FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Jupiter (planet)
Jupiter

Click image for description
Orbital characteristics (Epoch J2000)
Semi-major axis 778,412,027 km
5.203 363 01 AU
Orbital circumference 4.888 Tm
32.675 AU
Eccentricity 0.048 392 66
Perihelion 740,742,598 km
4.951 558 43 AU
Aphelion 816,081,455 km
5.455 167 59 AU
Orbital period 4335.3545 d
(11.87 a)
Synodic period 398.86 d
Avg. Orbital Speed 13.050 km/s
Max. Orbital Speed 13.705 km/s
Min. Orbital Speed 12.440 km/s
Inclination 1.305 30°
(6.09° to Sun's equator)
Longitude of the
ascending node
100.556 15°
Argument of the
perihelion
274.197 70°
Number of satellites 63
Physical characteristics
Equatorial diameter 142,984 km [1] (http://www.onasch.de/astro/showobject.php?lang=en&obj=p05)
(11.209 Earths)
Polar diameter 133,709 km
(10.517 Earths)
Oblateness 0.064 87
Surface area 6.14×1010 km2
(120.5 Earths)
Volume 1.338×1015 km3
(1235.6 Earths)
Mass 1.899×1027 kg
(317.8 Earths)
Mean density 1.326 g/cm3
Equatorial gravity 23.12 m/s2
(2.358 gee)
Escape velocity 59.54 km/s
Rotation period 0.413 538 021 d (9 h 55 min 29.685 s) 1 (http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm)
Rotation velocity 12.6 km/s = 45,300 km/h
(at the equator)
Axial tilt 3.13°
Right ascension
of North pole
268.05° (17 h 52 min 12 s)
Declination 64.49°
Albedo 0.52
Surface temp.
min mean max
110 K 152 K N/A K
Atmospheric characteristics
Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa
Hydrogen ~86%
Helium ~14%
Methane 0.1%
Water vapor 0.1%
Ammonia 0.02%
Ethane 0.0002%
Phosphine 0.0001%
Hydrogen sulfide <0.00010%

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and by far the largest within our solar system; some have described the solar system as consisting of the Sun, Jupiter, and assorted debris. It and the other gas giants Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are sometimes referred to as "Jovian planets." It was named after the Roman god Jupiter (also called Jove). Its symbol is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt (Unicode: ♃). Download high resolution version (840x840, 41 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. ... In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... In geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) a applies to ellipses and hyperbolas. ... To help compare distances at different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths starting at 1011 metres (100 million kilometres or 0. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... Tera (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... The metre (American spelling: meter), symbol: m, is the basic unit of distance (or of length, in the parlance of the physical sciences) in the International System of Units. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 3. ... A Julian year is the length of an average year in the Julian calendar, 365. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... Inclination is one of the six orbital parameters describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit and is the angular distance of the orbital plane from the plane of the reference (usually planets equator or the ecliptic), stated in degrees. ... A Sun is the star at the centre of a solar system. ... The Longitude of the ascending node () is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of the perihelion is one of the orbital elements describing the orbit of a planet. ... The common noun moon (not capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. ... The equator is an imaginary line drawn around a planet, halfway between the poles. ... For the geometric term, see diameter. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths starting at 108 m (100,000 km). ... For other uses of the word pole, see Pole (disambiguation). ... For the geometric term, see diameter. ... Oblate also refers to a member of the Roman Catholic religious order of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, or in some cases to a lay or religious person who has officially associated himself (or herself) with a monastic community such as the Benedictines for reasons of personal enrichment without... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... To help compare sizes of different surface areas, here is a list of areas between 10,000 million km2 and 100,000 million km2. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Volume (also called capacity) is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... (Redirected from 1 E27 kg) Categories: Orders of magnitude (mass) ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... g (also gee, g-force or g-load) is a non-SI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ... Escape Velocity means two things: the term escape velocity in physics the computer game Escape Velocity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Axial tilt is an astronomical term regarding the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane. ... Right ascension (RA; symbol α: Greek letter alpha) is the astronomical term for one of the two coordinates of a point on the celestial sphere when using the equatorial coordinate system. ... In astronomy declination (dec) is one of the two coordinates of the equatorial coordinate system, the other being either right ascension or hour angle. ... This article discusses the physical or planetological property of albedo. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists temperatures between 100 kelvins and 1000 kelvins. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of air above any area in the Earths atmosphere. ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1 , s Density, Hardness 0. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Helium, He, 2 Atomic mass 4. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. ... A falling water droplet Water (from the Anglo-Saxon and Low German wæter) is a colourless, tasteless, and odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is the most universal solvent. ... Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane. ... For other meaning link to H2S radar. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planētēs or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces no energy through nuclear fusion. ... A Sun is the star at the centre of a solar system. ... Logarithmic chart of the sizes of solar system bodies. ... Mosaic of the planets of the solar system, excluding Pluto, and including Earths Moon. ... A gas giant is a large planet that is not composed mostly of rock or other solid matter. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 100-300 kPa Hydrogen >84% Helium >12% Methane 2% Ammonia 0. ... From top: Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter. ... Roman mythology can be considered as two parts. ... In Roman mythology, Jupiter (sometimes shortened to Jove) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. ... In Roman mythology, Jupiter (sometimes shortened to Jove) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...

Contents

Overview

Jupiter is 2.5 times more massive than all the other planets combined, so massive that its barycenter with the Sun actually lies above the Sun's surface (1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center). It is 318 times more massive than Earth, with a diameter 11 times that of Earth, and with a volume 1300 times that of Earth. It has been termed by many a "failed star", even though the comparison would be akin to calling an asteroid "a failed Earth". As impressive as it is, extrasolar planets have been discovered with much greater masses. However, it is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition can, as adding extra mass would only result in further gravitational compression (until ignition occurs). There is no clear-cut definition of what distinguishes a large and massive planet such as Jupiter from a brown dwarf, although the latter possesses rather specific spectral lines, but in any case it would need to be about seventy times as massive if it were to become a star. Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... The barycenter (from the Greek βαρύκεντρον) is the center of mass of two or more bodies which are orbiting each other, and is the point around which both of them orbit. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... For the geometric term, see diameter. ... Volume (also called capacity) is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... Infrared image of the star GQ Lupi (A) orbited by a planet (b) at a distance of approximately 20 times the distance between Jupiter and our Sun. ... Brown dwarfs are sub-stellar objects (~5 to 90 Jupiter masses) that do not fuse hydrogen into helium in their cores, as do stars on the main sequence, but have fully convective surfaces and interiors, with no chemical differentiation by depth. ...


Jupiter also has the fastest rotation rate of any planet within the solar system, resulting in a flattening easily seen through a telescope. Its best known feature is probably the Great Red Spot, a storm larger than Earth. The planet is perpetually covered with a layer of clouds. The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1 The Great Red Spot is an anticyclonic (high-pressure) storm on the planet Jupiter, 22° south of the equator; which has lasted at least 300 years. ... Categories: Stub ... Cumulus of fair weather A cloud is a visible mass of condensed water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere above Earths (or another planetary bodys) surface. ...


Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus; however at times Mars appears brighter than Jupiter, while at others Jupiter appears brighter than Venus). It has been known since ancient times. Galileo Galilei's discovery, in 1610, of Jupiter's four large moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Galilean moons) was the first discovery of a celestial motion not apparently centered on the Earth. It was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory got him in trouble with the Inquisition. A Sun is the star at the centre of a solar system. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The common noun moon (not capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Sulfur dioxide 90% Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 1 µPa Oxygen 100% Europa (yew-roh-pa, Greek Ευρώπη) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, smallest of the four Galilean moons. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Oxygen 100% Ganymede is Jupiters largest moon, and indeed the largest moon in the entire solar system; it is larger in diameter than Mercury but only about half its mass. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Carbon dioxide 100% Callisto is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Holy Roman Catholic Church officials presiding over the torture of a man suspected to be homosexual before his subsequent execution during the Spanish Inquisition. ...


Physical characteristics

Planetary composition

Jupiter is composed of a relatively small rocky core, surrounded by metallic hydrogen, surrounded by liquid hydrogen, which is surrounded by gaseous hydrogen. There is no clear boundary or surface between these different phases of hydrogen; the conditions blend smoothly from gas to liquid as one descends. Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America. ... The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ... Metallic hydrogen results when hydrogen is sufficiently compressed and undergoes a phase change, and it is an example of degenerate matter. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Gas (actually as, part of the Gnu Binutils package) is the default Gcc Back-end. ...


Atmosphere

Detail of Jupiter's atmosphere, as imaged by Voyager 1.

Jupiter's atmosphere is composed of ~86% hydrogen and ~14% helium by number of atoms. The atmosphere is ~75%/24% by mass; with ~1% of the mass accounted for by other substances - the interior contains denser materials such that the distribution is ~71%/24%/5%. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapour, ammonia, and "rock". There are also negligible amounts of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Detail of Jupiters atmosphere, as imaged by Voyager 1. ... Detail of Jupiters atmosphere, as imaged by Voyager 1. ... A NASA artists rendition of a Voyager spacecraft The Voyager 1 spacecraft is an unmanned probe of the outer solar system, launched September 5, 1977, and currently operational. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1 , s Density, Hardness 0. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Helium, He, 2 Atomic mass 4. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. ... Boundaries: Phase, Pressure, Temperature Evaporation/Sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface, it is said to have evaporated. ... Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Carbon, C, 6 Chemical series Nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 2, p Density, Hardness 2267 kg/m3 0. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... For other meaning link to H2S radar. ... This page is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 2, p Density, Hardness 1. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 1960 kg/m3, 2 Appearance Lemon yellow at STP Atomic properties Atomic weight 32. ... Quartz crystal A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ...


This atmospheric composition is very close to the composition of the solar nebula. Saturn has a similar composition, but Uranus and Neptune have much less hydrogen and helium. In cosmogony, the solar nebula is the gaseous cloud (or accretion disc) from which our solar system is believed to have formed. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 100-300 kPa Hydrogen >84% Helium >12% Methane 2% Ammonia 0. ...


Jupiter's upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation, an effect first noticed by Giovanni Cassini (1690). The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is ~5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere. In addition, bands of clouds of different latitudes flow in opposing directions on the prevailing winds. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 600 km/h are not uncommon. A particularly violent storm, about three times Earth's diameter, is known as the Great Red Spot. Differential rotation is seen if parts of a rotating object move with different angular velocity. ... Giovanni Domenico (Jean-Dominique) Cassini Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625 - September 14, 1712) was an Italian-French astronomer and engineer. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Earths polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles, north of the Arctic circle, or south of the Antarctic Circle. ... The equator is an imaginary line drawn around a planet, halfway between the poles. ... Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... The word circulation can mean the following: The transport of blood through the circulatory system. ... Turbulent flow around an obstacle; the flow further away is laminar Laminar and turbulent water flow over the hull of a submarine Turbulence creating a vortex on an airplane wing In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by low-momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and... Wind speed is the speed of movement of air relative to a fixed point on the earth. ... The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1 The Great Red Spot is an anticyclonic (high-pressure) storm on the planet Jupiter, 22° south of the equator; which has lasted at least 300 years. ...


The only spacecraft to have descended into Jupiter's atmosphere is the Galileo probe - see below. Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ...


See also: Cloud pattern on Jupiter The cloud pattern on Jupiter describes the visible pattern of coloured cloud tops in its atmosphere, which is remarkable for its stability. ...


Planetary rings

Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of smoke-like dust particles knocked off of its moons by meteor impacts. The main ring is made of dust from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. Two wide gossamer rings encircle the main ring, originating from Thebe and Amalthea. There is also an extremely tenuous and distant outer ring that circles Jupiter backwards. Its origin is uncertain, but this outer ring might be made of captured interplanetary dust. A planetary ring is a ring of dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in a flat disc-shaped region. ...


See also: Rings of Jupiter. This is a list of the named rings of Jupiter. ...


Magnetosphere

Jupiter has a very large and powerful magnetosphere. In fact, if you could see Jupiter's magnetic field from Earth, it would appear five times as large as the full moon in the sky despite being so much farther away. This magnetic field collects a large flux of particle radiation in Jupiter's radiation belts, as well as producing a dramatic gas torus and flux tube associated with Io. Jupiter's magnetosphere is the largest structure in the solar system. A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object, in which phenomena are dominated by its magnetic field. ... In physics, a magnetic field is an entity produced by moving electric charges (electric currents) that exerts a force on other moving charges. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... The Galileo spacecraft took this composite image on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. ... Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass. ...


The Pioneer probes confirmed the existence that Jupiter's enormous magnetic field is 10 times stronger than Earth's and contains 20,000 times as much energy. The sensitive instruments aboard found that the Jovian magnetic field's "north" magnetic pole is at the planet’s geographic south pole, with the axis of the magnetic field tilted 11 degrees from the Jovian rotation axis and offset from the center of Jupiter in a manner similar to the axis of the Earth's field. The Pioneers measured the bow shock of the Jovian magnetosphere to the width of 26 million kilometres (16 million miles), with the magnetic tail extending beyond Saturn’s orbit. In physics, a magnetic field is an entity produced by moving electric charges (electric currents) that exerts a force on other moving charges. ... Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field. ... In a planetary magnetosphere, the bow shock is the boundary at which the solar wind abruptly drops as a result of its approach to the magnetopause. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object, in which phenomena are dominated by its magnetic field. ...


The data showed that the magnetic field fluctuates rapidly in size on the sunward side of Jupiter because of pressure variations in the solar wind, an effect studied in further detail by the two Voyager spacecraft. It was also discovered that streams of high-energy atomic particles are ejected from the Jovian magnetosphere and travel as far as the orbit of the Earth. Energetic protons were found and measured in the Jovian radiation belt and electric currents were detected flowing between Jupiter and some of its moons, particularly Io. This is an article about the astronomical phenomenon. ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ... In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ...


Exploration of Jupiter

Jupiter has been known of since ancient times and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky. In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter using a telescope, the first observation of moons other than Earth's. Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ...


A number of probes have visited Jupiter.


Pioneer flyby missions

Pioneer 10 flew past Jupiter in December of 1973, followed by Pioneer 11 exactly one year later. They provided important new data about Jupiter's magnetosphere, and took some low resolution photographs of the planet. Launch of Pioneer 10 Launched on March 2, 1972 by an Atlas-Centaur rocket, Pioneer 10 (also called Pioneer F) was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... Pioneer 11 at Saturn (artists impression) Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. ...


Voyager flyby missions

Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometres) away. Click image for full caption.

Voyager 1 flew by in March 1979 followed by Voyager 2 in July of the same year. The Voyagers vastly improved our understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. They also took the first close up images of the planet's atmosphere. Download high resolution version (758x858, 58 KB)Caption: Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. ... Download high resolution version (758x858, 58 KB)Caption: Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. ... A NASA artists rendition of a Voyager spacecraft The Voyager 1 spacecraft is an unmanned probe of the outer solar system, launched September 5, 1977, and currently operational. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Categories: Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune | NASA probes | Astronomy stubs ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ...


Ulysses flyby mission

In February 1992, Ulysses solar probe performed a flyby of Jupiter at a distance of 900,000 km (6.3 Jovian radii). The flyby was required to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. The probe conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere. Since there are no cameras onboard the probe, no images were taken. In February 2004, the probe came again in the vicinity of Jupiter. This time distance was much greater, about 240 million km. 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulysses spacecraft Ulysses is an unmanned probe designed to study the Sun at all latitudes. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Galileo mission

Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled.

So far the only spacecraft to orbit Jupiter is the Galileo orbiter, which went into orbit around Jupiter in December 7, 1995. It orbited the planet for over seven years and conducted multiple flybys of all of the Galilean moons and Amalthea. The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into Jupiter as it approached the planet in 1994, giving a unique vantage point for this spectacular event. However, the information gained about the Jovian system from the Galileo mission was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio transmitting antenna. Download high resolution version (1920x2400, 294 KB)Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2400, 294 KB)Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled. ... This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. ... Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Amalthea (pronounced am al THEE a) is the third of Jupiters known moons. ... Hubble Space Telescope image taken on May 17, 1994. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


An atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July, 1995. The probe entered the planet's atmosphere in December 7, 1995. It parachuted through 150 km of the atmosphere, collecting data for 58 minutes, before being crushed by the extreme pressure to which it was subjected. It would have then quickly melted and vaporized. The Galileo orbiter itself underwent a more rapid version of the same fate when it was deliberately crashed into the planet on September 21, 2003 at a speed of over 50 km/s, in order to avoid any possibility of it crashing into and possibly contaminating Europa, one of the Jovian moons. July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 1 µPa Oxygen 100% Europa (yew-roh-pa, Greek Ευρώπη) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, smallest of the four Galilean moons. ...


Cassini flyby mission

In 2000, the Cassini, en route to Saturn, flew by Jupiter and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever made of the planet. 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ...


Future probes

After the discovery of a liquid ocean on Jupiter's moon Europa, NASA is planning a mission dedicated to the icy moons. The JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) is expected to be launched sometime after 2012. Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 1 µPa Oxygen 100% Europa (yew-roh-pa, Greek Ευρώπη) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, smallest of the four Galilean moons. ... Artistss Conception of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) was a proposed spacecraft designed to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. ... 2012 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2007, Jupiter will also be briefly visited by the New Horizons probe, en route to Pluto. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Horizons New Horizons is a NASA unmanned spacecraft designed to fly by Pluto and its moon Charon and transmit images and data back to Earth. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ...


Jupiter's moons

Jupiter's 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter ( visible). From the top they are: , , and .
Jupiter's 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). From the top they are: Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Io.

Jupiter has at least 63 moons. For a complete listing of these moons, please see Jupiter's natural satellites. For a timeline of their discovery dates, see Timeline of natural satellites. Galilean moons of Jupiter Downloaded from : [[1]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Galilean moons of Jupiter Downloaded from : [[1]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1 The Great Red Spot is an anticyclonic (high-pressure) storm on the planet Jupiter, 22° south of the equator; which has lasted at least 300 years. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Carbon dioxide 100% Callisto is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Oxygen 100% Ganymede is Jupiters largest moon, and indeed the largest moon in the entire solar system; it is larger in diameter than Mercury but only about half its mass. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 1 µPa Oxygen 100% Europa (yew-roh-pa, Greek Ευρώπη) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, smallest of the four Galilean moons. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Sulfur dioxide 90% Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Jupiter has many natural satellites. ... Timeline of natural satellites in the Solar system by decade of discovery For comparison, discovery dates of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are also included, as well as the first six asteroids. ...


The four large moons, known as the "Galilean moons", are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Sulfur dioxide 90% Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 1 µPa Oxygen 100% Europa (yew-roh-pa, Greek Ευρώπη) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, smallest of the four Galilean moons. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Oxygen 100% Ganymede is Jupiters largest moon, and indeed the largest moon in the entire solar system; it is larger in diameter than Mercury but only about half its mass. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Carbon dioxide 100% Callisto is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. ...


Galilean moons

The orbits of Io, Europa and Ganymede form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one. This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, since each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes. Orbital Resonance is also the title of a science fiction novel by John Barnes. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ...

A picture of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble. The black spot is Io's shadow.

The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits. This constant tug of war causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, Jupiter's gravity stretching the moons more strongly during the portion of their orbits that are closest to it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes when they're farther away. This flexing causes tidal heating of the three moons' cores. This is seen most dramatically in Io's extraordinary volcanic activity, and to a somewhat less dramatic extent in the geologically young surface of Europa indicating recent resurfacing. Download high resolution version (736x612, 67 KB)Public Domain photo of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble Space Telescope. ... Download high resolution version (736x612, 67 KB)Public Domain photo of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble Space Telescope. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope orbiting the Earth 370 miles above the atmosphere. ... The tidal force is a secondary effect of the force of gravity and is responsible for the tides. ...


Classification of Jupiter's moons

It used to be thought that Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, but recent discoveries of many new small outer moons have complicated the division; there are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others.

  1. The inner group of four small moons all have diameters of less than 200 km, orbit at radii less than 200,000 km, and have orbital inclinations of less than half a degree.
  2. The four Galilean moons were all discovered by Galileo Galilei, orbit between 400,000 and 2,000,000 km, and include some of the largest moons in the solar system.
  3. Themisto is in a group of its own, orbiting halfway between the Galilean moons and the next group.
  4. The Himalia group is a tightly clustered group of moons with orbits around 11-12,000,000 km from Jupiter.
  5. Carpo is another isolated case; at the inner edge of the Ananke group, it revolves in the direct sense.
  6. The Ananke group is a group with rather indistinct borders, averaging 21,276,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 149 degrees.
  7. The Carme group is a fairly distinct group that averages 23,404,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 165 degrees.
  8. The Pasiphaë group is a disperse and only vaguely distinct group that covers all the outermost moons.

It is thought that the groups of smaller moons may each have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up into the existing moons of each group. Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Themisto (the-mis-toh, Greek Θεμιστώ) is a moon of Jupiter. ... The Himalia group is a dynamical grouping of Jupiters moons, which share similar orbits. ... Carpo (kar-poh, Greek Καρπώ) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Ananke group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... The Carme group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... The Pasiphaë group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ...


Cometary impact

Comet impacts on the surface of Jupiter. The dark clouds resulting from these impacts are larger than Earth itself.

During the period July 16 to July 22, 1994, over twenty fragments from the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit Jupiter's southern hemisphere, providing the first direct observation of a collision between two solar system objects. It is thought that due to Jupiter's large mass and location near the inner solar system it receives the most frequent comet impacts of the solar system's planets. Document containing picture: http://www. ... Document containing picture: http://www. ... Comet Hale-Bopp, showing a white dust tail and blue gas tail (February 1997) A comet is a small astronomical object similar to an asteroid but composed largely of ice. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Comet Hale-Bopp, showing a white dust tail and blue gas tail (February 1997) A comet is a small astronomical object similar to an asteroid but composed largely of ice. ... Hubble Space Telescope image taken on May 17, 1994. ...


Jupiter in fiction and film

  • Jupiter is the setting of Stanley Kubrick's classic film 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), although the novel of the same name by Sir Arthur C. Clarke is set in the Saturnian system instead. In both the book and the film of the sequel, 2010: Odyssey Two (1984), fictional technology converts Jupiter into a star by increasing the density of its core.
  • Both Arthur C. Clarke's novella A Meeting with Medusa (1988) and his novel 2010 depict journeys into the depths of Jupiter's atmosphere, where vast, city-sized floating life-forms have evolved.
  • Ben Bova's novel Jupiter (2001) also features a journey into Jupiter's clouds and the discovery of life there.
  • In the Star Trek universe, Jupiter is home to Jupiter Station.
  • The role-playing game Jovian Chronicles features a solar nation, the Jovian Confederacy, in a series of space colony cylinders called "Gray Viarium" colonies around Jupiter.
  • The novels of Kim Stanley Robinson, including The Memory of Whiteness, Green Mars and Blue Mars depict numerous ideas about the future colonization of Jupiter, although they focus more on the moons than on the planet itself.
  • The plot of the anime Martian Successor Nadesico revolves around a mysterious invasion force based on Jupiter, named the "Jovian Lizards", or simply the "Jovians", and the attempts of the earth's forces, and specifically the ship Nadesico, to subdue this invasion.
  • Jupiter is an important location in The Night's Dawn Trilogy by Peter F. Hamilton. This is where the first Bitek habitat was germinated and Edenism began.
  • In Piers Anthony's Bio of A Space Tyrant series, Jupiter is rendered into an analogue of North America. The moons are the Caribbean (and possibly Central America as well), Jupiter itself is inhabited by floating cities in its atmosphere to represent the United States, and the Red Spot represents Mexico.
  • In the anime Gunbuster, Jupiter is used to create the Black Hole Bomb, a massive weapon larger than a small planet, and capable of destroying part of a galaxy.
  • The Playstation 2 video game Zone of the Enders takes place in a colony orbiting Jupiter. Zone of the Enders: The 2nd Runner begins on the moon Callisto.

Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director. ... A movie poster from the original release of 2001 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) is an immensely popular and influential science fiction film and book; the film directed by Stanley Kubrick and the book written by Arthur C. Clarke. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Arthur C. Clarke, progenitor of communication satellites, is considered by many to be a grand master of science fiction. ... 2010: Odyssey Two, is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke (January 1982) and also a motion picture (1984) by Peter Hyams entitled simply 2010, or sometimes 2010: The Year We Make Contact. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A novella is a short, narrative, prose fiction work. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ben Bova (born November 8, 1932) is an American science fiction author and editor. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Enterprise boldly going where no man had gone before. ... In the Star Trek fictional universe, Jupiter Station is a space station orbiting Jupiter, and home of holo-programmer scientist, Dr. Lewis Zimmerman, who spearheaded the creation of the Emergency Medical Hologram in the 2370s. ... Jovian Chronicles is a science fiction game setting published by Dream Pod 9 since 1992. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus Space colonization, also called space settlement and space humanization, is the hypothetical permanent autonomous (self-sufficient) human habitation of locations outside Earth. ... The Memory of Whiteness is a science fiction novel written by Kim Stanley Robinson in 1985. ... The Mars trilogy is a series of three science fiction novels by Kim Stanley Robinson, chronicling the settlement and terraforming of the planet Mars. ... The Mars trilogy is a series of three science fiction novels by Kim Stanley Robinson, chronicling the settlement and terraforming of the planet Mars. ... A scene from Cowboy Bebop (1998) Anime (アニメ) is Japanese animation, often characterized by stylized colorful images depicting vibrant characters in a variety of different settings and storylines, aimed at a variety of different audiences. ... Touch my PENIS PLEASE! LOVE IT WITH CARE! ... Author Peter F. Hamiltons The Nights Dawn Trilogy consists of three epic science fiction novels: The Reality Dysfunction, The Neutronium Alchemist, and The Naked God. ... Peter F. Hamilton, born 1960 in Rutland, England, is one of the most popular and recognised British science fiction authors of the 1990s. ... Edenism is a fictional group-entity culture in Peter F. Hamiltons science fiction The Nights Dawn Trilogy series. ... Piers Anthony Dillingham Jacob (born August 6, 1934 in Oxford, England) is a writer in the science fiction and fantasy genres, publishing under the name Piers Anthony. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and in population after Eurasia and Africa. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Gunbuster is an anime Original Video Animation series 6 videos in length created by Gainax studios. ... The PlayStation 2 (PS2) (Japanese: プレイステーション2) is Sonys second video game console, after the PlayStation. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Zone of the Enders, also known as Z.O.E, is a video game that was developed and published by Konami in 2001 for the PlayStation 2. ...

Jupiter in astrology

Main article: Planets in astrology#Jupiter In traditional Western astrology, the planets have the significances listed below. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
  • NASA's Jupiter fact sheet (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/jupiterfact.html)
  • A Trip Into Space (http://www.vias.org/spacetrip/jupiter_1.html) Data and photos on Jupiter
  • Jupiter's Inner Moons (http://pages.preferred.com/%7Etedstryk/innersat.html)

File links The following pages link to this file: Abu Dhabi Abraham Lincoln Australia Adolf Hitler Animation Andorra Alaska Anatomy Asia Albert Einstein Asterales Automobile Aircraft Alexander Graham Bell Apple Computer American Civil War Ancient Egypt Asteraceae Alps Arches National Park Aarhus Almond Caesar Augustus Acacia Acropolis Acupuncture Amaranth Alexander... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  • Bagenal, F. & Dowling, T. E. & McKinnon, W. B. (Eds.). (2004). Jupiter: The planet, satellites, and magnetosphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(moon navigator) | Jupiter | Metis | ...


Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Metis (pronounced MEE tis) is the innermost member of the Amalthea group of Jupiters small inner moons. ...

Jupiter's natural satellites

edit  (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Jupiter_Footer&action=edit) Jupiter has many natural satellites. ...

Amalthea group | Galilean moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto | Themisto | Himalia group | Carpo | S/2003 J 12 | Ananke group | Carme group | Pasiphaë group | S/2003 J 2


The Amalthea group is made up of the small moons of Jupiter which orbit close to the planet, merging with its planetary ring. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Sulfur dioxide 90% Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 1 µPa Oxygen 100% Europa (yew-roh-pa, Greek Ευρώπη) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, smallest of the four Galilean moons. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Oxygen 100% Ganymede is Jupiters largest moon, and indeed the largest moon in the entire solar system; it is larger in diameter than Mercury but only about half its mass. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Carbon dioxide 100% Callisto is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Themisto (the-mis-toh, Greek Θεμιστώ) is a moon of Jupiter. ... The Himalia group is a dynamical grouping of Jupiters moons, which share similar orbits. ... Carpo (kar-poh, Greek Καρπώ) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 12 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Ananke group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... The Carme group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... The Pasiphaë group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... S/2003 J 2 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jupiter (0 words)
Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus).
The gas planets do not have solid surfaces, their gaseous material simply gets denser with depth (the radii and diameters quoted for the planets are for levels corresponding to a pressure of 1 atmosphere).
Jupiter is about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium (by numbers of atoms, 75/25% by mass) with traces of methane, water, ammonia and "rock".
Jupiter (0 words)
Jupiter possesses 28 known satellites, four of which - Callisto, Europa, Ganymede and Io - were observed by Galileo as long ago as 1610.
This true color mosaic of Jupiter was constructed from images taken by the Cassini spacecraft on December 29, 2000, during its closest approach to the giant planet at a distance of approximately 10 million kilometers (6.2 million miles).
Jupiter's diameter is eleven times that of Earth, so the smallest storms on this mosaic are comparable in size to the largest hurricanes on Earth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m