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Encyclopedia > Junkers Jumo 004

The Jumo 004 was the world's first turbojet engine in production and operational use. Some 8,000 units were manufactured by Junkers in Germany during late World War II and powered the Messerschmitt Me 262 and Arado Ar 234 aircraft. Variants of the engine were produced in Eastern Europe in the years following the war. Image File history File links Junkers_Jumo_004. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engine. ... For the Prussian/German landowning classes, see junker. The name Junkers (IPA: /ˈjunkeɺs/) is well known in connection with aircraft, which were produced under this name for the Luftwaffe during World War II. In particular the Ju 87 Stuka and Ju 52 Tante Ju were common symbols of the... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German Swallow) was the worlds first operational jet-powered fighter. ... The Arado Ar 234 Blitz (Lightning) was the worlds first operational jet powered bomber, built by the Arado company in the closing stages of World War II. In the field it was used almost entirely in the reconnaissance role, but in its few uses as a bomber it proved...



The practicality of jet propulsion had been demonstrated in Germany in early 1937 by Hans von Ohain working with the Heinkel company. Most of the RLM remained uninterested, but Helmut Schelp and Hans Mauch saw the potential of the concept and encouraged Germany's aero engine manufacturers to begin their own programmes of jet engine development. Eventually in 1939 Otto Mader, head of Junkers Motoren (Jumo), stated that even if the concept was useful, he had no one to work on it. Schelp responded by stating that Dr Anselm Franz, then in charge of Junkers' turbo- and supercharger development, would be perfect for the job. Franz started his development team later that year, and the project was given the RLM designation 109-004 (the 109- prefix was common to all jet projects). 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (December 14, 1911-March 13, 1998) was one of the inventors of jet propulsion, along with Frank Whittle. ... Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. ... Reichsluftfahrtministerium ... Anselm Franz (1900-1994) was a pioneering jet engine engineer, known for the development of the Jumo 004 turbojet in Germany during World War II, and his work on turboshaft designs in the US after the war. ... Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to compress air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. ...

Franz opted for a design that was at once conservative and revolutionary. His design differed from von Ohain's in that he utilised a new type of compressor which allowed a continuous, straight flow of air through the engine (an axial compressor), recently developed by the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA - Aerodynamic Research Institute) at Göttingen. The axial-flow compressor not only had excellent performance, about 78% efficient in "real world" conditions, but it also had a smaller cross-section, important for a high-speed aircraft design. A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... An animation of an axial compressor. ... Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...

On the other hand, he aimed to produce an engine that was far below its theoretical potential, in the interests of expediting development and simplifying production. One major decision was to opt for a simple combustion area using six "flame cans", instead of the more efficient single annular can. For the same reasons, he collaborated heavily on the development of the engine's turbine with Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG - General Electric Company) in Berlin, and instead of building development engines, opted to begin work immediately on the prototype of an engine that could be put straight into production. Anselm's conservative approach came under question from the RLM, but was vindicated when even given the developmental problems that it was to face, the 004 entered production and service well ahead of its more technologically advanced competitor, the BMW 003. WWII era steam turbine used for ship propulsion. ... AEG volt-metre designed by Peter Behrens AEG (Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft) (English Translation: General Electricity Company) was a German producer of electronics and electrical equipment. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen federal states of Germany. ... The BMW 003 was an early turbojet engine produced in Germany during World War II. Work on its design began earlier than the contemporary Junkers Jumo 004 engine, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with...


The first prototype 004A ran in spring 1940, and in January the following year was brought up to full thrust, 946 lbf (4.2 kN). Vibration problems with the compressor blades delayed the program at this point, until a new stator design by Max Bentele solved the problem. With the new stators in the place the engine developed 1,320 lbf (5.9 kN) in August, and passed a 10-hour endurance run at 2,200 lbf (9.8 kN) in December. The first flight test took place on March 15, 1942, when a 004A was carried aloft by a Messerschmitt Bf 110. On July 18, one of the prototype Messerschmitt Me 262s flew for the first time under jet power from its 004 engines, and the 004 was ordered into production by the RLM to the extent of 80 engines. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Messerschmitt Bf 110 (later Me 110) was a twin-engine heavy fighter in the service of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Later in the war it was changed to fighter-bomber and night fighter operations, and it became the major night fighter type of the Luftwaffe. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German Swallow) was the worlds first operational jet-powered fighter. ...

The 004A was strictly a test-bed, unsuitable for mass production due to its solid, and thus heavy, construction and considerable use of expensive high-temperature metals in the "hot section". For production, the 004B turned to air cooling instead, using hollow turbine blades made of inexpensive steel, cooled by compressed air "bled" from the compressor. The first production versions weighed 220 lb (100 kg) less than the 004A's, and in 1943 had passed several 100 hour tests. The old Steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is sometimes described as a sea of electrons. ...

Later in 1943 a series of engines suffered vibration problems, and solutions dragged on. Eventually, in December, Max Bentele was once again brought in during a meeting at the RLM headquarters, where he suggested several seemingly small changes to change the natural frequencies of the turbine blades, and a slight reduction in operational rpm from 9,000 to 8,700. This cured the problem, but it was not until early 1944 that full production could finally begin. These setbacks were the principal factor delaying the Luftwaffe's introduction of the Me 262 into squadron service.

Given the lower-quality steels used in the 004B, these engines typically only had a service life of some 10-25 hours (perhaps double this in the hands of a skilled pilot). Another shortcoming of the engine, common to all early turbojets, was its sluggish response to throttle. Worse, it was fairly easy to "dump" too much fuel into the engine by throttling up too quickly, allowing heat to build up before the cooling air could remove it. This led to softening of the turbine blades, and was a major cause for engine failures. Nevertheless, it made jet power for combat aircraft a reality for the first time.

One interesting feature of the 004 was the starter system, which consisted of a Riedel 10 hp (7 kW) 2-stroke motorcycle engine hidden in the intake. A hole in the extreme nose of the centrebody contained a pull-handle which started the engine, which in turned spun up the engine. Two small gasoline tanks were fitted in the annular intake. A motorcycle is a two-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine. ...

A number of more advanced versions were in development at the end of the war. The 004C included an afterburner for increased thrust, but was not built. The 004D improved fuel efficiency with a two-stage fuel injector, and introduced a new throttle control that avoided dumping too much fuel into the engine during throttle-ups. The 004D had passed testing and was ready to enter production in place of the 004B, when the war ended. The 004E was a 004D model with an improved exhaust area for better altitude performance. SR-71 in flight with J58 on full afterburner An afterburner is an additional component added to some jet engines, primarily those on military aircraft. ...

A much more advanced model based on the same basic systems was also under development as the Jumo 012. The 012 was based on a "two-spool" system, in which two turbines, spinning at different speeds, drove two separate sections of the compressor for more efficiency. In a jet engine the compressor typically uses up about 60% of all the power generated, so any improvements can have a dramatic effect on fuel use. Plans were also underway to use the 012's basic concept in an engine outwardly identical to the 004, known as the 004H, which improved specific fuel consumption from the 004B's 1.39 kg/(km/h) to a respectable 1.20 kg/(km/h), a decrease of about 15%. Specific fuel consumption, often shortened to SFC, is an engineering term that is used to describe the fuel efficiency of an engine design. ...

Apart from the Me 262 and Arado Ar 234, the engine was used to power the experimental Junkers Ju 287, and prototypes of the Gotha Go 229 and Heinkel He 280. There were plans to install it in the Heinkel He 162 as well as the Focke-Wulf Ta 183 and Henschel Hs 132 then under development. The Arado Ar 234 Blitz (Lightning) was the worlds first operational jet powered bomber, built by the Arado company in the closing stages of World War II. In the field it was used almost entirely in the reconnaissance role, but in its few uses as a bomber it proved... The Junkers Ju 287 was a flying testbed built to develop the technology required for a multi-engined jet bomber aircraft. ... The Horten Ho 229 (often erroneously called Gotha Go 229 due to the identity of the chosen manufacturer of the aircraft) was a late-World War II flying wing fighter aircraft, designed by the Horten brothers and built by Gothaer Waggonfabrik. ... The Heinkel He 280 was the first jet-powered fighter aircraft built in the world. ... The Heinkel He 162 Volksjäger (Peoples Fighter) was the second jet engined fighter aircraft to be fielded by the Luftwaffe in WWII. It was a rival to the Messerschmitt Me 262 and was the fastest of the first generation of Axis and Allied jets. ... The Focke-Wulf Ta-183 Huckebein was a jet-powered fighter aircraft, designed during World War II as the successor to the Messerschmitt Me 262 in Luftwaffe service. ... Henschel Hs 132 The Henschel Hs 132 was a World War II dive bomber and interceptor aircraft of the Luftwaffe that never saw service. ...

Following World War II, Jumo 004s were built in small numbers by Malesice in Czechoslovakia, designated M-04 to power the Avia S-92, itself a copy of the Me 262. Jumo 004 copies were also built in the Soviet Union as the RD-10 engine, where they powered the Yakovlev Yak-15 as well as many prototype jet fighters. The Yakovlev Yak-15 (originally given the designation Type-2 by US intelligence, and later the NATO reporting name Feather) was an early Soviet jet fighter, and the lightest operational jet fighter ever built. ...

In France, captured 004s powered the Sud-Ouest SO 6000 Triton and the Arsenal VG-70.


RLM Designation Type Layout Thrust or power Weight Speed
109-004B Turbojet 8ax 6in 1tu 8.8 kN (1984 lbf) 745 kg (1642 lb) 8700 rpm
109-004C Turbojet 8ax 6in 1tu 10.0 kN (2238 lbf) 720 kg (1588 lb) 8700 rpm
109-004D Turbojet 8ax 6in 1tu 10.3 kN (2315 lbf) 745 kg (1642 lb) 10000 rpm
109-004H Turbojet 11ax 8in 2tu 17.7 kN (3970 lbf) 1200 kg (2646 lb) 6600 rpm
109-012 Turbojet 11ax 6in 2tu 27.3 kN (6130 lbf) 2000 kg (4410 lb) 5300 rpm
109-022 Turboprop 11ax 8in 2tu 4600 ehp (3.4 MW) 2600 kg (5733 lbf) 5000 rpm

Layout: ax=axial flow compressor stages, in=individual combustion chambers, tu=turbine stages.

Specifications (Jumo 004B)

General characteristics

  • Type: Turbojet
  • Length: 3,860 mm (152 in)
  • Diameter: 810 mm (32 in)
  • Dry weight: 719 kg (1,585 lb)



  • Thrust: 8.8 kN (1,980 lbf) at 8,700 rpm
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 1.25 (12.2 N/kg)

Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engine. ... An animation of an axial compressor. ... A ring of can type combustors circles the mid section of this gas turbine. ... WWII era steam turbine used for ship propulsion. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Law. ... Thrust-to-weight ratio (where weight means weight at the Earths surface) is a dimensionless parameter characteristic of rocket and jet engines, and of vehicles propelled by such engines (typically space launch vehicles and jet aircraft). ...


The Junkers Jumo 004 is perhaps the only aero engine to feature in popular music, being referenced in the lyrics to the Blue Öyster Cult's "ME 262" from the 1974 album, Secret Treaties. Blue Öyster Cult is an American psychedelic/heavy metal band formed in the late 1960s and active as of 2006. ... See also: 1973 in music, other events of 1974, 1975 in music, 1970s in music and the list of years in music // January - The Ramones form. ... Secret Treaties is Blue Öyster Cults third studio album, released in 1974. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Anselm Franz and the Jumo 004 (3109 words)
The Junkers Jumo 004 was not the first turbojet invented, nor was the ME 262 the first aircraft to fly under jet power.
In the Jumo 004's inlet section, the diameter of the intake was 20 inches.
The Jumo 004 compressor was an eight-stage unit with an airflow rate of 46.6 pounds per second and an outer casing of uniform diameter.
  More results at FactBites »



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