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Encyclopedia > Jupiter (mythology)
"Jupiter et Thétis" by Jean Ingres, 1811.
"Jupiter et Thétis" by Jean Ingres, 1811.

In Roman mythology, Jupiter held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. He was called Iuppiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter Best, Greatest); as the patron deity of the Roman state, he ruled over laws and social order. He was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with Juno and Minerva. In Latin mythology Jupiter is the father of Mars. Therefore, Jupiter is the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome. For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Jupiter may refer to: Jupiter, the planet Jupiter, a Roman god the Jupiter Symphony, a symphony by Mozart Jupiter, Florida Two rockets: Jupiter IRBM Jupiter-C Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity, a movement in Holsts suite The Planets Sailor Jupiter, the codename of Makoto Kino, a character in the... Jove usually refers to the god Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x680, 298 KB) Description: Jupiter et Thétis, 1811 Source: [1] Date:  Author: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Permission:  Other versions of this file:  File links The following pages link to this file: Jupiter (god) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x680, 298 KB) Description: Jupiter et Thétis, 1811 Source: [1] Date:  Author: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Permission:  Other versions of this file:  File links The following pages link to this file: Jupiter (god) ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Capitoline Triad was comprised of three deities of Roman mythology who were worshipped most famously in an elaborate temple on Romes Capitoline Hill. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ...


Iuppiter, originating in a vocative compound derived from archaic Latin Iovis and pater (Latin for father), was also used as the nominative case. Jove[1] is a less common English formation based on Iov-, the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name. Additionally, linguistic studies identify his name as deriving from the Indo-European compound *dyēus- pəter- ("O Father God"), the Indo-European deity from whom also derive the Germanic *Tiwaz (from whose name comes the word Tuesday), the Greek Zeus, and the Vedic equivalent, Dyaus Pita. The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... *DyÄ“us is the reconstructed chief god of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. ... This article is about Tyr, the god. ... The god Týr, identified with Mars, after whom Tuesday is named. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Vedic mythology that occupies a pivotal position in the history of religions, is a significant aspect of Hindu mythology and has directly contributed to the evolution and development of Hinduism. ... In the Vedic religion is Akasha, the Sky Father, husband of Prithvi and father of Agni and Indra (RV 4. ...


The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter, and was the original namesake of Latin forms of the weekday known in English as Thursday[2] but originally called Iovis Dies in Latin, giving rise to jeudi in French, jueves in Spanish, joi in Romanian, giovedì in Italian and dijous in Catalan. Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Contents

Epithets of Jupiter

  1. Jupiter Ammon (Jupiter was equated with the Egyptian deity Amun after the Roman conquest)
  2. Jupiter Caelestis ("heavenly")
  3. Jupiter Fulgurator ("of the lightning")
  4. Jupiter Laterius ("God of Latium")
  5. Jupiter Lucetius ("of the light")
  6. Jupiter Pluvius ("sender of rain") See also Pluvius
  7. Jupiter Stator (from stare meaning "standing")
  8. Jupiter Terminus or Jupiter Terminalus (defends boundaries). (See also Terminus)
  9. Jupiter Tonans ("thunderer")
  10. Jupiter Victor (led Roman armies to victory)
  11. Jupiter Summanus (sender of nocturnal thunder)
  12. Jupiter Feretrius ("who carries away the spoils of war")
  13. Jupiter Optimus Maximus (best and greatest)
  14. Jupiter Brixianus (Jupiter equated with the local god of the town of Brescia in Cisalpine Gaul (modern North Italy))
  15. Jupiter Ladicus (Jupiter equated with a Celtiberian mountain-god and worshipped as the spirit of Mount Ladicus)
  16. Jupiter Parthinus or Partinus (Jupiter was worshiped under this name on the borders of north-east Dalmatia and Upper Moesia, perhaps being associated with the local tribe known as the Partheni)
  17. Jupiter Poeninus (Jupiter was worshiped in the Alps under this name, around the Great St Bernard Pass, where he had a sanctuary)
  18. Jupiter Solutorius (a local version of Jupiter worshipped in Spain; he was syncretised with the local Iberian god Eacus)
  19. Jupiter Taranis (Jupiter equated with the Celtic god Taranis)
  20. Jupiter Uxellinus (Jupiter as a god of high mountains)

For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... In Roman mythology, Jupiter Pluvius was the reliever of droughts. ... In Roman mythology, Terminus was the god of boundaries. ... In Roman mythology, Summanus was the god of nocturnal thunder, as opposed to Jupiter, the god of diurnal (daylight) thunder. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob) is the inconsiderate taking of valuables triggered by a change in authority or the absence thereof. ... The Capitoline Temple. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Eacus is a weather god worshipped in Iberian Spain. ... In Celtic mythology Taranis was a god of thunder worshipped in Gaul and Britain and mentioned, along with Esus and Toutatis, by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia. ...

Capitoline Jupiter

The largest temple in Rome was that of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill. Here he was worshipped alongside Juno and Minerva, forming the Capitoline Triad. Jupiter was also worshipped at Capitoline Hill in the form of a stone, known as Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone, which was sworn upon as an oath stone. Temples to Juppiter Optimus Maximus or the Capitoline Triad as a whole were commonly built by the Romans at the center of new cities in their colonies. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter, greatest and best; also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus), was the great temple on the Capitoline Hill in Ancient Rome. ... The numbers and architecture of Roman temples reflect the citys receptivity to all the religions of the world. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter, greatest and best; also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus), was the great temple on the Capitoline Hill in Ancient Rome. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ...


The building was begun by Tarquinius Priscus and completed by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, although it was inaugurated, by a tradition recorded by the historians, on September 13, at the beginning of the Republican era, 509BCE. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I) was the legendary fifth King of Rome, said to have reigned from 616 BC to 579 BC. According to Livy, Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii and was originally named Lucumo (it is now thought that... Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Great or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and son-in-law of Servius Tullius. ...


The temple building stood on a high podium with an entrance staircase to the front. On three of its sides it was probably surrounded by a colonnade, with another two rows of pillars drawn up in line with those on the façade of the deep pronaos which precedes the three cellae, ranged side by side in the Etruscan manner, the central one being wider than the other two. A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, situated between the colonnade or walls of the portico and the entrance to the cella or shrine. ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ...


The surviving remains of the foundations and of the podium, most of which lie underneath Palazzo Caffarelli, are made up of enormous parallel sections of walling made in blocks of grey tufa-quadriga stone (cappellaccio) and bear witness to the sheer size of the surface area of the temple's base (about 55 x 60 m). The Capitoline Hill (Latin: Mons Capitolinus , Italian: Campidoglio or Monte Capitolino), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ...


On the roof a terracotta auriga, made by the Etruscan artist Vulca of Veii in the 6th Century BCE, commissioned by Tarquinius Superbus; it was replaced in 296BCE, by a bronze one. The cult image, by Vulca, was of terracotta; its face was painted red on festival days (Ovid, Fasti, 1.201f). Beneath the cella were the favissae, or underground passages, in which were stored the old statues that had fallen from the roof, and various dedicatory gifts. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Great or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and son-in-law of Servius Tullius. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The temple was rebuilt in marble after fires had worked total destruction in 83BCE, when the cult image was lost, and the Sibylline Books kept in a stone chest. Fires followed in 69CE, when the Capitol was stormed by the supporters of Vitellius and in 80CE. The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ... Aulus Vitellius (September 24, 15 – December 22, 69), also called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus, was Roman Emperor from April 17, 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the Four Emperors (the others being Galba, Otho, and Vespasian). ...


In front of the steps was the altar of Jupiter (ara Iovis). The large square in front of the temple (the Area Capitolina) featured a number of temples dedicated to minor divinities, in addition to other religious buildings, statues and trophies.


Its dilapidation began in the fifth century, when Stilicho carried off the gold-plated doors and Narses removed many of the statues, in 571CE. Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ...


When Hadrian build Aelia Capitolina on the site of Jerusalem, a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was built in the place of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem. Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


Juppiter Tonans

Juppiter Tonans, possibly reflecting the cult image of the temple of Juppiter Tonans (Prado)
Juppiter Tonans, possibly reflecting the cult image of the temple of Juppiter Tonans (Prado)

Juppiter Tonans ("Thundering Jove") was the aspect (numen) of Jupiter venerated in the Temple of Juppiter Tonans, which was vowed in 26BCE by Augustus and dedicated in 22 on the Capitoline Hill; the Emperor had narrowly escaped being struck by lightning during the campaign in Cantabria.[3] An old temple in the Campus Martius had long been dedicated to Juppiter Fulgens. The original cult image installed in the sanctuary by its founder was by Leochares,[4] a Greek sculptor of the 4th Century BCE. The sculpture at the Prado (illustration) is considered to be a late first century replacement commissioed by Domitian. The Baroque-era restoration of the arms gives Jupiter a baton-like scepter in his raised hand. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1363 KB) Sculpture of Jupiter Tonans at Museo del Prado (Madrid, Spain). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1363 KB) Sculpture of Jupiter Tonans at Museo del Prado (Madrid, Spain). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... Model of the ancient Campus Martius around 300 AD The Pantheon, a landmark of the Campus Martius since ancient Rome. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Leochares was an Greek sculptor, who lived in the 4th Century B.C. He is theorised as the creator of Apollo Belvedere, which is currently housed in Vatican City. ... Prado may refer to: Land Cruiser Prado, a 4WD vehicle from Toyota Museo del Prado, an art gallery in Madrid Prado, Spain, a village in Castile-Leon the prado dam Prado River Miguelanxo Prado, a spanish comic book artist Ed Prado, a U.S. appeals court judge PRADO, a PHP... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


In language

It was once believed that the Roman god Jupiter (Zeus in Greece) was in charge of cosmic Justice, and in ancient Rome, people swore to Jove[citation needed] in their courts of law, which lead to the common expression "By Jove!", still used as an archaism today. In addition, "Jovial" is a somewhat common adjective still used to describe people who are jolly, optimistic, and buoyant in temperament. For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... For temperament in dog fancy, see conformation point. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Most common in poetry, for its useful meter, and in the expression "By Jove!"
  2. ^ English Thursday is named after Thunor or Thor, a similar deity from Germanic mythology.
  3. ^ Suetonius, Vita Augusti 29.91, etc. See Samuel Ball Platner and Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, (London: Oxford University Press) 1929. On-line text)
  4. ^ According to Pliny's Natural History, 39.79

This article is about Thor, the god of Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jupiter (mythology)
  • Musei Capitolini
  • Georges Dumézil, Mitra-Varuna. ISBN 0-942299-13-2
  • Georges Dumézil, Archaic Roman Religion. ISBN 0-8018-5481-4
  • Article "Jupiter" in The Oxford Classical Dictionary. ISBN 0-19-860641-9
  • Miranda J. Smith, 'Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend' ISBN 0-500-27976-6
  • Favourite Greek Myths, Mary Pope Osbourne Aedes Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini
  • Samuel Ball Platner and Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, (London: Oxford University Press) 1929
Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Roman polytheism was the religion of the Etruscans, Romans, and most of their subjects. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... Bust of a flamen, 3rd century, Louvre A flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state supported god or goddess in Roman religion. ... The bronze sheeps liver of Piacenza, with Etruscan inscriptions In Roman practice inherited from the Etruscans, a haruspex (plural haruspices) was a man trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy, hepatoscopy or hepatomancy. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... The rex Nemorensis, (Latin: the king of Nemi or the king of the grove) was a sort of sacred king who served as priest of the goddess Diana at Aricia in Italy, by the shores of lake Nemi. ... A sacred king, according to the systematic interpretation of mythology developed by Sir James George Frazer in his influential book The Golden Bough, was a king who represented a solar deity in a periodically re-enacted fertility rite. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Image File history File links She-wolf_suckles_Romulus_and_Remus. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... This is a list of Roman deities with brief descriptions. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... The Birth of Venus, by Sandro Botticelli c. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind... Lares (pl. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... Adranus or Adranos (Greek: ) was a fire god worshipped by the Sicels, the original inhabitants of the island of Sicily. ... The Averrunci, in antiquity, were an order of deities among the Romans, whose office was to avert dangers and evils. ... Averruncus is a minor god in Roman mythology. ... Bromius is the Roman god of wine. ... Caelus was the Latin name that the Romans used for the Greek sky god Uranus. ... In Roman mythology, Clitunno was a river god, an Oceanid. ... This article is about the Roman god. ... Dis Pater, or Dispater, was a Roman and Celtic god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Jupiter. ... Marble sculpture of Pan copulating with a goat, recovered from Herculaneum Pan (Greek Παν, genitive Πανος) is the Greek god who watches over shepherds and their flocks. ... Late second-century statue of Glycon. ... In Roman mythology, the god Inuus protected livestock. ... In Roman mythology, Lupercus was a name for the Greek god Pan. ... In Roman mythology, Orcus was a god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths, more equivalent to Pluto than to the Greek Hades, and later identified with Dis Pater. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Aius Locutius is a Roman legend. ... In Roman mythology, Angerona or Angeronia was an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. ... In Roman mythology, Concordia was the goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony. ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind... In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jupiter - MSN Encarta (1198 words)
Jupiter orbits the Sun at an average distance of 778 million km (484 million mi), which is about five times the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Jupiter’s year, or the time it takes to complete an orbit about the Sun, is 11.9 Earth years, and its day, or the time it takes to rotate on its axis, is about 9.9 hours, less than half an Earth day.
Jupiter’s low density indicates that the planet is composed primarily of the lightest elements—hydrogen and helium.
Jupiter (mythology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (726 words)
Jupiter is, properly speaking, a derivation of Jove and pater (Latin for father).
Temples to Jupiter Optimus Maximus or the Capitoline Triad as a whole were commonly built by the Romans at the center of new cities in their colonies.
It was once believed that the Roman god Jupiter (Zeus in Greece) was in charge of cosmic Justice, and in ancient Rome, people swore to Jove in their courts of law, which lead to the common expression "By Jove!", still used as an archaism today.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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