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Encyclopedia > Jupiter's natural satellites
Jupiter's outer moons and their highly inclined orbits.

Jupiter has sixty-three known natural satellites. Image File history File links Jupiter_moons_anim. ... Image File history File links Jupiter_moons_anim. ... Adjectives: Jovian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 20–200 kPa[4] (cloud layer) Composition: ~86% H2 ~13% Helium 0. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ...

Contents

Discovery of the moons

The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
The Galilean moons and their orbits around Jupiter.
The Galilean moons and their orbits around Jupiter.

Although claims are made for the observation of one of Jupiter's moons by Chinese astronomer Gan De in 364 BC, the first certain observations of Jupiter's satellites are those of Galileo Galilei in 1610, who sighted the four large Galilean moons with his 33x telescope. Download high resolution version (990x337, 52 KB)Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech. ... Download high resolution version (990x337, 52 KB)Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Sulfur dioxide 90% Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ...


No additional satellites were discovered until E.E. Barnard observed Amalthea in 1892. Further discoveries, aided by telescopic photography, followed quickly over the course of the twentieth century, and by 1975, before the Voyagers reached Jupiter, the planet was known to have at least thirteen satellites. Edward Emerson Barnard (December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923) was an American astronomer. ... Amalthea (am-əl-thee-ə, IPA: , Greek Αμάλθεια) is the third moon of Jupiter in order of distance from the planet, and the fifth in order of discovery. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ...


The Voyager 1 mission discovered three inner moons in 1979, bringing the total then known to 16 (17 if one counted Themisto, which had been found but then lost in 1975). The total rested there until 1999. Since then, researchers using sensitive ground-based detectors have recovered Themisto and found a further 46 tiny moons in long, eccentric, generally retrograde orbits. They average 3 kilometres in diameter, and the largest is barely 9 km across. All of these moons are thought to be captured asteroidal or perhaps cometary bodies, possibly fragmented into several pieces, but very little is actually known about them. The total number of known moons of Jupiter now stands at 63, currently the most of any planet in the solar system. Many additional tiny moons may exist that have not yet been discovered. Trajectory The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 733-kilogram robotic space probe of the outer solar system and beyond, launched September 5, 1977, and is currently operational. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Themisto (thÉ™-mis-toe, IPA: ; Greek Θεμιστώ), or Jupiter XVIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... It has been suggested that minor planet be merged into this article or section. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet McNaught as seen from Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia on 23 January 2007 For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ...


The most recent discoveries

On October 6, 1999, the Spacewatch project discovered an asteroid, 1999 UX18. But it was soon realised that this was in fact a previously undiscovered moon of Jupiter, now called Callirrhoe. One year later, between November 23 and December 5, 2000, the team led by Scott S. Sheppard and David C. Jewitt of the University of Hawaii began a systematic search for small irregular moons of Jupiter. The other members of the team included, at various times, Yanga R. Fernández, Eugene A. Magnier, Scott Dahm, Aaron Evans, Henry H. Hsieh, Karen J. Meech, John L. Tonry, David J. Tholen (all from the University of Hawaii), Jan Kleyna (Cambridge University), Brett J. Gladman (University of Toronto), John J. Kavelaars (Hertzberg Institute of Astrophysics), Jean-Marc Petit (Observatoire de Besançon) and Rhiannon Lynne Allen (University of Michigan / University of British Columbia). October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Spacewatch is a project at the University of Arizona that specializes in the study of minor planets, and including various types of asteroids and comets. ... It has been suggested that minor planet be merged into this article or section. ... Callirrhoe (IPA: , ka-leer-oe-ee, Greek Καλλιρρόη) (Jupiter XVII) is one of Jupiters outermost named natural satellites. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scott S. Sheppard is an astronomer based at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. ... David C. Jewitt is a Professor of astronomy at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... Yanga (Yan) Roland Fernández (June 10, 1971 – ) is a Canadian-American astronomer at the University of Hawaii. ... David J. Tholen is an American astronomer at the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii, who specializes in planetary and solar system astronomy. ... Jan Kleyna is a postdoctoral astronomy researcher at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Brett J. Gladman is a Canadian astronomer and an Associate Professor at the University of British Columbias Department of Physics and Astronomy, in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a coeducational public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... JJ Kavelaars is a Canadian astronomer who was part of a team that discovered several moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. ... The Observatoire des sciences de lUnivers de Besançon (Observatoire de Besançon for short, Besançon Astronomical Observatory or Besançon Observatory in English) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS, National Center for Scientific Research). ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ...


The team used the world's two largest CCD cameras, mounted on two of the thirteen telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii: the Subaru (8.3 m diameter) and the Canada-France-Hawaii (3.6 m). The 2000 observations revealed ten new moons, putting the count at 28 (Themisto had been rediscovered at the beginning of 2000). A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the island of Hawaii. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Subaru at sunset Subaru Telescope (In Japanese: すばる望遠鏡) is the 8. ... Categories: Telescopes | Hawaii landmarks | Astronomy stubs ...


The following year, between December 9 and 11, 2001, eleven other moons were discovered, bringing the total to thirty-nine. The year 2002 bore less fruit, netting only one moon, Arche. However, four months later, between February 5 and 9, 2003, twenty-three more moons were found, making for a complete sum of sixty-three moons. Arche (ar-kee, IPA: ; Greek Αρχη), or Jupiter XLIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Table of known Jovian Satellites

The Jovian moons are listed here by orbital period, from shortest to longest. Moons massive enough for their surfaces to have collapsed into a spheroid are highlighted in blue; these are the "Galilean Moons", which are comparable in size to Earth's moon. Irregular (captured) moons are indicated by grey shading: light grey for prograde satellites, dark grey for retrograde. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... In astronomy, an irregular satellite is a natural satellite following a distant, inclined, often retrograde orbit and believed to be captured as opposed to a regular satellite, formed in situ. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ...

Order Name

(Pronunciation key) This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ...

Image Diameter
(km)
Mass
(kg)
Semi-major axis
(km)(3)
Orbital period
(d)(3)(4)
Inclination (°)(5) Eccentricity Discovered Group
1 XVI Metis ˈmi.tɨs 43 1.2E+17 127 690(1) +7h 4m 29s(2) 0.000° 0.0012 1980 Amalthea
2 XV Adrastea ˌæd.rəˈsti.ə 26×20×16 7.5E+15 128 690(1) +7h 9m 30s(2) 0.000° 0.0018 1979
3 V Amalthea ˌæm.əlˈθi.ə 262×146×134 2.1E+18 181 170(1) +11h 57m 22.67s(2) 0.360° 0.0031 1892
4 XIV Thebe ˈθi.bi 110×90 1.5E+18 221 700(1) +16h 11m 17s(2) 0.901° 0.0177 1980
5 I Io ˈaɪ.oʊ 3660.0×3637.4×3630.6 8.9E+22 421 700(1) +1.769137786(2) 0.050° 0.0041 1610 Galileans
6 II Europa jʊˈroʊ.pə
3121.6 4.8E+22 671 034(1) +3.551181041(2) 0.471° 0.0094 1610
7 III Ganymede ˈgæn.ɨ.mid 5262.4 1.5E+23 1 070 412(1) +7.15455296(2) 0.204° 0.0011 1610
8 IV Callisto kəˈlɪs.toʊ 4820.6 1.1E+23 1 882 709(1) +16.6890184(2) 0.205° 0.0074 1610
9 XVIII Themisto θɨˈmɪs.toʊ 8 6.9E+14 7 393 216 +129.87 45.762° 0.2115 1975/2000 Themisto
10 XIII Leda ˈli.də 10 1.1E+16 11 187 781 +241.75 27.562° 0.1673 1974 Himalia
11 VI Himalia haɪˈmeɪ.li.ə 170 6.7E+18 11 451 971 +250.37 30.486° 0.1513 1904
12 X Lysithea laɪˈsɪθ.i.ə 36 6.3E+16 11 740 560 +259.89 27.006° 0.1322 1938
13 VII Elara ˈɛl.ə.rə 86 8.7E+17 11 778 034 +261.14 29.691° 0.1948 1905
14 S/2000 J 11 4 9.0E+13 12 570 424 +287.93 27.584° 0.2058 2001
15 XLVI Carpo ˈkɑr.poʊ 3 4.5E+13 17 144 873 +458.62 56.001° 0.2735 2003 Carpo
16 S/2003 J 12 1 1.5E+12 17 739 539 -482.69 142.680° 0.4449 2003  ?
17 XXXIV Euporie jʊˈpɔr.i.ə 2 1.5E+13 19 088 434 -538.78 144.694° 0.0960 2002 Ananke
18 S/2003 J 3 2 1.5E+13 19 621 780 -561.52 146.363° 0.2507 2003
19 S/2003 J 18 2 1.5E+13 19 812 577 -569.73 147.401° 0.1569 2003
20 XLII Thelxinoe θɛlkˈsɪ.noʊ.i 2 1.5E+13 20 453 753 -597.61 151.292° 0.2684 2004
21 XXXIII Euanthe jʊˈæn.θi 3 4.5E+13 20 464 854 -598.09 143.409° 0.2000 2002
22 XLV Helike ˈhɛl.ɨ.ki 4 9.0E+13 20 540 266 -601.40 154.586° 0.1374 2003
23 XXXV Orthosie ɔrˈθoʊ.zi.ə 2 1.5E+13 20 567 971 -602.62 142.366° 0.2433 2002
24 XXIV Iocaste ˌaɪ.əˈkæs.ti 5 1.9E+14 20 722 566 -609.43 147.248° 0.2874 2001
25 S/2003 J 16 2 1.5E+13 20 743 779 -610.36 150.769° 0.3184 2003
26 XXVII Praxidike prækˈsɪd.ɨ.ki 7 4.3E+14 20 823 948 -613.90 144.205° 0.1840 2001
27 XXII Harpalyke hɑrˈpæl.ɨ.ki 4 1.2E+14 21 063 814 -624.54 147.223° 0.2440 2001
28 XL Mneme ˈni.mi 2 1.5E+13 21 129 786 -627.48 149.732° 0.3169 2003
29 XXX Hermippe hɚˈmɪp.i 4 9.0E+13 21 182 086 -629.81 151.242° 0.2290 2002 Ananke?
30 XXIX Thyone θaɪˈoʊ.ni 4 9.0E+13 21 405 570 -639.80 147.276° 0.2525 2002 Ananke
31 XII Ananke əˈnæŋ.ki 28 3.0E+16 21 454 952 -642.02 151.564° 0.3445 1951
32 S/2003 J 17 2 1.5E+13 22 134 306 -672.75 162.490° 0.2379 2003 Carme
33 XXXI Aitne ˈeɪt.ni 3 4.5E+13 22 285 161 -679.64 165.562° 0.3927 2002
34 XXXVII Kale ˈkeɪ.li 2 1.5E+13 22 409 207 -685.32 165.378° 0.2011 2002
35 XX Taygete teɪˈɪdʒ.ɨ.ti 5 1.6E+14 22 438 648 -686.67 164.890° 0.3678 2001
36 S/2003 J 19 2 1.5E+13 22 709 061 -699.12 164.727° 0.1961 2003
37 XXI Chaldene kælˈdi.ni 4 7.5E+13 22 713 444 -699.33 167.070° 0.2916 2001
38 S/2003 J 15 2 1.5E+13 22 720 999 -699.68 141.812° 0.0932 2003 Ananke?
39 S/2003 J 10 2 1.5E+13 22 730 813 -700.13 163.813° 0.3438 2003 Carme?
40 S/2003 J 23 2 1.5E+13 22 739 654 -700.54 148.849° 0.3930 2004 Pasiphaë
41 XXV Erinome ɛˈrɪn.ə.mi 3 4.5E+13 22 986 266 -711.96 163.737° 0.2552 2001 Carme
42 XLI Aoede eɪˈi.di 4 9.0E+13 23 044 175 -714.66 160.482° 0.6011 2003 Pasiphaë
43 XLIV Kallichore kəˈlɪk.ə.ri 2 1.5E+13 23 111 823 -717.81 164.605° 0.2041 2003 Carme?
44 XXIII Kalyke ˈkæl.ɨ.ki 5 1.9E+14 23 180 773 -721.02 165.505° 0.2139 2001 Carme
45 XI Carme ˈkɑr.mi 46 1.3E+17 23 197 992 -721.82 165.047° 0.2342 1938
46 XVII Callirrhoe kəˈlɪr.oʊ.i 9 8.7E+14 23 214 986 -722.62 139.849° 0.2582 2000 Pasiphaë
47 XXXII Eurydome jʊˈrɪd.ə.mi 3 4.5E+13 23 230 858 -723.36 149.324° 0.3769 2002 Pasiphaë?
48 XXXVIII Pasithee pəˈsɪθ.ə.i 2 1.5E+13 23 307 318 -726.93 165.759° 0.3288 2002 Carme
49 XLVIII Cyllene sɨˈli.ni 2 1.5E+13 23 396 269 -731.10 140.148° 0.4115 2003 Pasiphaë
50 XLVII Eukelade jʊˈkɛl.ə.di 4 9.0E+13 23 483 694 -735.20 163.996° 0.2828 2003 Carme
51 S/2003 J 4 2 1.5E+13 23 570 790 -739.29 147.175° 0.3003 2003 Pasiphaë
52 VIII Pasiphaë pəˈsɪf.ə.i 60 3.0E+17 23 609 042 -741.09 141.803° 0.3743 1908
53 XXXIX Hegemone həˈdʒɛm.ə.ni 3 4.5E+13 23 702 511 -745.50 152.506° 0.4077 2003
54 XLIII Arche ˈɑr.ki 3 4.5E+13 23 717 051 -746.19 164.587° 0.1492 2002 Carme
55 XXVI Isonoe aɪˈsɑn.oʊ.i 4 7.5E+13 23 800 647 -750.13 165.127° 0.1775 2001
56 S/2003 J 9 1 1.5E+12 23 857 808 -752.84 164.980° 0.2761 2003
57 S/2003 J 5 4 9.0E+13 23 973 926 -758.34 165.549° 0.3070 2003
58 IX Sinope sɨˈnoʊ.pi 38 7.5E+16 24 057 865 -762.33 153.778° 0.2750 1914 Pasiphaë
59 XXXVI Sponde ˈspɑn.di 2 1.5E+13 24 252 627 -771.60 154.372° 0.4431 2002
60 XXVIII Autonoe ɔˈtɑn.oʊ.i 4 9.0E+13 24 264 445 -772.17 151.058° 0.3690 2002
61 XLIX Kore ˈkɔr.i 2 1.5E+13 23 345 093 -776.02 137.371° 0.1951 2003
62 XIX Megaclite ˌmɛg.əˈklaɪ.ti 5 2.1E+14 24 687 239 -792.44 150.398° 0.3077 2001
63 S/2003 J 2 2 1.5E+13 30 290 846 -1077.02 153.521° 0.1882 2003  ?
  • (1) Computed using the IAU-MPC Satellites Ephemeris Service µ value
  • (2) Source: JPL/NASA
  • (3) Source (for Themisto outward): IAU-MPC Satellites Ephemeris Service
  • (4) Periods with negative values are retrograde.
  • (5) Computed from IAG Travaux 2001 for Metis through Callisto, showing inclination to Jupiter's equator; taken from IAU-MPC Satellites Ephemeris Service orbital elements for the others, using inclination to the local Laplace plane.

A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Metis (mee-tÉ™s, IPA: , Greek Μήτις), or Jupiter XVI, is the innermost member of the Jupiters small inner moons and thus Jupiters innermost moon. ... Photograph of the moon Metis taken by Galileos solid state imaging system between November 1996 and June 1997. ... The Amalthea group is made up of the small moons of Jupiter which orbit close to the planet, merging with its planetary ring. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Adrastea (IPA: , ad-ra-stee-a, Greek Αδράστεια) is the second of Jupiters known moons (counting outward from the planet). ... Adrastea - the moon of Jupiter File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Amalthea (am-É™l-thee-É™, IPA: , Greek Αμάλθεια) is the third moon of Jupiter in order of distance from the planet, and the fifth in order of discovery. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x410, 53 KB) Amalthea, as photographed by the Galileo spacecraft. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Thebe (thee-bee, IPA ; Greek Θήβη) is the fourth of Jupiters known moons by distance from the planet. ... This image of Thebe was taken by NASAs Galileo spacecraft on January 4, 2000, at a range of 193,000 kilometers (about 120,000 miles). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Sulfur dioxide 90% Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2796x2796, 771 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: NASAs Galileo spacecraft acquired its highest resolution images of Jupiters moon Io on 3 July 1999 during its closest pass to Io since orbit insertion in late 1995. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x913, 462 KB) [[Melanie is a cool moon my aunt found this moon and she is still living nnnnnnaaaaaaasssssssass[[Media:--~~~~Example. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ganymede True Color Orbit 1 This is the only true color image of Ganymede acquired by Galileo spacecraft. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (740x753, 71 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Themisto (thÉ™-mis-toe, IPA: ; Greek Θεμιστώ), or Jupiter XVIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa For the asteroid, see 38 Leda Leda (lee-dÉ™, IPA: ; Greek Λήδα), or Jupiter XIII, is a prograde irregular satellite of Jupiter that was discovered by Charles T. Kowal at the Mount Palomar Observatory on September 14, 1974, right after three nights worth of photographic plates had... The Himalia group is a dynamical grouping of Jupiters moons, which share similar orbits. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Himalia (hye-mal-ee-a, also hi-mahl-ee-a, IPA , ; Greek ‘Ιμαλíα) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Lysithea (lye-sith-ee-a or li-sith-ee-a, IPA , ; Greek Λυσιθέα) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Elara (ee-lur-a or ee-lair-a, IPA or , Greek Ελάρη) is a moon of Jupiter. ... S/2000 J 11 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Carpo (IPA: , kar-poe, Greek Καρπώ) (Jupiter XLVI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 12 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Euporie (ew-por-ee-É™, IPA: ; Greek Ευπορία), or Jupiter XXXIV, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Ananke group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... S/2003 J 3 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 18 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Thelxinoe (IPA: , thel-zin-oe-ee, Greek Θελξινόη) (Jupiter XLII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Euanthe (IPA: , ew-an-thee) (Jupiter XXXIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Helike (IPA: , hel-i-kee, Greek ‘Ελίκη) (Jupiter XLV) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Orthosie (IPA: , or-thoe-see-a) (Jupiter XXXV) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Iocaste (eye-É™-kas-tee, IPA: ; Greek Ιοκάστη), or Jupiter XXIV, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 16 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Praxidike (IPA: , prak-sid-i-kee, Greek Πραξιδίκη) (Jupiter XXVII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Harpalyke (har-pal-É™-kee, IPA: ; Greek Ἁρπαλύκη), or Jupiter XXII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Mneme (IPA: , nee-mee, Greek Μνήμη) (Jupiter XL) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Hermippe (IPA: , hur-mip-ee) (Jupiter XXX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Thyone (IPA: , thye-oe-nee, Greek Θυώνη) (Jupiter XXIX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Ananke (a-nang-kee, IPA ; Greek Ανάγκη) is one of Jupiters moons. ... S/2003 J 17 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Carme group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... Aitne (et-nee, IPA: ; Greek Άιτνη), or Jupiter XXXI, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Kale (kay-lee, IPA: ; Greek = Καλη), or Jupiter XXXVII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Taygete (IPA: , tay-ij-i-tee, Greek Ταϋγέτη) (Jupiter XX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 19 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Chaldene (IPA: , kal-dee-nee, Greek Χαλδηνη?) (Jupiter XXI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 15 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 10 is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 23 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Pasiphaë group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... Erinome (err-in-É™-mee, IPA: ; Greek Ερινομη), or Jupiter XXV, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Aoede (IPA: , ay-ee-dee, Greek Αοιδή) (Jupiter XLI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Kallichore (kÉ™-lik-É™-ree, IPA: ; Greek Καλλιχόρη), or Jupiter XLIV, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Kalyke (IPA: , kal-i-kee, Greek Καλύκη) (Jupiter XXIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Carme (IPA: , kar-mee, Greek Κάρμη) is one of Jupiters moons. ... Callirrhoe (IPA: , ka-leer-oe-ee, Greek Καλλιρρόη) (Jupiter XVII) is one of Jupiters outermost named natural satellites. ... Eurydome (ew-rid-É™-mee, IPA: ; Greek Ευριδομη), or Jupiter XXXII, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Pasithee (IPA: , pa-sith-ee-a, Greek Πασιθέη) (Jupiter XXXVIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Cyllene (IPA: , si-lee-nee, Greek Κυλλήνη) (Jupiter XLVIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Eukelade (ew-kel-É™-dee, IPA: ; Greek Ευκελαδη), or Jupiter XLVII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 4 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Pasiphaë (IPA: , pa-sif-a-ee, Greek Πασιφάη) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Hegemone (hÉ™-jem-É™-nee, IPA: ; Greek Ἡγεμόνη), or Jupiter XXXIX, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Arche (ar-kee, IPA: ; Greek Αρχη), or Jupiter XLIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... Isonoe (IPA: , eye-son-oe-ee, Greek Ισονοη) (Jupiter XXVI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 9 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 5 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Sinope (IPA: , si-noe-pee, Greek Σινώπη) is a moon of Jupiter discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Lick Observatory in 1914, and is named after Sinope of Greek mythology. ... Sponde (spon-dee, IPA: ; Greek Σπονδή), or Jupiter XXXVI, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Autonoe (aw-ton-oe-ee, IPA , Greek Αυτονόη) (Jupiter XXVIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Kore (Jupiter XLIX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Megaclite (IPA: , meg-a-klye-tee, Latin MegaclÄ«tÄ“, from Greek) (Jupiter XIX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 2 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Laplace plane is defined as the mean plane occupied by the orbit of a satellite during a precession cycle. ...

Grouping the moons

As for all four giant planets, the Jupiter's satellites are categorised into two main categories:

  • Regular satellites consisting of the Amalthea group of inner moons and the four Galilean moons, formed in situ
  • Irregular satellites, far-reaching, highly eccentrical, substantially smaller objects generally picked up on Jupiter's space journey
Irregular satellites of Jupiter.
Irregular satellites of Jupiter.

The first diagram illustrates the orbits of the irregular satellites of Jupiter discovered so far. The eccentricity of the orbits is represented by the segments (extending from the pericentre to the apocentre) with the inclination represented on Y axis. The satellites above the axis are prograde, the satellites beneath are retrograde. The X axis is labelled in Gm (million km) and the fraction of the Hill sphere's (gravitational influence) radius (~53 Gm for Jupiter). The following diagram shows separately the distribution of inclination versus eccentricity for the retrograde satellites, facilitating the identification of the groupings. The Amalthea group is made up of the small moons of Jupiter which orbit close to the planet, merging with its planetary ring. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... In astronomy, an irregular satellite is a natural satellite following a distant, inclined, often retrograde orbit and believed to be captured as opposed to a regular satellite, formed in situ. ... Image File history File links TheIrregulars_JUPITER.svg‎ // Summary The irregular satellites of Jupiter. ... Image File history File links TheIrregulars_JUPITER.svg‎ // Summary The irregular satellites of Jupiter. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... A gigametre (American spelling: gigameter) (symbol: Gm) is a unit of length equal to 109 metres. ... A Hill sphere approximates the gravitational sphere of influence of one astronomical body in the face of perturbations from another heavier body around which it orbits. ...


Prograde irregular moons

Himalia group is "tight", spread over barely 1.4 Gm in semi-major axis and 1.6° in inclination (27.5 ± 0.8°). The eccentricities vary between 0.11 and 0.25. The Himalia group is a dynamical grouping of Jupiters moons, which share similar orbits. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ...


Themisto and Carpo are isolated in space. Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Themisto (thÉ™-mis-toe, IPA: ; Greek Θεμιστώ), or Jupiter XVIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... Carpo (IPA: , kar-poe, Greek Καρπώ) (Jupiter XLVI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ...


Retrograde irregular moons

Retrograde satellites: inclinations (°) vs eccentricities with Carme's (orange) and Ananke's (yellow) groups identified.

What is left of the outer retrograde irregular satellites of Jupiter can be grouped into three families, based on shared orbital characteristics and bearing the name of the largest member in each case. These families are clumps in semi-major axis, but also in inclination and in eccentricity. Image File history File links Plot of the exterior satellites of Jupiter, showing inclination (°) vs excentricity Orange = Carmes group; Yellow = Anankes group; Red = everything else (~Pasiphaës group) Prepared by myself and hereby donated to the public domain. ... Image File history File links Plot of the exterior satellites of Jupiter, showing inclination (°) vs excentricity Orange = Carmes group; Yellow = Anankes group; Red = everything else (~Pasiphaës group) Prepared by myself and hereby donated to the public domain. ...


Carme's group is obvious, centered on a = 23 404 Mm; i = 165.2±0.3° and e = 0.238–0.272. Only S/2003 J 10 seems somewhat apart, because of its great eccentricity. The Carme group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... S/2003 J 10 is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ...


Ananke's group is centered on a = 21 276 Mm; i = 149.0±0.5° and e = 0.216–0.244; but its borders are less definite. The eight core members (S/2003 J 16, Mneme, Euanthe, Orthosie, Harpalyke, Praxidike, Thyone, Thelxinoe, Ananke, Iocaste) are well-clumped, but the attribution of the remaining eight members to the group is debatable to varying degrees. The Ananke group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... S/2003 J 16 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Mneme (IPA: , nee-mee, Greek Μνήμη) (Jupiter XL) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Euanthe (IPA: , ew-an-thee) (Jupiter XXXIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Orthosie (IPA: , or-thoe-see-a) (Jupiter XXXV) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Harpalyke (har-pal-É™-kee, IPA: ; Greek Ἁρπαλύκη), or Jupiter XXII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Praxidike (IPA: , prak-sid-i-kee, Greek Πραξιδίκη) (Jupiter XXVII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Thyone (IPA: , thye-oe-nee, Greek Θυώνη) (Jupiter XXIX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Thelxinoe (IPA: , thel-zin-oe-ee, Greek Θελξινόη) (Jupiter XLII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Ananke (a-nang-kee, IPA ; Greek Ανάγκη) is one of Jupiters moons. ... Iocaste (eye-É™-kas-tee, IPA: ; Greek Ιοκάστη), or Jupiter XXIV, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ...


Pasiphaë's group, finally, picks up the remainder, with the exception of the moons at the inner and outer limits of the groups (S/2003 J 12 and S/2003 J 2); it is centered on a = 23 624 Mm; i = 151.4±6.9° and e = 0.156–0.432 (note the much larger spreads). If it is real, it must be ancient to explain the dispersion of its membership. The Pasiphaë group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... S/2003 J 12 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 2 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ...


S/2003 J 12, and S/2003 J 2, the most exterior moon, are again isolated. S/2003 J 12 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 2 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ...


Naming notes

Some asteroids share the same names as moons of Jupiter: 9 Metis, 38 Leda, 52 Europa, 85 Io, 113 Amalthea, 239 Adrastea. It has been suggested that minor planet be merged into this article or section. ... 9 Metis (mee-tis) is one of the largest Main belt asteroids. ... 38 Leda is a large, dark main belt asteroid. ... 52 Europa, diameter 289 km, was discovered on February 4, 1858 by H. Goldschmidt. ... 85 Io is a large and dark-colored Main belt asteroid. ... 113 Amalthea is a fairly typical rocky Main belt asteroid orbiting in the inner regions of the belt. ... 239 Adrastea is a typical Main belt asteroid. ...


A couple of asteroids shared the names of Jovian moons until spelling differences were made permanent by the IAU. Those contrasting pairs are the moon Ganymede and the asteroid 1036 Ganymed; and the moon Callisto and the asteroid 204 Kallisto. See also Name conflicts of solar system objects. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1036 Ganymed is the largest Amor asteroid. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 204 Kallisto is a fairly typical, altough sizeable Main belt asteroid. ... Although in principle every named body in the Solar system ought to have a distinct name, due to a variety of circumstances, there are several real or apparent name conflicts between different solar system bodies. ...


Note that the satellites discovered between 1904 and 1951 (Himalia, Elara, Pasiphaë, Sinope, Lysithea, Carme and Ananke) were not officially named until 1975, 24 years after the last satellite was discovered. They were simply known by their Roman numeral designations (Jupiter VI through Jupiter XII). 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Himalia (hye-mal-ee-a, also hi-mahl-ee-a, IPA , ; Greek ‘Ιμαλíα) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Elara (ee-lur-a or ee-lair-a, IPA or , Greek Ελάρη) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Pasiphaë (IPA: , pa-sif-a-ee, Greek Πασιφάη) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Sinope (IPA: , si-noe-pee, Greek Σινώπη) is a moon of Jupiter discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Lick Observatory in 1914, and is named after Sinope of Greek mythology. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Lysithea (lye-sith-ee-a or li-sith-ee-a, IPA , ; Greek Λυσιθέα) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Carme (IPA: , kar-mee, Greek Κάρμη) is one of Jupiters moons. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Ananke (a-nang-kee, IPA ; Greek Ανάγκη) is one of Jupiters moons. ...

See Naming of natural satellites

The naming of natural satellites has been the responsibility of the IAUs committee for Planetary System Nomenclature since 1973. ...

See also

Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Galilean moons of Jupiter Jupiters extensive system of natural satellites – in particular the four large Galilean moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) – has been a common science fiction setting. ...

Notes

References

Scott S. Sheppard is an astronomer based at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. ... David C. Jewitt is a Professor of astronomy at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ... Scott S. Sheppard is an astronomer based at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. ... David C. Jewitt is a Professor of astronomy at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ... Carolyn Porco Carolyn C. Porco is an American planetary scientist and the leader of the imaging science team on the Cassini mission[1],[2],[3] presently in orbit around Saturn. ...

External links

  • Jupiter satellite data
  • 43 more moons orbiting Jupiter
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