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Encyclopedia > Jupiter
Jupiter   Astronomical symbol of Jupiter
Click for full caption.
This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. The colors have been enhanced to bring out detail.
Orbital characteristics[1][2]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 816,520,751 km
5.45810410 AU
Perihelion: 740,573,646 km
4.95042906 AU
Semi-major axis: 778,547,199 km
5.20426658 AU
Eccentricity: 0.048774888
Orbital period: 4,334.50 days
11.862615 yr[3]
Synodic period: 398.88 days[4]
Avg. orbital speed: 13.07 km/s[4]
Mean anomaly: 18.818473°
Inclination: 1.304626°
6.09° to Sun's equator
Longitude of ascending node: 100.491580°
Argument of perihelion: 275.066051°
Satellites: 63
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius: 71,492 ± 4 km[5][6]
11.209 Earths
Polar radius: 66,854 ± 10 km[5][6]
10.517 Earths
Flattening: 0.06487 ± 0.00015
Surface area: 6.21796×1010 km²[7][6]
121.9 Earths
Volume: 1.43128×1015 km³[4][6]
1321.3 Earths
Mass: 1.8986×1027 kg[4]
317.8 Earths
Mean density: 1.326 g/cm³[4][6]
Equatorial surface gravity: 24.79 m/s²[4][6]
2.358 g
Escape velocity: 59.5 km/s [4][6]
Sidereal rotation period: 9.925 h[8]
Rotation velocity at equator: 12.6 km/s
45,300 km/h
Axial tilt: 3.13°[4]
Right ascension of North pole: 268.057°
17 h 52 min 14 s[5]
Declination of North pole: 64.496°[5]
Albedo: 0.343 (bond)
0.52 (geom.)[4]
Surface temp.:
   1 bar level
   0.1 bar
min mean max
165 K[4]
112 K[4]
Apparent magnitude: -1.6 to -2.94 [4]
Angular diameter: 29.8" — 50.1" [4]
Adjectives: Jovian
Atmosphere [4]
Surface pressure: 20–200 kPa[9] (cloud layer)
Scale height: 27 km
Composition:
89.8±2.0% Hydrogen (H2)
10.2±2.0% Helium
~0.3% Methane
~0.026% Ammonia
~0.003% Hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0006% Ethane
0.0004% water
Ices:
Ammonia
water
ammonium hydrosulfide(NH4SH)

Jupiter (pronounced /ˈdʒuːpɨtɚ/) is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the solar system. It is two and a half times as massive as all of the other planets in our solar system combined. Jupiter, along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, is classified as a gas giant. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets, where Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. Jupiter may refer to: Jupiter, the planet Jupiter, a Roman god the Jupiter Symphony, a symphony by Mozart Jupiter, Florida Two rockets: Jupiter IRBM Jupiter-C Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity, a movement in Holsts suite The Planets Sailor Jupiter, the codename of Makoto Kino, a character in the... Image File history File links Jupiter_symbol. ... Download high resolution version (840x840, 41 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... The J2000. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of time defined as exactly 365. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... In the study of orbital dynamics the mean anomaly is a measure of time, specific to the orbiting body p, which is a multiple of 2π radians at and only at periapsis. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... Sol redirects here. ... The Longitude of the ascending node (☊, also noted Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of periapsis (ω) is the orbital element describing the angle between an orbiting bodys ascending node (the point where the body crosses the plane of reference from South to North) and its periapsis (the point of closest approach to the central body), measured in the orbital plane and... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Jupiters outer moons and their highly inclined orbits. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... A geographical pole is either of two fixed points on the surface of a spinning body or planet, at 90 degrees from the equator, based on the axis around which a body spins. ... The flattening, ellipticity, or oblateness of an oblate spheroid is the relative difference between its equatorial radius a and its polar radius b: The flattening of the Earth is 1:298. ... In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... Equatorial Coordinates Right ascension (abbrev. ... In astronomy, declination (abbrev. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... The Bond albedo is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space. ... The geometric albedo of an astronomical body is the ratio of its total brightness at zero phase angle to that of an idealised fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the diameter measured as an angle. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... A scale height is a term often used in scientific contexts for a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Helium (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Hydrogen deuteride is a bi-atomic compund of the two isotopes of hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H protium and 2H deuterium. ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Ammonium sulfide, (NH4)2S, is obtained, in the form of micaceous crystals, by passing hydrogen sulfide mixed with a slight excess of ammonia through a well-cooled vessel; the hydrosulfide NH4·HS is formed at the same time. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Sol redirects here. ... Logarithmic chart of the sizes of solar system bodies. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... From top: Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...


The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named the planet after the Roman god Jupiter (also called Jove).[10] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.8, making it the third brightest object in the night sky after the moon and Venus. (However, at certain points in its orbit, Mars can briefly exceed Jupiter's brightness.) An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


The planet Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a small proportion of helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. Because of its rapid rotation the planet is an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the seventeenth century. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Helium (disambiguation). ... Oblate also refers to a member of the Roman Catholic religious order of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, or in some cases to a lay or religious person who has officially associated himself (or herself) with a monastic community such as the Benedictines for reasons of personal enrichment without... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... A planetary ring is a ring of dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in a flat disc-shaped region. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Galileo redirects here. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... [[Link titleBold text // ]] This article is about the planet. ...


Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecrafts, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager fly-by missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. The latest probe to visit Jupiter was the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft in late February 2007. The probe used the gravity from Jupiter to increase its speed and adjust its trajectory toward Pluto, thereby saving years of travel. Future targets for exploration include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the Jovian moon Europa. The US Pioneer program of unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo and Inertial Upper Stage being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... New Horizons on the launchpad New Horizons is a robotic spacecraft mission conducted by NASA. It is expected to be the first spacecraft to fly by and study the dwarf planet Pluto and its moons, Charon, Nix and Hydra. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ...

Contents

Structure

Jupiter is one of the four gas giants; that is, it is not primarily composed of solid matter. It is the largest planet in the Solar System, having a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator. Jupiter's density, 1.326 g/cm³, is the second highest of the gas giant planets, but lower than any of the four terrestrial planets. (Of the gas giants, Neptune has the highest density.) This article does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their sizes to scale. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ...


Composition

Jupiter's upper atmosphere is composed of about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium by number of atoms,[4] or 86% H2 and 13% He by fraction of gas molecules—see table to the right. Since a helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, the composition changes when described in terms of the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus the atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining 1% of the mass consisting of other elements. The interior contains denser materials such that the distribution is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium and 5% other elements by mass. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulphide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia.[11][12] Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found.[13] This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Helium (disambiguation). ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... For other meaning link to H2S radar. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article is about the chemical. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ...


The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are very close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. However, neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun.[14] Helium is also depleted, although to a lesser degree. This depletion may be a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet.[15] Abundances of heavier inert gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are about two to three times that of the sun. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other gas giants Uranus and Neptune have relatively much less hydrogen and helium.[16] However, because of the lack of atmospheric entry probes, high quality abundance numbers of the heavier elements are lacking for the outer planets beyond Jupiter. Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ...


Mass

Approximate size comparison of Earth and Jupiter, including the Great Red Spot

Jupiter is 2.5 times more massive than all the other planets in our solar system combined; so massive that its barycenter with the Sun actually lies above the Sun's surface (1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center). Although this planet dwarfs the Earth (with a diameter 11 times as great) it is considerably less dense. Jupiter's volume is equal to 1,317 Earths, yet is only 318 times as massive.[17][18] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1865x1599, 358 KB)Rough visual comparison of Jupiter, Earth, and the Great Red Spot. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1865x1599, 358 KB)Rough visual comparison of Jupiter, Earth, and the Great Red Spot. ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... In physics, the center of mass of a system of particles is a specific point at which, for many purposes, the systems mass behaves as if it were concentrated. ... In astronomy, the solar radius is a unit of length used to express the size of stars and larger objects such as galaxies. ...


Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, the planet would shrink. For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about four Jupiter masses the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased gravitation force that the planet's volume would actually decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition is achieved in high-mass brown dwarfs around 50 Jupiter masses.[19] This has led some astronomers to term it a "failed star", although it is unclear whether or not the processes involved in the formation of planets like Jupiter are similar to the processes involved in the formation of multiple star systems. Stellar ignition, or star ignition, is the initiation of the nuclear fusion reactions that power the Sun and other stars. ... This brown dwarf (smaller object) orbits the star Gliese 229, which is located in the constellation Lepus about 19 light years from Earth. ...


Although Jupiter would need to be about seventy-five times as massive to fuse hydrogen and become a star, the smallest red dwarf is only about 30% larger in radius than Jupiter.[20][21] In spite of this, Jupiter still radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun. The amount of heat produced inside the planet is nearly equal to the total solar radiation it receives.[22] This additional heat radiation is generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism through adiabatic contraction. This process results in the planet shrinking by about 2 cm each year.[23] When it was first formed, Jupiter was much hotter and was about twice its current diameter.[24] This article is about the astronomical object. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... The Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical event that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools. ... In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. ...


Internal structure

This cut-away illustrates a model of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen. NASA background image
This cut-away illustrates a model of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen. NASA background image

Jupiter is thought to consist of a dense core with a mixture of elements, a surrounding layer of liquid metallic hydrogen with some helium, and an outer layer predominantly of molecular hydrogen[23]. Beyond this basic outline, there is still considerable uncertainty. The core is often described as rocky, but its detailed composition is unknown, as are the properties of materials at the temperatures and pressures of those depths (see below). The existence of the core is suggested by gravitational measurements[23] indicating a mass of from 12 to 45 times the Earth's mass or roughly 3%-15% of the total mass of Jupiter.[25][22] The presence of the core is also suggested by models of planetary formation involving initial formation of a rocky or icy core that is massive enough to collect its bulk of hydrogen and helium from the protosolar nebula. The core may in fact be absent, as gravitational measurements aren't precise enough to rule that possibility out entirely. Assuming it does exist, it may also be shrinking, as convection currents of hot liquid metallic hydrogen mix with the molten core and carry its contents to higher levels in the planetary interior[23]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet. ... Metallic hydrogen results when hydrogen is sufficiently compressed and undergoes a phase change; it is an example of degenerate matter. ... Molecular hydrogen, H2, is a molecule formed from two atoms of hydrogen. ... Rock redirects here. ... A planetary disk forming in the Orion Nebula In this artists conception, of a planet spins through a clearing in a nearby stars dusty, planet-forming disc In cosmogony, the nebular hypothesis is the currently accepted argument about how Earths Solar System formed. ...


The core region is surrounded by dense metallic hydrogen, which extends outward to about 78% of the radius of the planet.[22] Rain-like droplets of helium and neon precipitate downward through this layer, depleting the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere.[15][26] Metallic hydrogen results when hydrogen is sufficiently compressed and undergoes a phase change; it is an example of degenerate matter. ...


Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of liquid hydrogen and gaseous hydrogen, with the gaseous portion extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1,000 km.[22] Instead of a clear boundary or surface between these different phases of hydrogen, there is probably a smooth gradation from gas to liquid as one descends.[27][28] This smooth transition happens whenever the temperature is above the critical temperature, which for hydrogen is only 33 K (see hydrogen). In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... The critical temperature, Tc, of a material is the temperature above which distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...


The temperature and pressure inside Jupiter increase steadily toward the core. At the phase transition region where liquid hydrogen (heated beyond its critical point) becomes metallic, it is believed the temperature is 10,000 K and the pressure is 200 GPa. The temperature at the core boundary is estimated to be 36,000 K and the interior pressure is roughly 3,000–4,500 GPa.[22] This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ...


Cloud layers

See also: Cloud pattern on Jupiter
This looping animation shows the movement of Jupiter's counter-rotating cloud bands. In this image, the planet's exterior is mapped onto a cylindrical projection

Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets.[29] The zones have been observed to vary in width, color and intensity from year to year, but they have remained sufficiently stable for astronomers to give them identifying designations.[18] The cloud pattern on Jupiter is the visible system of coloured cloud tops in the atmosphere of the planet Jupiter, remarkable for its stability. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1799x600, 7691 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: The first color movie of Jupiter from NASAs Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to peel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1799x600, 7691 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: The first color movie of Jupiter from NASAs Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to peel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... The tropopause is between the troposphere and the stratosphere. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the ocean circulation, which is smaller [1]) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The cloud layer is only about 50 km deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer, as evidenced by flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. (Water is a polar molecule that can carry a charge, so it is capable of creating the charge separation needed to produce lightning.)[22] These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on the Earth.[30] The water clouds can form thunderstorms driven by the heat rising from the interior.[31] Not to be confused with lighting. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ...


The orange and brown coloration in the clouds of Jupiter are caused by upwelling compounds that change color when they are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun. The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are believed to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons.[32][22] These colorful compounds, known as chromophores, mix with the warmer, lower deck of clouds. The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallizing ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view.[17] For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a molecule responsible for its color. ... A convection cell is a phenomenon of fluid dynamics which occurs in situations where there are temperature differences within a body of liquid or gas. ...


Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles constantly receive less solar radiation than at the planet's equatorial region. Convection within the interior of the planet transports more energy to the poles, however, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer.[18] In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ...


Great Red Spot and other storms

Main article: Great Red Spot
This dramatic view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on February 25, 1979, when the spacecraft was 9.2 million km (5.7 million mi) from Jupiter. Cloud details as small as 160 km (100 mi) across can be seen here. The colorful, wavy cloud pattern to the left of the Red Spot is a region of extraordinarily complex and variable wave motion. To give a sense of Jupiter's scale, the white oval storm directly below the Great Red Spot is approximately the same diameter as Earth.

The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot, a persistent anticyclonic storm located 22° south of the equator that is larger than Earth. It is known to have been in existence since at least 1831,[33] and possibly since 1665.[34] Mathematical models suggest that the storm is stable and may be a permanent feature of the planet.[35] The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes. A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... Download high resolution version (895x848, 52 KB)This dramatic view of Jupiters Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on February 25, 1979, when the spacecraft was 5. ... Download high resolution version (895x848, 52 KB)This dramatic view of Jupiters Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on February 25, 1979, when the spacecraft was 5. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The oval object rotates counterclockwise, with a period of about 6 days.[36] The Great Red Spot's dimensions are 24–40,000 km × 12–14,000 km. It is large enough to contain two or three planets of Earth's diameter.[37] The maximum altitude of this storm is about 8 km above the surrounding cloudtops.[38] In geometry, an oval or ovoid (from Latin ovum, egg) is any curve resembling an egg or an ellipse. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... Periodicity is the quality of occurring at regular intervals (e. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ...


Storms such as this are common within the turbulent atmospheres of gas giants. Jupiter also has white ovals and brown ovals, which are lesser unnamed storms. White ovals tend to consist of relatively cool clouds within the upper atmosphere. Brown ovals are warmer and located within the "normal cloud layer". Such storms can last for hours or centuries. Turbulent flow around an obstacle; the flow further away is laminar Laminar and turbulent water flow over the hull of a submarine Turbulence creating a vortex on an airplane wing In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by low-momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ...

Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager I to Jupiter, showing the motion of atmospheric bands, and circulation of the great red spot. NASA image.

Even before Voyager proved that the feature was a storm, there was strong evidence that the spot could not be associated with any deeper feature on the planet's surface, as the Spot rotates differentially with respect to the rest of the atmosphere, sometimes faster and sometimes more slowly. During its recorded history it has traveled several times around the planet relative to any possible fixed rotational marker below it. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Jupiter | Saturn | NASA probes | Astronomy stubs ...


In 2000, an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller in size. This was created when several smaller, white oval-shaped storms merged to form a single feature—these three smaller white ovals were first observed in 1938. The merged feature was named Oval BA, and has been nicknamed Red Spot Junior. It has since increased in intensity and changed color from white to red.[39][40][41] Oval BA (left) Oval BA (commonly known as Red Spot Jr. ...

Planetary rings

Main article: Rings of Jupiter
The rings of Jupiter.
The rings of Jupiter.

Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer "gossamer" ring.[42] These rings appear to be made of dust, rather than ice as is the case for Saturn's rings.[22] The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational pull. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.[43] In a similar way, the moons Thebe and Amalthea probably produce the two distinct components of the gossamer ring.[43] A schema of Jupiters ring system showing the four main components The rings of Jupiter are a system of planetary rings around the planet Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 191 KB) Rings of Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 191 KB) Rings of Jupiter. ... A planetary ring is a ring of dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in a flat disc-shaped region. ... In geometry, a torus (pl. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Adrastea (IPA: , ad-ra-stee-a, Greek Αδράστεια) is the second of Jupiters known moons (counting outward from the planet). ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Metis (mee-tÉ™s, IPA: , Greek Μήτις), or Jupiter XVI, is the innermost member of the Jupiters small inner moons and thus Jupiters innermost moon. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Thebe (thee-bee, IPA ; Greek Θήβη) is the fourth of Jupiters known moons by distance from the planet. ... Apparent magnitude: 14. ...


Magnetosphere

Jupiter's broad magnetic field is 14 times as strong as the Earth's, ranging from 4.2 gauss (0.42 mT) at the equator to 10–14 gauss (1.0–1.4 mT) at the poles, making it the strongest in the solar system (with the exception of sunspots).[17] This field is believed to be generated by eddy currents—swirling movements of conducting materials—within the metallic hydrogen core. The field traps a sheet of ionized particles from the solar wind, generating a highly-energetic magnetic field outside the planet—the magnetosphere. Electrons from this plasma sheet ionize the torus-shaped cloud of sulfur dioxide generated by the tectonic activity on the moon Io. Hydrogen particles from Jupiter's atmosphere are also trapped in the magnetosphere. Electrons within the magnetosphere generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0.6–30 MHz.[44] Jupiter has a very large and powerful magnetosphere. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings Magnetostatics Electrodynamics Electrical Network Tensors in Relativity This box:      In physics, the magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. ... The gauss, abbreviated as G, is the cgs unit of magnetic flux density (B), named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss. ... This article is about the SI unit. ... For other uses, see Sunspot (disambiguation). ... As the circular plate moves down through a small region of constant magnetic field directed into the page, eddy currents are induced in the plate. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... In geometry, a torus (pl. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ...


At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock. Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause, located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath, where the planet's magnetic field becomes weak and disorganized. The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn. The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind.[22] The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... In a planetary magnetosphere, the bow shock is the boundary at which the solar wind abruptly drops as a result of its approach to the magnetopause. ... A magnetopause flows along the boundary between a magnetic field, (see: magnetosphere) and surrounding plasma. ... The magnetosheath refers to the region of space between the magnetopause and the bow shock of a planets magnetosphere. ... Example image showing definitions of windward (upwind) and leeward (downwind). ...

Aurora borealis on Jupiter. The three brightest regions are created by tubes of magnetic flux that connect to the Jovian moons Io, Ganymede and Europa.
Aurora borealis on Jupiter. The three brightest regions are created by tubes of magnetic flux that connect to the Jovian moons Io, Ganymede and Europa.

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions. Volcanic activity on the Jovian moon Io (see below) injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet. As Io moves through this torus, the interaction generates Alfven waves that carry ionized matter into the polar regions of Jupiter. As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism, and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface. When the Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output.[45] Image File history File links Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Jupiter. ... Aurora borealis Polar aurorae are optical phenomena characterized by colorful displays of light in the night sky. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... An Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic (or hydromagnetic) wave. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... An astrophysical maser is a naturally occurring source of stimulated spectral line emission, typically in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ...


Orbit and rotation

The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 778 million km (about 5.2 times the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, or 5.2 AU) and it completes an orbit every 11.86 years. The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1.31° compared to the Earth. Because of an eccentricity of 0.048, the distance from Jupiter and the Sun varies by 75 million km between perihelion and aphelion, or the nearest and most distant points of the planet along the orbital path respectively. (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...


The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small: only 3.13°. As a result this planet does not experience significant seasonal changes, in contrast to Earth and Mars for example.[46] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Jupiter's rotation is the solar system's fastest, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an Earth-based amateur telescope. This rotation requires a centripetal acceleration at the equator of about 1.67 m/s², compared to the equatorial surface gravity of 24.79 m/s²; thus the net acceleration felt at the equatorial surface is only about 23.12 m/s². The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles. On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9275 km longer than the diameter measured through the poles.[28] This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ... An equatorial bulge is a planetological term which describes a bulge which a planet may have around its equator, distorting it into an oblate spheroid. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A centripetal force is a force pulling an object toward the center of a circular path as the object goes around the circle. ... An oblate spheroid is ellipsoid having a shorter axis and two equal longer axes. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three "systems" are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features. System I applies from the latitudes 10° N to 10° S; its period is the planet's shortest, at 9h 50m 30.0s. System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m 40.6s. System III was first defined by radio astronomers, and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's "official" rotation.[47] Differential rotation is seen if parts of a rotating object move with different angular velocity. ... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, USA Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ...


Observation

Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus);[17] however at times Mars appears brighter than Jupiter. Depending on Jupiter's position with respect to the Earth, it can vary in visual magnitude from as bright as −2.8 at opposition down to −1.6 during conjunction with the Sun. The angular diameter of Jupiter likewise varies from 50.1 to 29.8 arc seconds.[4] Jupiter will have a favorable opposition in September of 2010.[citation needed] This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Opposition is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology to indicate when one celestial body is on the opposite side of the sky when viewed from a particular place (usually the Earth). ... The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the diameter measured as an angle. ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ...

The retrograde motion of an outer planet is caused by its relative location with respect to the Earth.
The retrograde motion of an outer planet is caused by its relative location with respect to the Earth.

Earth overtakes Jupiter every 398.9 days as it orbits the Sun, a duration called the synodic period. As it does so, Jupiter appears to undergo retrograde motion with respect to the background stars. That is, for a period of time Jupiter seems to move backward in the night sky, performing a looping motion. Image File history File links Retrogadation1. ... Image File history File links Retrogadation1. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Direct motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called prograde motion. ...


Jupiter's 12-year orbital period corresponds to the dozen constellations in the zodiac.[18] As a result, each time Jupiter reaches opposition it has advanced eastward by about the width of a zodiac constellation. The orbital period of Jupiter is also about two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a 5:2 orbital resonance between the two largest planets in the Solar System. This article is about the star grouping. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other. ...


Because the orbit of Jupiter is outside the Earth's, the phase angle of Jupiter as viewed from the Earth never exceeds 11.5°, and is almost always close to zero. That is, the planet always appears nearly fully illuminated when viewed through Earth-based telescopes. It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained.[48] Phase angle in astronomical observations is the angle between the light incident onto an observed object and the light reflected from the object. ...


Research and exploration

Ground-based telescope research

In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Galilean moons) using a telescope; thought to be the first observation of moons other than Earth's. Note, however, that Chinese historian of astronomy, Xi Zezong, has claimed that Gan De, a Chinese astronomer, made this discovery of one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC with the unaided eye, nearly 2 millennia earlier.[49][50] Galileo's was also the first discovery of a celestial motion not apparently centered on the Earth. It was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition.[51] Galileo redirects here. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 367 BC 366 BC 365 BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


During 1660s, Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet.[12] In 1690 Cassini noticed that the atmosphere undergoes differential rotation.[22] Differential rotation is seen if parts of a rotating object move with different angular velocity. ...

False-color detail of Jupiter's atmosphere, imaged by Voyager 1, showing the Great Red Spot and a passing white oval.
False-color detail of Jupiter's atmosphere, imaged by Voyager 1, showing the Great Red Spot and a passing white oval.

The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as 1664 by Robert Hooke and in 1665 by Giovanni Cassini, although this is disputed. The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in 1831.[52] Download high resolution version (916x776, 887 KB) Detail of Jupiters atmosphere, as imaged by Voyager 1. ... Download high resolution version (916x776, 887 KB) Detail of Jupiters atmosphere, as imaged by Voyager 1. ... A false color image showing the Chesapeake Bay and the city of Baltimore. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... Giovanni Domenico (Jean-Dominique) Cassini Portrait Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625–September 14, 1712) was an Italian astronomer, engineer, and astrologer. ... Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (October 25, 1789–April 11, 1875) was a German astronomer. ...


The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between 1665 and 1708 before becoming quite conspicuous in 1878. It was recorded as fading again in 1883 and at the start of the twentieth century.[53]


Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of the Jovian moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet. By the 1670s, however, it was observed that when Jupiter was on the opposite side of the Sun from the Earth, these events would occur about 17 minutes later than expected. Ole Rømer deduced that sight is not instantaneous (a finding that Cassini had earlier rejected[12]), and this timing discrepancy was used to estimate the speed of light.[54] Giovanni Alfonso Borelli. ... Ole Rømer. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ...


In 1892, E. E. Barnard observed a fifth satellite of Jupiter with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory in California. The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. The moon was later named Amalthea.[55] It was the last planetary moon to be discovered directly by visual observation.[56] An additional eight satellites were subsequently discovered prior to the fly-by of the Voyager 1 probe in 1979. Edward Emerson Barnard (December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923) was an American astronomer. ... The Lick Observatory is an astronomical observatory, owned and operated by the University of California. ... Apparent magnitude: 14. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ...


In 1932, Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter.[57] Rupert Wildt (June 25, 1905 – January 9, 1976) was a German-American astronomer. ...


Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in 1938. For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging. Finally, two of the ovals merged in 1998, then absorbed the third in 2000, becoming Oval BA.[58] Oval BA (left) Oval BA (commonly known as Red Spot Jr. ...


In 1955, Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at 22.2 MHz.[22] The period of these bursts matched the rotation of the planet, and they were also able to use this information to refine the rotation rate. Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts (or L-bursts) lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts (or S-bursts) that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second.[59] Kenneth Linn Franklin (March 25, 1923–June 18, 2007) was an American astronomer and educator. ...


Scientists discovered that there were three forms of radio signals being transmitted from Jupiter.

  • Decametric radio bursts (with a wavelength of tens of meters) vary with the rotation of Jupiter, and are influenced by interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetic field.[60]
  • Decimetric radio emission (with wavelengths measured in centimeters) was first observed by Frank Drake and Hein Hvatum in 1959.[22] The origin of this signal was from a torus-shaped belt around Jupiter's equator. This signal is caused by cyclotron radiation from electrons that are accelerated in Jupiter's magnetic field.[61]
  • Thermal radiation is produced by heat in the atmosphere of Jupiter.[22]

During the period July 16, 1994 to July 22, 1994, over twenty fragments from the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit Jupiter's southern hemisphere, providing the first direct observation of a collision between two solar system objects. This impact provided useful data on the composition of Jupiter's atmosphere.[62][63] Professor Frank Drake Frank Drake (born May 28, 1930, Chicago, Illinois) is an American astronomer and astrophysicist. ... Cyclotron radiation is a type of bremsstrahlung (braking) radiation. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Hubble Space Telescope image of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, taken on May 17, 1994. ...


Exploration with space probes

Since 1973 a number of automated spacecraft have visited Jupiter. Flights to other planets within the Solar System are accomplished at a cost in energy, which is described by the net change in velocity of the spacecraft, or delta-v. Reaching Jupiter from Earth requires a delta-v of 9.2 km/s,[64] which is comparable to the 9.7 km/s delta-v needed to reach low Earth orbit.[65] Fortunately, gravity assists through planetary flybys can be used to reduce the energy required to reach Jupiter, albeit at the cost of a significantly longer flight duration.[64] The exploration of Jupiter has consisted of a number of automated spacecraft visiting the planet since 1973. ... General In general physics delta-v is simply the change in velocity. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ...


Fly-by missions

Fly-by missions
Spacecraft Closest
approach
Distance
Pioneer 10 December 3, 1973 130,000 km
Pioneer 11 December 4, 1974 34,000 km
Voyager 1 March 5, 1979 349,000 km
Voyager 2 July 9, 1979 570,000 km
Ulysses February 1992 409,000 km
February 2004 240,000,000 km
Cassini December 30, 2000 10,000,000 km
New Horizons February 28, 2007 2,304,535 km
Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, 1979 while still more than 25 million mi (40 million km) away.
Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, 1979 while still more than 25 million mi (40 million km) away.

Beginning in 1973, several spacecraft have performed planetary fly-by maneuvers that brought them within observation range of Jupiter. The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons. They discovered that the radiation fields in the vicinity of the planet were much stronger than expected, but both spacecraft managed to survive in that environment. The trajectories of these spacecraft were used to refine the mass estimates of the Jovian system. Occultations of the radio signals by the planet resulted in better measurements of Jupiter's diameter and the amount of polar flattening.[18][66] Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Position of Pioneer 10 and 11 Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... This article is about the day. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Ulysses spacecraft Ulysses is an unmanned probe designed to study the Sun at all latitudes. ... Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... New Horizons on the launchpad New Horizons is a robotic spacecraft mission conducted by NASA. It is expected to be the first spacecraft to fly by and study the dwarf planet Pluto and its moons, Charon, Nix and Hydra. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Download high resolution version (758x858, 58 KB)Caption: Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. ... Download high resolution version (758x858, 58 KB)Caption: Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic. Comparison of images showed that the Red Spot had changed hue since the Pioneer missions, turning from orange to dark brown. A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting. As the spacecraft passed behind the planet, it observed flashes of lightning in the night side atmosphere.[18][11] Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ...


The next mission to encounter Jupiter, the Ulysses solar probe, performed a fly-by maneuver in order to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. During this pass the spacecraft conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere. However, since Ulysses has no cameras, no images were taken. A second fly-by six years later was at a much greater distance.[67]


In 2000, the Cassini probe, en route to Saturn, flew by Jupiter and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever made of the planet. On December 19, 2000, the spacecraft captured an image of the moon Himalia, but the resolution was too low to show surface details.[68] This article is about the planet. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Himalia (hye-mal-ee-a, also hi-mahl-ee-a, IPA , ; Greek ‘Ιμαλíα) is a moon of Jupiter. ...


The New Horizons probe, en route to Pluto, flew by Jupiter for gravity assist. Closest approach was on February 28, 2007.[69] The probe's cameras measured plasma output from volcanoes on Io and studied all four Galilean moons in detail, as well as making long-distance observations of the outer moons Himalia and Elara.[70] Imaging of the Jovian system began September 4, 2006.[71][72] New Horizons on the launchpad New Horizons is a robotic spacecraft mission conducted by NASA. It is expected to be the first spacecraft to fly by and study the dwarf planet Pluto and its moons, Charon, Nix and Hydra. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Himalia (hye-mal-ee-a, also hi-mahl-ee-a, IPA , ; Greek ‘Ιμαλíα) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Elara (ee-lur-a or ee-lair-a, IPA or , Greek Ελάρη) is a moon of Jupiter. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Galileo mission

Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled.
Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled.

So far the only spacecraft to orbit Jupiter is the Galileo orbiter, which went into orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. It orbited the planet for over seven years, conducting multiple flybys of all of the Galilean moons and Amalthea. The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 as it approached Jupiter in 1994, giving a unique vantage point for the event. However, while the information gained about the Jovian system from Galileo was extensive, its originally-designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio transmitting antenna.[73] Download high resolution version (1920x2400, 294 KB)Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2400, 294 KB)Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Apparent magnitude: 14. ... Hubble Space Telescope image of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, taken on May 17, 1994. ...


An atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July 1995, entering the planet's atmosphere on December 7. It parachuted through 150 km of the atmosphere, collecting data for 57.6 minutes, before being crushed by the pressure to which it was subjected by that time (about 22 times Earth normal, at a temperature of 153 °C).[74] It would have melted thereafter, and possibly vaporized. The Galileo orbiter itself experienced a more rapid version of the same fate when it was deliberately steered into the planet on September 21, 2003 at a speed of over 50 km/s, in order to avoid any possibility of it crashing into and possibly contaminating Europa—a moon which has been hypothesized to have the possibility of harboring life.[73] is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ...


Future probes

NASA is planning a mission to study Jupiter in detail from a polar orbit. Named Juno, the spacecraft is planned to launch by 2011.[75] A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet orbiting on each revolution. ... Juno at Jupiter Juno is a NASA mission to Jupiter planned to cost roughly $700 million and scheduled to launch by June 30, 2010. ...


Because of the possibility of a liquid ocean on Jupiter's moon Europa, there has been great interest in studying the icy moons in detail. A mission proposed by NASA was dedicated to doing so. The JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) was expected to be launched sometime after 2012. However, the mission was deemed too ambitious and its funding was cancelled.[76] Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Artistss Conception of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) was a proposed spacecraft designed to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. ...


Moons

See also: Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites

Jupiter has at least 63 natural satellites. Of these, 47 are less than 10 kilometres in diameter and have only been discovered since 1975. The four largest moons, known as the "Galilean moons", are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Jupiters outer moons and their highly inclined orbits. ... This timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites charts the progress of the discovery of new bodies over history. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ...

Jupiter's 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). From the top they are: Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Io.
Jupiter's 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). From the top they are: Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Io.

Image File history File links Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Jupiter. ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ...

Galilean moons

Main article: Galilean moons

The orbits of Io, Europa, and Ganymede, some of the largest satellites in the solar system, form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one. This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three large moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, since each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes. The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits.[77] Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Orbital Resonance is also the title of a science fiction novel by John Barnes. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 after breaking up under the influence of Jupiters tidal forces. ...


The eccentricity of their orbits causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, with Jupiter's gravity stretching them out as they approach it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes as they swing away. This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors via friction. This is seen most dramatically in the extraordinary volcanic activity of innermost Io (which is subject to the strongest tidal forces), and to a lesser degree in the geological youth of Europa's surface (indicating recent resurfacing of the moon's exterior). (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... It has been suggested that Tidal friction be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ...

The Galilean moons, compared to Earth's Moon
Name

(Pronunciation key) Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... This article is about Earths moon. ...

Diameter Mass Orbital radius Orbital period
km  % kg  % km  % days  %
Io eye'-oe
ˈaɪəʊ
3643 105 8.9×1022 120 421,700 110 1.77 7
Europa ew-roe'-pə
jʊˈrəʊpə
3122 90 4.8×1022 65 671,034 175 3.55 13
Ganymede gan'-ə-meed
ˈgænəmid
5262 150 14.8×1022 200 1,070,412 280 7.15 26
Callisto kə-lis'-toe
kəˈlɪstəʊ
4821 140 10.8×1022 150 1,882,709 490 16.69 61


Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ...


Classification of moons

Europa, one of Jupiter's many moons.
Europa, one of Jupiter's many moons.

Before the discoveries of the Voyager missions, Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements. Since then, the large number of new small outer moons has complicated this picture. There are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x913, 462 KB) [[Melanie is a cool moon my aunt found this moon and she is still living nnnnnnaaaaaaasssssssass[[Media:--~~~~Example. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x913, 462 KB) [[Melanie is a cool moon my aunt found this moon and she is still living nnnnnnaaaaaaasssssssass[[Media:--~~~~Example. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that orbit uniquely, given a model of two ideal masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction. ...


A basic sub-division is a grouping of the eight inner regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator and are believed to have formed with Jupiter. The remainder of the moons consist of an unknown number of small irregular moons with elliptical and inclined orbits, which are believed to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids. Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up.[78][79]

Regular moons Inner group The inner group of four small moons all have diameters of less than 200 km, orbit at radii less than 200,000 km, and have orbital inclinations of less than half a degree.
Galilean moons[80] These four moons, discovered by Galileo Galilei and by Simon Marius in parallel, orbit between 400,000 and 2,000,000 km, and include some of the largest moons in the solar system.
Irregular moons Themisto This is a single moon belonging to a group of its own, orbiting halfway between the Galilean moons and the Himalia group.
Himalia group A tightly clustered group of moons with orbits around 11,000,000–12,000,000 km from Jupiter.
Carpo Another isolated case; at the inner edge of the Ananke group, it revolves in the direct sense.
Ananke group This group has rather indistinct borders, averaging 21,276,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 149 degrees.
Carme group A fairly distinct group that averages 23,404,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 165 degrees.
Pasiphaë group A dispersed and only vaguely distinct group that covers all the outermost moons.

The inner satellites of Jupiter are four small moons that orbit close to Jupiter, merging with its planetary ring. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Galileo redirects here. ... Simon Marius Simon Marius (January 10, 1573 – December 26, 1624) was a German astronomer. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Themisto (thÉ™-mis-toe, IPA: ; Greek Θεμιστώ), or Jupiter XVIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... The Himalia group is a dynamical grouping of Jupiters moons, which share similar orbits. ... Carpo (IPA: , kar-poe, Greek Καρπώ) (Jupiter XLVI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Ananke group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... The Carme group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... The Pasiphaë group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ...

Interaction with the Solar System

Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt), the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly due to Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner solar system's history.[81] Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... The orbital plane of an object orbiting another is the geometrical plane in which the orbit is embedded. ... The celestial equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, which could be constructed by inflating the Earths equator until it intersects with said sphere. ... [[Link titleBold text // ]] This article is about the planet. ... Kirkwood gaps are gaps that appear in a graph if we classify the asteroids according to their periods, which is proportional to their mean radius from the Sun. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) was a period approximately 3. ...

This diagram shows the Trojan Asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt.
This diagram shows the Trojan Asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt.

In addition to its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the sun. These are known as the Trojan asteroids, and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad. The first of these, 588 Achilles, was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906; since then hundreds more have been discovered. The largest is 624 Hektor. Image File history File links Image of the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Image of the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... A contour plot of the effective potential (the Hills Surfaces) of a two-body system (the Sun and Earth here), showing the five Lagrange points. ... Image of the Trojan asteroids in front of and behind Jupiter along its orbital path. ... This is a list of Trojan asteroids - asteroids that lie in elongated, curved regions around the two Lagrangian points 60° ahead and behind of Jupiter. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... 588 Achilles is an asteroid discovered on February 22, 1906 by the German astronomer Max Wolf. ... Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer, a pioneer of astrophotography. ... 624 Hektor is the largest of the Jovian Trojan asteroids. ...


Jupiter has been called the solar system's vacuum cleaner,[82] because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner solar system. It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the solar system's planets.[83] In 1994 comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9, formally designated D/1993 F2) collided with Jupiter and gave informations about the structure of Jupiter. It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment. However, recent computer simulations suggest that Jupiter doesn't cause a net decrease in the number of comets that pass through the inner solar system, as its gravity perturbs their orbits inward in roughly the same numbers that it accretes or ejects them.[84] A gravity well is the scientific/science fictional term for the distortion in space-time caused by a massive body such as a planet. ... Hubble Space Telescope image of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, taken on May 17, 1994. ...


The majority of short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's. Jupiter family comets are believed to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune. During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.[85] The following is the IAUs list of periodic comets that have a number designation. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ...


Possibility of life

In 1953, the Miller-Urey experiment demonstrated that a combination of lightning and the chemical compounds that existed in the atmosphere of a primordial Earth could form organic compounds (including amino acids) that could serve as the building blocks of life. The simulated atmosphere included water, methane, ammonia and molecular hydrogen; all molecules still found in the atmosphere of Jupiter. However, the atmosphere of Jupiter has a strong vertical air circulation, which would carry these compounds down into the lower regions. The higher temperatures within the interior of the atmosphere breaks down these chemicals, which would hinder the formation of Earth-like life.[86] The experiment The Miller-Urey experiment (or Urey-Miller experiment) was an experiment that simulated hypothetical conditions present on the early Earth and tested for the occurrence of chemical evolution. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


It is considered highly unlikely that there is any Earth-like life on Jupiter, as there is only a small amount of water in the atmosphere and any possible solid surface deep within Jupiter would be under extraordinary pressures. However, in 1976, before the Voyager missions, it was hypothesized[87][88] that ammonia- or water-based life, such as the so-called atmospheric beasts, could evolve in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. This hypothesis is based on the ecology of terrestrial seas which have simple photosynthetic plankton at the top level, fish at lower levels feeding on these creatures, and marine predators which hunt the fish. Green people redirects here. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Atmospheric beasts (also sky beasts or sky critters) are organisms which could hypothetically exist off of the surface of Earth or other planets with an atmosphere. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Sheldon J. Plankton. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Human culture

The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky. To the Babylonians, this object represented their god Marduk. They used the roughly 12-year orbit of this planet along the ecliptic to define the constellations of the zodiac.[18] For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... This article is about the star grouping. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ...


The Romans named it after Jupiter (Latin: Iuppiter, Iūpiter) (also called Jove), the principal God of Roman mythology, whose name comes from the Proto-Indo-European vocative form *dyeu ph2ter, meaning "god-father."[10] The astronomical symbol for the planet, ♃, is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt. The Greek equivalent Zeus supplies the root zeno-, used to form some Jupiter-related words, such as zenographic.[89] For the planet see Jupiter. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... God, as a male deity, contrasts with female deities, or goddesses while the term goddess specifically refers to a female deity, words like gods and deities can be applied to all gods collectively, regardless of gender. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ... Chinese Celestial symbols on an antique bronze mirror Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent various celestial objects, theoretical constructs and observational events. ... Image File history File links Jupiter_symbol. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. The older adjectival form jovial, employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages, has come to mean "happy" or "merry"; moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence.[90] In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese referred to the planet as the wood star, 木星,[91] based on the Chinese Five Elements. The Greeks called it Φαέθων, Phaethon, "blazing". In Vedic Astrology, Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati, the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it "Guru," which literally means the "Heavy One".[92] In the English language Thursday is rendered as Thor's day, with Thor being associated with the planet Jupiter in Germanic mythology.[93] Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... In Hinduism, Brihaspati is the god of magic and prayer. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The god Thor, after whom Thursday is named. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Thor, god of thunder, one of the major figures in Germanic mythology. ...


See also

Solar System Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1274, 113 KB) Original caption released with image This is a montage of planetary images taken by spacecraft managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. Included are (from top to bottom) images of Mercury, Venus, Earth (and Moon), Mars... Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system, is a popular backdrop for science fiction stories and films. ...

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Astronomy, and in particular in Astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space is the gravitational Keplerian orbit about a central body which best approximates the (more complex) motion of the object at a given instant in time. ... The J2000. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional reading

  • (2004) in Bagenal, F.; Dowling, T. E.; McKinnon, W. B.: Jupiter: The planet, satellites, and magnetosphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521818087. 
  • Beebe, Reta (1996). Jupiter: The Giant Planet, Second edition, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press. ISBN 1560986859. 

External links

Find more information on Jupiter by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Hans Lohninger et al (November 2, 2005). Jupiter, As Seen By Voyager 1. A Trip into Space. Virtual Institute of Applied Science. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Anonymous (April 6, 2006). Universal 3D Globe. Ibiblio. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Anonymous (2006). Jupiter. ProjectShum. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.—A kid's guide to Jupiter.
  • Anonymous. Galileo Galilei. Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.—A kid's guide to Jupiter.
  • Dunn, Tony (2006). The Jovian System. Gravity Simulator. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.—A simulation of the 62 Jovian moons.
  • Jupiter Map and Central Meridian (Hebrew). Tel Aviv University. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Seronik, G.; Ashford, A. R.. Chasing the Moons of Jupiter. Sky & Telescope. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Anonymous. "In Pictures: New views of Jupiter", BBC News, May 2, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  • Williams, David R. (November 16, 2004). Jupiter Fact Sheet. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  • Jupiter. European Space Agency (September 20, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
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The Sun · Mercury · Venus · Earth · Mars · Ceres · Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune · Pluto · Eris
Planets · Dwarf planets · Moons: Terrestrial · Martian · Jovian · Saturnian · Uranian · Neptunian · Plutonian · Eridian
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Jupiters outer moons and their highly inclined orbits. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ... Download high resolution version (840x840, 41 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. ... The cloud pattern on Jupiter is the visible system of coloured cloud tops in the atmosphere of the planet Jupiter, remarkable for its stability. ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... Jupiter has a very large and powerful magnetosphere. ... Oval BA (left) Oval BA (commonly known as Red Spot Jr. ... A schema of Jupiters ring system showing the four main components The rings of Jupiter are a system of planetary rings around the planet Jupiter. ... Jupiters outer moons and their highly inclined orbits. ... The exploration of Jupiter has consisted of a number of automated spacecraft visiting the planet since 1973. ... The US Pioneer program of unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo and Inertial Upper Stage being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Juno at Jupiter Juno is a NASA mission to Jupiter planned to cost roughly $700 million and scheduled to launch by June 30, 2010. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Europa (moon). ... A Jupiter-crosser asteroid is an asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Jupiter. ... The Earthly Branches (Chinese: ; pinyin: dìzhÄ«; or Chinese: ; pinyin: shíèrzhÄ«; literally twelve branches) provide one Chinese system for reckoning time. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization, also called space settlement and space humanization, is the hypothetical permanent autonomous (self-sufficient) human habitation of locations outside Earth. ... Jupiter mass is the unit of mass equal to one Jupiter (1. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... The inner satellites of Jupiter are four small moons that orbit close to Jupiter, merging with its planetary ring. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Metis (mee-tÉ™s, IPA: , Greek Μήτις), or Jupiter XVI, is the innermost member of the Jupiters small inner moons and thus Jupiters innermost moon. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Adrastea (IPA: , ad-ra-stee-a, Greek Αδράστεια) is the second of Jupiters known moons (counting outward from the planet). ... Apparent magnitude: 14. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Thebe (thee-bee, IPA ; Greek Θήβη) is the fourth of Jupiters known moons by distance from the planet. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Themisto (thÉ™-mis-toe, IPA: ; Greek Θεμιστώ), or Jupiter XVIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... The Himalia group is a dynamical grouping of Jupiters moons, which share similar orbits. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa For the asteroid, see 38 Leda Leda (lee-dÉ™, IPA: ; Greek Λήδα), or Jupiter XIII, is a prograde irregular satellite of Jupiter that was discovered by Charles T. Kowal at the Mount Palomar Observatory on September 14, 1974, right after three nights worth of photographic plates had... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Himalia (hye-mal-ee-a, also hi-mahl-ee-a, IPA , ; Greek ‘Ιμαλíα) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Lysithea (lye-sith-ee-É™ or lÉ™-sith-ee-É™, IPA: ; Greek Λυσιθέα) is a prograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Elara (ee-lur-a or ee-lair-a, IPA or , Greek Ελάρη) is a moon of Jupiter. ... S/2000 J 11 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Carpo (IPA: , kar-poe, Greek Καρπώ) (Jupiter XLVI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 12 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Ananke group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Ananke (a-nang-kee, IPA ; Greek Ανάγκη) is one of Jupiters moons. ... Praxidike (IPA: , prak-sid-i-kee, Greek Πραξιδίκη) (Jupiter XXVII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Harpalyke (har-pal-É™-kee, IPA: ; Greek Ἁρπαλύκη), or Jupiter XXII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Iocaste (eye-É™-kas-tee, IPA: ; Greek Ιοκάστη), or Jupiter XXIV, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Euanthe (IPA: , ew-an-thee) (Jupiter XXXIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Thyone (IPA: , thye-oe-nee, Greek Θυώνη) (Jupiter XXIX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Euporie (ew-por-ee-É™, IPA: ; Greek Ευπορία), or Jupiter XXXIV, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 3 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 18 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Thelxinoe (IPA: , thel-zin-oe-ee, Greek Θελξινόη) (Jupiter XLII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Helike (IPA: , hel-i-kee, Greek ‘Ελίκη) (Jupiter XLV) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Orthosie (IPA: , or-thoe-see-a) (Jupiter XXXV) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 16 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Hermippe (IPA: , hur-mip-ee) (Jupiter XXX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Mneme (IPA: , nee-mee, Greek Μνήμη) (Jupiter XL) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 15 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Carme group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... S/2003 J 17 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 10 is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Pasithee (IPA: , pa-sith-ee-a, Greek Πασιθέη) (Jupiter XXXVIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Chaldene (IPA: , kal-dee-nee, Greek Χαλδηνη?) (Jupiter XXI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Arche (ar-kee, IPA: ; Greek Αρχη), or Jupiter XLIII, is a moon of Jupiter. ... Isonoe (IPA: , eye-son-oe-ee, Greek Ισονοη) (Jupiter XXVI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Erinome (err-in-É™-mee, IPA: ; Greek Ερινομη), or Jupiter XXV, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Kale (kay-lee, IPA: ; Greek = Καλη), or Jupiter XXXVII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Aitne (et-nee, IPA: ; Greek Άιτνη), or Jupiter XXXI, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Taygete (IPA: , tay-ij-i-tee, Greek Ταϋγέτη) (Jupiter XX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 9 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Carme (IPA: , kar-mee, Greek Κάρμη) is one of Jupiters moons. ... S/2003 J 5 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 19 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Kalyke (IPA: , kal-i-kee, Greek Καλύκη) (Jupiter XXIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Eukelade (ew-kel-É™-dee, IPA: ; Greek Ευκελαδη), or Jupiter XLVII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. ... Kallichore (kÉ™-lik-É™-ree, IPA: ; Greek Καλλιχόρη), or Jupiter XLIV, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... The Pasiphaë group is made up of moons of Jupiter which share similar orbits. ... Eurydome (ew-rid-É™-mee, IPA: ; Greek Ευριδομη), or Jupiter XXXII, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 23 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Hegemone (hÉ™-jem-É™-nee, IPA: ; Greek Ἡγεμόνη), or Jupiter XXXIX, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Pasiphaë (IPA: , pa-sif-a-ee, Greek Πασιφάη) is a moon of Jupiter. ... Sponde (spon-dee, IPA: ; Greek Σπονδή), or Jupiter XXXVI, is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Cyllene (IPA: , si-lee-nee, Greek Κυλλήνη) (Jupiter XLVIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Megaclite (IPA: , meg-a-klye-tee, Latin MegaclÄ«tÄ“, from Greek) (Jupiter XIX) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 4 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Callirrhoe (IPA: , ka-leer-oe-ee, Greek Καλλιρρόη) (Jupiter XVII) is one of Jupiters outermost named natural satellites. ... Atmospheric pressure 0 kPa Sinope (IPA: , si-noe-pee, Greek Σινώπη) is a moon of Jupiter discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Lick Observatory in 1914, and is named after Sinope of Greek mythology. ... Autonoe (aw-ton-oe-ee, IPA , Greek Αυτονόη) (Jupiter XXVIII) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Aoede (IPA: , ay-ee-dee, Greek Αοιδή) (Jupiter XLI) is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Kore () is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... S/2003 J 2 is a natural satellite of Jupiter. ... A schema of Jupiters ring system showing the four main components The rings of Jupiter are a system of planetary rings around the planet Jupiter. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Sol redirects here. ... [[Link titleBold text // ]] This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The relative sizes of and distance between Mars, Phobos, and Deimos, to scale : Phobos (top) and Deimos (bottom). ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... The Saturnian system (photographic montage) Moons of Saturn (photographic montage) Saturn has 60 confirmed natural satellites, plus three hypothetical moons. ... Uranus has twenty-seven known moons. ... Neptune (top) and Triton (bottom), 3 days after the Voyager 2 flyby. ... Hubble image of the Plutonian system Pluto has three known moons. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... A Small Solar System Body (SSSB) is a term defined in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union to describe objects in the Solar System that are neither planets nor dwarf planets: [1] This encompasses: all minor planets apart from the dwarf planets, : the classical asteroids, (except for 1 Ceres, the... “Meteor” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl An asteroid moon is an asteroid that orbits another asteroid. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... Eris, the largest known scattered disc object (center), and its moon Dysnomia (left of center). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ... Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... Below is a list of solar system objects with diameter >500km: The Sun, a spectral class G2 star Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Io Europa Ganymede Callisto complete list of Jupiters natural satellites Saturn Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Iapetus complete list of Saturns natural satellites Uranus Ariel... It has been suggested that Planetary-size comparison be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jupiter- British Encyclopedia Online (634 words)
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and is the largest one in the solar system.
Jupiter possesses 28 known satellites, four of which - Callisto, Europa, Ganymede and Io - were observed by Galileo as long ago as 1610.
Jupiter's rings and moons exist within an intense radiation belt of electrons and ions trapped in the planet's magnetic field.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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