law beginning in 2007. Other law schools that offer the J.D. are the University of Batangas College of Law and the Far Eastern University Institute of Law.[41] The Ateneo de Manila Law School is the law school of the Ateneo de Manila University, a private Jesuit university in the Philippines. ... University of the Philippines College of Law or UP Law is the college of law of the University of the Philippines System, the largest state university in the Philippines. ... Far Eastern University Institute of Law (FEU-IL) or FEU Law is the college of law of Far Eastern University in Manila, Philippines. ...


United Kingdom

In England and Wales, students are admitted into a three or four year undergraduate law degree (LL.B.) after completing secondary education and attaining three to five Advanced Level certificates ("A Levels"). Additionally, many universities now require a successful performance in the LNAT test. The completion of the LL.B. is then followed by a one year postgraduate professional course, being either the Legal Practice Course or Bar Vocational Course, depending on the choice of career. Following the postgraduate course, students wishing to qualify as solicitors must complete a further two years professional experience known as the 'training contract' (previously known as "Articles" or an "articled clerkship"); those wishing to qualify as barristers must complete a further one year as a pupil in Chambers. The process generally takes five to seven years. After LL.B. studies, many students alternatively opt to study for a LL.M. degree before pursuing a professional career. Overseas students must have an equivalent degree for entry on a LL.M. program: this is normally a J.D. or LL.B. Cambridge University's second degree in law was called LL.B., but this has been renamed LL.M. The comparable higher degree at Oxford is Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.) For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


United States

See also: Law school in the United States

In the United States, a law school is an institution where students obtain a professional education in law. ...

Other law degrees

Paraprofessional degrees

Some schools, such as Carleton University offer paraprofessional degrees at either the undergraduate or graduate level, such as a Bachelor of Legal Studies or a Master of Legal Studies. The Bachelor of Legal Studies or Master of Legal Studies degrees are even more theoretical than the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.), and paraprofessional degrees are not considered to be law degrees. Also, they differ from the LL.B. in that they do not fulfill requirements for admission to the practice of law in any jurisdiction. Holders of these degrees are often employed as paralegals or in a law-related field such as insurance, trust companies, or banking. The ABA "approves" schools offering paralegal education in the form of 2-year associate degrees or 4-year bachelor degrees. See the list of approved schools. This article is about the university in Ottawa, Ontario. ... A paralegal is a person who works under the direct supervision of a lawyer, and who is typically responsible for researching and managing the daily tasks for cases. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... A trust company is normally owned by one of three types of structures; an independent partnership, a bank, or a law firm, each of which specialize in being a trustee of various kinds of trusts, and managing estates. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


See also

Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ... LLB redirects here. ... Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in that system. ... The Call to the Bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions. ... Admission to the bar is the term commonly used in the United States to indicate that a person is licensed to practice law as an attorney at law. ...

References

Look up Juris Doctor in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels
  2. ^ http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html UC Berkeley general catalog lists the graduate degrees offered at Berkeley. The list includes the J.D. and states that "The J.D. (Juris Doctor) is the basic law degree. It is a graduate degree."
  3. ^ http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat95/acadpol/degreeprog.html#grad The USC catalog includes the J.D. under its list of graduate degrees
  4. ^ http://jd.law.unimelb.edu.au/ University of Melbourne JD degree site, states that the JD is "a fully graduate law degree"
  5. ^ http://www.pb.uillinois.edu/aaude/documents/graded_glossary.doc
  6. ^ http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf06312/ Under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  7. ^ http://www.sdcba.org/ethics/ethicsopinion69-5.html under “other references” discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate
  8. ^ http://web.utah.edu/graduate_school/ghrequirements.html#prof The J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees
  9. ^ http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf report by the German Federal Ministry of Education stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate
  10. ^ NoCoversCareerGuide2007Updated082207.qxp
  11. ^ The self-made lawyer | csmonitor.com
  12. ^ Anton-Hermann Chroust, The Rise of the Legal Profession in America, Volume 2: The Revolution and the Post-Revolutionary Era (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965), p.286. This era is commonly referred to as the "deprofessionalization" of the American legal profession.
  13. ^ Harno, Albert J., Legal Education in the United States, Lawbook Exchange, NJ 2004. page 16.
  14. ^ Robert Stevens, "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School," in Law in American History, edd Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971), p.427.
  15. ^ Harno, page 50.
  16. ^ Hall, James Parker, American Law School Degrees, Michigan Law Review, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Dec., 1907), pp. 112-117.
  17. ^ Schoenfeld, Marcus, "J.D. or LL.B as the Basic Law Degree," Cleveland-Marshall Law Review, Vol. 4, 1963, pp. 573-579, quoted in Joanna Lombard, LL.B. to J.D. and the Professional Degree in Architecture, Proceedings of the 85th ACSA Annual Meeting, Architecture: Material and Imagined and Technology Conference, 1997. pp. 585-591.
  18. ^ Schoenfeld, page 579
  19. ^ Standards for Approval of Law Schools, Standard 502(a), American Bar Association. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  20. ^ Standards for Approval of Law Schools, Standard 503, American Bar Association. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  21. ^ http://www.law.utulsa.edu/academics/jointdegree e.g. Joint Degree Programs at the University of Tulsa College of Law
  22. ^ Standards for Approval of Law Schools, Standard 304(c), American Bar Association. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  23. ^ Standards for Approval of Law Schools, Standard 304(b), American Bar Association. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  24. ^ Schoenfeld, Marcus, "J.D. or LL.B as the Basic Law Degree," Cleveland-Marshall Law Review, Vol. 4, 1963, pp. 573-579, quoted in Joanna Lombard, LL.B. to J.D. and the Professional Degree in Architecture, Proceedings of the 85th ACSA Annual Meeting, Architecture: Material and Imagined and Technology Conference, 1997. pp. 585-591.
  25. ^ The Free Dictionary
  26. ^ See History of the J.D. in the U.S. in this article, and footnotes 18 and 22 in References.
  27. ^ Standard 302(a)(5) (PDF). 2007-08 ABA Standards for Approval of Law Schools p. 20. American Bar Association Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. See also Interpretation 302-9, p. 21, specifically stating that instruction in the "law of lawyering and the Model Rules of Professional Conduct of the American Bar Association" is required.
  28. ^ Standard 302(a)(3) (PDF). 2007-08 ABA Standards for Approval of Law Schools p. 20. American Bar Association Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar. Retrieved on 2008-03-28.
  29. ^ USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels
  30. ^ University of Toronto - University of Toronto
  31. ^ Chinese University - Chinese University of Hong Kong
  32. ^ City University - City University of Hong Kong
  33. ^ Course Overview: Juris Doctor Australia - University of Melbourne
  34. ^ Comprehensive Guide to Bar Admission Requirements 2007, National Conference of Bar Examiners and American bar Association Section of Legal Education and Admission to the Bar, 2007.
  35. ^ Google Translate; Longman English-Japanese Dictionary. Pearson Education, Essex UK, 2007; Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary. Oxford, NY, 2003.
  36. ^ Google Translate; The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, Beijing, 2002; Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (Chinese-English). Pearson Education, Hong Kong, 2006.
  37. ^ See previous two cites, respectively, for Japanese and Chinese usage. Also see The Morrison Foester law firm website, one of the largest law firms in Asia and the United States, for an example of usage.
  38. ^ Description of Australian Law School Programs, Retrieved March 23, 2007.
  39. ^ The Justice System Reform Council, For a Justice System to Support Japan in the 21st Century (Jun. 12, 2001)
  40. ^ Cesar Villanueva, Philippine Leadership Crisis and the J.D. Program. [1]
  41. ^ Curriculum models, Philippine Association of Law Schools, 2006.
  • Chapter I of Title 8 of the Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York, Section 3.47. Requirements for Earned Degrees and Section 3.50. Registered Degrees

  Results from FactBites:
 
Juris Doctor at AllExperts (2962 words)
Juris Doctor (J.D.) is a first degree in law offered by universities in a number of countries, most notably the United States.
In the U.S., the J.D. is a professional doctorate awarded by American law schools and is a requirement for admission to the bar in nearly all 55 U.S. state and territorial jurisdictions.
In the U.S., the professional degree in law is the Juris Doctor, and the academic doctorate in law is the Doctor of Juridical Science.
Juris Doctor: Information from Answers.com (0 words)
Juris doctor, or doctor of jurisprudence, commonly abbreviated J.D., is the degree commonly conferred by law schools.
Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) is an honorary law degree awarded in the United States, although in Canada and most other common-law jurisdictions it is a terminal academic degree.
Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D.), is the terminal research degree in law, i.e., the equivalent of a Ph.D. in law, typically earned by those wishing to pursue academics rather than practice as an attorney.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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