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Encyclopedia > Jurassic

The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199.6 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago) to 145.4 ± 4.0 Ma, the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the start and end of the period are well identified but the exact dates are uncertain by 5 - 10 million years. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic era, also known as the "Age of Reptiles". The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic extinction event. A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an era into smaller timeframes. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Comparison of the intensity of the T-J extinction event, labeled here End Tr to other extinction events in the last 500 million years. ...


The Jurassic was named by Alexandre Brongniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains, in the region where Germany, France and Switzerland meet. Alexandre Brongniart (1770 – 1847) was a French chemist and zoologist, who collaborated with Georges Cuvier. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Looking towards Lelex from near to Crêt de la Neige The Jura folds are located north of the main Alpine orogenic front and are being continually deformed, accommodating the northwards compression from Alpine folding. ...

Contents

Divisions

The Jurassic period of time is usually broken into Early, Middle, and Late Jurassic subdivisions, also known as Lias, Dogger and Malm. The corresponding terms for the rocks are Lower, Middle, and Upper Jurassic. The faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: Massive cliffs in Zion Canyon consist of Lower Jurassic formations, including (from bottom to top): the Wingate Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the massive Navajo Sandstone. ... The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification, is the second epoch of the Jurassic period. ... Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ... Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ...

Upper/Late Jurassic
  Tithonian (150.8 ± 4.0 – 145.5 ± 4.0 Ma)
  Kimmeridgian (155.7 ± 4.0 – 150.8 ± 4.0 Ma)
  Oxfordian (161.2 ± 4.0 – 155.7 ± 4.0 Ma)
Middle Jurassic
  Callovian (164.7 ± 4.0 – 161.2 ± 4.0 Ma)
  Bathonian (167.7 ± 3.5 – 164.7 ± 4.0 Ma)
  Bajocian (171.6 ± 3.0 – 167.7 ± 3.5 Ma)
  Aalenian (175.6 ± 2.0 – 171.6 ± 3.0 Ma)
Lower/Early Jurassic
  Toarcian (183.0 ± 1.5 – 175.6 ± 2.0 Ma)
  Pliensbachian (189.6 ± 1.5 – 183.0 ± 1.5 Ma)
  Sinemurian (196.5 ± 1.0 – 189.6 ± 1.5 Ma)
  Hettangian (199.6 ± 0.6 – 196.5 ± 1.0 Ma)

Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ... The Tithonian (141-135 MYA) is the most recent faunal stage of the Jurassic era. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The Kimmeridgian is a stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. ... The Oxfordian is the first stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. ... The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification, is the second epoch of the Jurassic period. ... The Callovian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 164. ... In the geologic timescale, the Bathonian is the age of the Middle Jurassic epoch of the Jurassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 167 million 700 thousand and 164 million 700 thousand years ago, approximatedly. ... In the geologic timescale, the Bajocian is the age of the Middle Jurassic epoch of the Jurassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 171 million 600 thousand and 167 million 700 thousand years ago, approximatedly. ... The Aalenian is a subdivision of the Middle Jurassic period of the geologic timescale that extends from about 175. ... Massive cliffs in Zion Canyon consist of Lower Jurassic formations, including (from bottom to top): the Wingate Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the massive Navajo Sandstone. ... The Toarcian Stage was the last faunal stage of the Early Jurassic period. ... The Pliensbachian (also known as Charmouthian) is a stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. ... The Sinemurian is a stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. ... The Hettangian is the first stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. ...

Paleogeography

Jurassic limestones and marls (the Matmor Formation) in southern Israel.
Jurassic limestones and marls (the Matmor Formation) in southern Israel.

During the early Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea broke up into the northern supercontinent Laurasia and the southern supercontinent Gondwana; the Gulf of Mexico opened in the new rift between North America and what is now Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. The Jurassic North Atlantic Ocean was relatively narrow, while the South Atlantic did not open until the following Cretaceous Period, when Gondwana itself rifted apart.[1] The Tethys Sea closed, and the Neotethys basin appeared. Climates were warm, with no evidence of glaciation. As in the Triassic, there was apparently no land near either pole, and no extensive ice caps existed. In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the geological formation. ...


The Jurassic geological record is good in western Europe, where extensive marine sequences indicate a time when much of the continent was submerged under shallow tropical seas; famous locales include the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site and the renowned late Jurassic lagerstätten of Holzmaden and Solnhofen.[2] In contrast, the North American Jurassic record is the poorest of the Mesozoic, with few outcrops at the surface.[3] Though the epicontinental Sundance Sea left marine deposits in parts of the northern plains of the United States and Canada during the late Jurassic, most exposed sediments from this period are continental, such as the alluvial deposits of the Morrison Formation. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Jurassic Coast is a World Heritage Site on the English Channel coast of southern England. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Lagerstätten (German; singular Lagerstätte; literally place of storage, resting place) are sedimentary deposits that exhibit extraordinary fossil richness or completeness. ... Holzmaden is a town in Germany near Württemberg containing rich layers of well preserved fossils (or Lagerstätten) of the Jurassic period. ... A brittle star fossil from Solnhofen limestone. ... An epeiric sea--also known as an epicontinental sea--is a large but shallow body of salt water that lies over a part of a continent. ... The Sundance Sea was a shallow inland sea which existed in North America during the Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era. ... Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, to wash against) is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. ... The Morrison Formation is a distinctive body of rock in the western United States and Canada that has been the most fertile source of fossils in North America. ...


The Jurassic was a time of calcite sea geochemistry in which low-magnesium calcite was the primary inorganic marine precipitate of calcium carbonate. Carbonate hardgrounds were thus very common, along with calcitic ooids, calcitic cements, and invertebrate faunas with dominantly calcitic skeletons (Stanley and Hardie, 1998, 1999). Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... In geology, ooids are small (< 2mm) calcium carbonate or iron coated grains that usually form on the sea floor. ...


The first of several massive batholiths were emplaced in the northern Cordillera beginning in the mid-Jurassic, marking the Nevadan orogeny.[4] Important Jurassic exposures are also found in Russia, India, South America, Japan, Australasia, and the United Kingdom. Half Dome, a granite monolith in Yosemite National Park and part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. ... The American cordillera consists of an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western backbone of both North America and South America. ... The Nevadan Orogeny was a major mountain building event that took place along the western edge of ancient North America between the Mid to Late Jurassic(between about 180 and 146 million years ago). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Fauna

Aquatic and marine

A reptile named Ichthyosaurus from Liassic oil slates in Holzmaden, southern Germany.
A reptile named Ichthyosaurus from Liassic oil slates in Holzmaden, southern Germany.
Gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.
Gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.

During the Jurassic, the primary vertebrates living in the seas were fish and marine reptiles. The latter include ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and marine crocodiles, of the families Teleosauridae and Metriorhynchidae. Image File history File links Fischsaurier_fg01. ... Image File history File links Fischsaurier_fg01. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Families Ichthyosauridae Leptonectidae Mixosauridae Ophthalmosauridae Shastasauridae Stenopterygiidae Teretocnemidae Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ... Families Cryptoclididae Elasmosauridae Plesiosauridae Pliosauridae Plesiosaurs (PLEE-see-oh-SORES) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... Paleo Template Project The teleosaurids were marine crocodilians similar to the modern gharial. ... Paleo Template Project Metriorhynchids were a group of aquatic crocodilians that lived in seas during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. ...


In the invertebrate world, several new groups appeared, including rudists (a reef-forming variety of bivalves) and belemnites. The Jurassic also had diverse encrusting and boring (sclerobiont) communities (see Taylor & Wilson, 2003), and it saw a significant rise in the bioerosion of carbonate shells and hardgrounds. Especially common is the ichnogenus (trace fossil) Gastrochaenolites. Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Rudists are a group of bivalves that peaked in abundance and diversity during the late Mesozoic era, particuarly in the Cretaceous period, at the end of which they became extinct. ... For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Anomalosdesmata Cryptodonta Heterodonta Paleoheterodonta Palaeotaxodonta Pteriomorphia and see text Mussels in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England. ... Extinct Orders Aulacocerida Phragmoteuthida Belemnitida Diplobelida Belemnoteuthina Belemnites (or belemnoids) are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as a taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism. Ichnotaxa are names used to identify and distinguish morphologically distinctive trace fossils. ... A fossilized dinosaur footprint at Clayton Lake State Park, New Mexico. ...


Terrestrial

Large dinosaurs were dominant during the Jurassic Period.
Large dinosaurs were dominant during the Jurassic Period.

On land, large archosaurian reptiles remained dominant. The Jurassic was the golden age of the great sauropodsCamarasaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus, and many others—that roamed the land late in the period; their mainstays were either the prairies of ferns, palm-like cycads and bennettitales, or the higher coniferous growth, according to their adaptations. They were preyed upon by large theropods as for example Ceratosaurus, Megalosaurus, Torvosaurus and Allosaurus. All these belong to the 'lizard hipped' or saurischian branch of the dinosaurs. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 987 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Europasaurus holgeri Scene. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 987 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Europasaurus holgeri Scene. ... Clades Crurotarsi Aetosauria Crocodilia (crocodiles) Phytosauria Rauisuchia Ornithodira Aves (birds) Dinosauria Pterosauria Archosaurs (Greek for ruling lizards) are a group of diapsid reptiles that is represented today by birds and crocodiles and which also included the dinosaurs. ... Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Titanosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... Species (holotype) The Camarasaurus (pronounced KAM-a-rah-SORE-us) was a genera of quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Species Apatosaurus ajax Apatosaurus excelsus Apatosaurus louisae Apatosaurus (pronounced ) meaning deceptive lizard, because its chevron bones were like those of Mosasaurus (Greek apatelos or apatelios = deceptive + sauros = lizard), often mistakenly referred to as Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaurs that lived about 140 million years ago, during the Jurassic... For the extinct amphibian, see Diplocaulus. ... Species (type) ?B. (Giraffatitan) brancai Brachiosaurus (IPA: ) meaning Arm Lizard, from the Greek brachion/βραχιων meaning arm and sauros/σαυρος meaning lizard, was a genus of sauropod dinosaur which lived during the Late Jurassic Period. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Bennettitales is an order of plants in the anthophyte clade that first appeared in the Triassic period and became extinct toward the end of the Cretaceous. ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ... Species (type) Marsh, 1884 (Janensch, 1920) Madsen & Wells, 2000 Madsen & Wells, 2000 Ceratosaurus (IPA: ) meaning horned lizard, in reference to the horn on its nose (Greek keras/keratos meaning horn and sauros meaning lizard), was a large predatory dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Period, found in the Morrison Formation of... Species Mantell, 1827 (type) Waldmann, 1974  ? (Newton, 1899) = Zanclodon cambrensis Megalosaurus (meaning Great Lizard, from Greek, μεγαλο-/megalo- meaning big, tall or great and σαυρος/sauros meaning lizard) is a genus of large meat-eating theropod dinosaurs of the Middle Jurassic Period (Bathonian) of Europe (Southern England, France, Portugal). ... Binomial name Torvosaurus tanneri Galton & Jensen, 1979 Torvosaurus (TORE-vo-SORE-us) was a giant carnivorous dinosaur, similar in appearance to Tyrannosaurus although it had larger arms and a bulky body. ... Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ...


During the Late Jurassic, the first birds evolved from small coelurosaur dinosaurs. Ornithischian dinosaurs were less predominant than saurischian dinosaurs, although some like stegosaurs and small ornithopods played important roles as small and medium-to-large (but not sauropod-sized) herbivores. In the air, pterosaurs were common; they ruled the skies, filling many ecological roles now taken by birds. For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Coelurosauria is a group of theropod dinosaurs that includes the subgroups Tyrannosauridae, Ornithomimidae, and Maniraptora. ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Species (type) Stegosaurus was a large herbivorous dinosaur genus from the Upper Jurassic of North America. ... Families Hypsilophodontidae* Rhabdodontidae Dryosauridae Camptosauridae Iguanodontidae Hadrosauridae Ornithopods are a group of bird-hipped dinosaurs who started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous world, and dominated the North American landscape. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Flora

The arid, continental conditions characteristic of the Triassic steadily eased during the Jurassic period, especially at higher latitudes; the warm, humid climate allowed lush jungles to cover much of the landscape.[5] Conifers dominated the flora, as during the Triassic; they were the most diverse group and constituted the majority of large trees. Extant conifer families that flourished during the Jurassic included the Araucariaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Taxodiaceae.[6] The extinct Mesozoic conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae dominated low latitude vegetation, as did the shrubby Bennettitales.[7] Cycads were also common, as were ginkgos and tree ferns in the forest. Smaller ferns were probably the dominant undergrowth. Caytoniaceous seed ferns were another group of important plants during this time and are thought to have been shrub to small-tree sized.[8] Ginkgo-like plants were particularly common in the mid- to high northern latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, podocarps were especially successful, while Ginkgos and Czekanowskiales were rare.[9],[10] The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Genera Agathis Araucaria Wollemia The Araucariaceae are a very ancient family of conifers. ... Genera Cephalotaxus Amentotaxus Torreya Species Cephalotaxus fortunei Cephalotaxus griffithii Cephalotaxus hainanensis Cephalotaxus harringtonia Cephalotaxus koreana Cephalotaxus lanceolata Cephalotaxus latifolia Cephalotaxus manni Cephalotaxus oliveri Cephalotaxus sinensis Cephalotaxus wilsoniana Amentotaxus argotaenia Amentotaxus assamica Amentotaxus formosana Amentotaxus poilanei Amentotaxus yunnanensis Torreya californica Torreya fargesii Torreya grandis Torreya jackii Torreya nucifera Torreya taxifolia The... Genera Subfamily Pinoideae     Pinus - pines (about 115 species) Subfamily Piceoideae     Picea - spruces (about 35 species) Subfamily Laricoideae     Cathaya (one species)     Larix - larches (about 14 species)     Pseudotsuga - douglas-firs (five species) Subfamily Abietoideae     Abies - firs (about 50 species)     Cedrus - cedars (two to four species)     Pseudolarix - golden larch (one species)     Keteleeria (three... Genera Acmopyle Afrocarpus Dacrycarpus Dacrydium Falcatifolium Halocarpus Lagarostrobos Lepidothamnus Manoao Microcachrys Microstrobos Nageia Parasitaxus Phyllocladus Podocarpus Prumnopitys Retrophyllum Saxegothaea Sundacarpus A large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. ... Genera Taxaceae sensu stricto Taxus Pseudotaxus Austrotaxus — Cephalotaxaceae Torreya Amentotaxus Cephalotaxus The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of coniferous plants, or in other interpretations (see Classification, below), six genera and about 30 species. ... The Taxodiaceae was at one time regarded as a distinct plant family comprising the following ten genera of coniferous trees: Athrotaxis Cryptomeria Cunninghamia Glyptostrobus Metasequoia Sciadopitys Sequoia Sequoiadendron Taiwania Taxodium However, recent research has shown that the Taxodiaceae, with the single exception of Sciadopitys, should be merged into the Family... Cheirolepidiaceae is a family of extinct coniferous plants. ... Bennettitales is an order of plants in the anthophyte clade that first appeared in the Triassic period and became extinct toward the end of the Cretaceous. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Tree Fern refers to any fern that grows with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level. ... Ferns could be the plural of fern, a type of plant that reproduces using spores rather than seeds. ... Genera Acmopyle Afrocarpus Dacrycarpus Dacrydium Falcatifolium Halocarpus Lagarostrobos Lepidothamnus Manoao Microcachrys Microstrobos Nageia Parasitaxus Phyllocladus Podocarpus Prumnopitys Retrophyllum Saxegothaea Sundacarpus A large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. ...


Notes:

Sunset on Jurassic North America, with Camarasaurus, Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus and some small pterosaurs.
Sunset on Jurassic North America, with Camarasaurus, Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus and some small pterosaurs.
  1. ^ Late Jurassic
  2. ^ Jurassic Period
  3. ^ http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/geology/legend/ages/jurassic.html map]
  4. ^ Monroe and Wicander, 607.
  5. ^ Haines, 2000.
  6. ^ Behrensmeyer et al, 1992, 349.
  7. ^ Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 352
  8. ^ Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 353
  9. ^ Haines, 2000.
  10. ^ Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 352

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 357 pixelsFull resolution (2574 × 1150 pixel, file size: 598 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 357 pixelsFull resolution (2574 × 1150 pixel, file size: 598 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species (holotype) The Camarasaurus (pronounced KAM-a-rah-SORE-us) was a genera of quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... For the extinct amphibian, see Diplocaulus. ... Species (type) ?B. (Giraffatitan) brancai Brachiosaurus (IPA: ) meaning Arm Lizard, from the Greek brachion/βραχιων meaning arm and sauros/σαυρος meaning lizard, was a genus of sauropod dinosaur which lived during the Late Jurassic Period. ...

References

  • Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Damuth, J.D., DiMichele, W.A., Potts, R., Sues, H.D. & Wing, S.L. (eds.) (1992), Terrestrial Ecosystems through Time: the Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, ISBN 0-226-04154-9 (cloth), ISBN 0-226-04155-7 (paper)
  • Haines, Tim (2000) Walking with Dinosaurs: A Natural History, New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc., p. 65. ISBN 0-563-38449-2
  • Kazlev, M. Alan (2002) Paleos website Accessed Jan. 8, 2006
  • Mader, Sylvia (2004) Biology, eighth edition
  • Monroe, James S., and Reed Wicander. (1997) The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution, 2nd ed. Belmont: West Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-314-09577-2
  • Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's) http://www.stratigraphy.org/gssp.htm Accessed April 30, 2006.
  • Stanley, S.M. and Hardie, L.A. (1998). "Secular oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of reef-building and sediment-producing organisms driven by tectonically forced shifts in seawater chemistry". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 144: 3-19.
  • Stanley, S.M. and Hardie, L.A. (1999). "Hypercalcification; paleontology links plate tectonics and geochemistry to sedimentology". GSA Today 9: 1-7.
  • Taylor, P.D. and Wilson, M.A., 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62: 1-103. [1]

The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering...

External links

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Jurassic
Jurassic period
Lower/Early Jurassic Middle Jurassic Upper/Late Jurassic
Hettangian | Sinemurian
Pliensbachian | Toarcian
Aalenian | Bajocian
Bathonian | Callovian
Oxfordian | Kimmeridgian
Tithonian
Mesozoic era
Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Massive cliffs in Zion Canyon consist of Lower Jurassic formations, including (from bottom to top): the Wingate Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the massive Navajo Sandstone. ... The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification, is the second epoch of the Jurassic period. ... Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ... The Hettangian is the first stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. ... The Sinemurian is a stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. ... The Pliensbachian (also known as Charmouthian) is a stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. ... The Toarcian Stage was the last faunal stage of the Early Jurassic period. ... The Aalenian is a subdivision of the Middle Jurassic period of the geologic timescale that extends from about 175. ... In the geologic timescale, the Bajocian is the age of the Middle Jurassic epoch of the Jurassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 171 million 600 thousand and 167 million 700 thousand years ago, approximatedly. ... In the geologic timescale, the Bathonian is the age of the Middle Jurassic epoch of the Jurassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 167 million 700 thousand and 164 million 700 thousand years ago, approximatedly. ... The Callovian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 164. ... The Oxfordian is the first stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. ... The Kimmeridgian is a stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. ... The Tithonian (141-135 MYA) is the most recent faunal stage of the Jurassic era. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...

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The Jurassic Period (211 words)
this was the Jurassic Period, beginning approximately 210 million years ago and lasting for 70 million years of the Mesozoic Era.
Outside of Hollywood, the Jurassic is still important to us today, both because of its wealth of fossils and because of its economic importance -- the oilfields of the North Sea, for instance, are Jurassic in age.
The Jurassic Period is part of the Mesozoic Era.
Filmtracks: Jurassic Park (John Williams) (2254 words)
With Jurassic Park, Williams was given an opportunity to merge nearly every one of his dominant composition styles of the early 1990's (a fantastic era for the composer, by all accounts) into one score.
Their purposes are obviously different: a bold and layered brass romp, aided by crashing cymbals and rolling timpani, introduce the audience to the island near the outset of the film, and continues to define the adventure associated with the park.
Viewers of the film are introduced to the "panic theme" relatively early in the film; in the latter half of "Incident at Isla Nublar," after a nasty little accident with a raptor, Williams presents the rolling woodwind panic theme, often performed in the depths of the section.
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