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Encyclopedia > Junker

Junkers (English pronunciation: [ˈjʊŋk ə]; German pronunciation: [ˈjʊŋ kɐ]) were the landed nobility of Prussia and Eastern Germany - lands which are often also called "Eastelbia" (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). These families were mostly part of the German Uradel (very old feudal nobility) and carried on the colonization and Christianization of the northeastern European territories in the 11th, 12th and 13th century. Landed nobility is a category of nobility in various countries over the history, for which landownership was part of their noble privileges. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... The German term Uradel (literally: original or ancient nobility) refers to nobility who can trace back their noble ancestry at least to the year 1400. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


In the Netherlands the title is sometimes used, although it has taken the meaning of jonkheer, in contrast to the description given below. Jonkheer (female equivalent: Jonkvrouw) is a Dutch predicate of nobility. ...

Contents

Origins

"Junker" in German means "young lord", and is understood as country squire. It is probably derived from the German words Junger Herr, or Young Lord. As part of the nobility, many Junker families have particles such as "von" or "zu" before their family names. In the Middle Ages, a Junker was simply a lesser noble, often poor and politically insignificant. Martin Luther was given the cover name "Junker Jörg" while he lived in Wartburg Castle in 1521. A good number of poor Junkers took up careers as soldiers and mercenaries. Over the centuries, they rose from disreputable captains of mercenary cutthroats to influential commanders and landowners in the 19th century. The rest of the article refers to these "modern" Junkers. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Von (generally in small case only as von) is a German preposition which approximately means of or from. ... Zu or zu can mean: Zulu language (ISO 639 alpha-2, zu) Zu (mythology), a lesser god in Akkadian mythology a German word, meaning to. As part of a family name, it can indicate belonging to the nobility and posession of a place, estate etc. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Wartburg in Eisenach Wartburg Castle is situated on a 1230-foot (410 m) precipitous hill to the southwest of and overlooking the town of Eisenach in Thuringia. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern influences

Being the bulwark of the Hohenzollern Empire, the Junkers controlled the military, leading in political influence and social status, and owning immense estates, especially in the north-eastern half of Germany (Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Pommerania, East Prussia, Saxony, Silesia). Their political influence extended from the German Empire of 1871 to 1918 through the Weimar Republic of 1919–1933. It was said that Prussia ruled Germany, the Junkers ruled Prussia, and through it the Empire itself. The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Social status is the standing, the honour or prestige attached to ones position in society. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag...


They dominated all the higher civil offices and officer corps of the army and navy. Supporting monarchism and military traditions, they were often reactionary and protectionist; they were often anti-liberal, siding with the conservative monarchist forces during the Revolution of 1848. Their political interests were served by the German Conservative Party in the Reichstag and the extraparliamentary Agrarian League. This political class held tremendous power over the industrial classes and the government. When Chancellor Caprivi reduced the protective duties on imports of grain, these landed magnates demanded and obtained his dismissal; and in 1902, they brought about a restoration of such duties on foodstuffs as would keep the prices of their own products at a high level. Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Agrarianism is a social and political philosophy. ...


The German statesman Otto von Bismarck was a noted Junker, as were president Paul von Hindenburg and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt. “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ...


The Beer Hall Putsch of 1923, staged by Adolf Hitler and General Erich Ludendorff was foiled by commander von Lossow (another Junker) of the local Reichswehr, and the Bavarian Prime Minister Gustav von Kahr. Von Kahr was later murdered in the Reichsmordwoche (the Blood Purge) of June 30, 1934. This series of events, as well as a few others, led Hitler to dislike Junkers in general. However, Hitler mostly ignored the Junkers as a whole during his time in power, taking no action against them and no action in their favour. The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ... Gustav Ritter von Kahr (1862–June 30, 1934) was a German right-wing conservative politician, active in the state of Bavaria. ... The Night of the Long Knives (German, Nacht der langen Messer), also known as Reichsmordwoche or the Blood Purge, was a purge ordered by Adolf Hitler of potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung, or S.A. The Night of the Long Knives took place during the late night of Saturday... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As the war turned against Germany and Nazi atrocities were revealed, several Junkers in influential positions participated in Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg's assassination attempt of 20 July 1944. Their attempts ultimately failed due to coincidence and Allied mistrust of their motives. However the resistance of the Abwehr (Secret Military Intelligence) under Admiral Wilhelm Canaris contributed to the eventual Allied victory Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf[1] von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and one of the leading figures of the failed July 20 Plot of 1944 to kill Adolf Hitler and seize power in Germany. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ...


Bodenreform

After the war, during the Bodenreform (soil reform) in the German Democratic Republic (GDR), all private property exceeding a certain area (i.e. all the land that used to belong to the Junkers) was seized and given to collectives of farmers or taken by the state. Now, after the German reunification, the Junkers are trying to get their former estates back. Meanwhile many old noble families are back on their original lands by buying back their land from the state. However, the treaties that West Germany (FGR) and the GDR had signed with the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union in the 1950s contained the rule that any decision made by any of the four occupation forces during the time of occupation (1945–1955) must be kept up, lest the independent Germans label it as wrong ex post facto. “East Germany” redirects here. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... GDR redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... An ex post facto law (Latin for from a thing done afterward), also known as a retrospective law, is a law that is retroactive, i. ...


German agrarian development has been regional rather than national; that is to say, the ownership and use of land took a different trend in each of three main sections of the country. The southwest (including Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hesse and Rhenish Prussia) became like France, a land of small holdings, and up to the First World War it was the only part of the Empire in which it was possible to discover peasant political influence of any importance. The northwest (including Westphalia, Lower Saxony, and parts of Hanover and Holstein) developed a system of medium-to-large holdings, yet with many peasant proprietorships. From Brandenburg eastward, however, — and especially in the Pruserania, — practically all of the land was long ago gathered into great estates, and most of the people were landless, wage-earning agricultural laborers; the latter were the lands of the Junkers.


References

  • The Governments of Europe, Frederic Austin Ogg, MacMillan Company, 1922. pg 681. Copyright expired and free use of material granted by same company.

 , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ... Woland is a charakter from the book The Master and Margarita by the Russian author Mikhail Bulgakov Categories: Stub ...

Bibliography

  • On German agrarian history in the 19th century see Economic Development of Modern Europe, Frederic Austin Ogg, Chap ix (bibliography, pp. 210-211).
  • Ordinary Prussians - Brandenburg Junkers and Villagers, 1500-1840, by William W. Hagen

(Cambridge University Press) Hardback ISBN-13: 9780521815581 | ISBN-10: 0521815584 Also available in Paperback Published January 2003


See also


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