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Encyclopedia > Juniperus virginiana
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Juniperus virginiana
Conservation status: Secure

Eastern Juniper foliage and mature cones
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae
Genus: Juniperus
Species: J. virginiana
Binomial name
Juniperus virginiana
L.

Juniperus virginiana is a widespread North American species of juniper, known as Eastern Juniper or Eastern Redcedar (though it is unrelated to the cedars); the Lakota Native American name is Chansha, "redwood" or Hante'. It is found from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, east of the Great Plains. Further west, it is replaced by the related Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper), and to the southwest, Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper). Download high resolution version (820x637, 195 KB)Eastern Juniper Juniperus virginiana. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Families Pinaceae, pine family Araucariaceae, araucaria family Podocarpaceae, yellow-wood family Phyllocladaceae Sciadopityaceae, umbrella-pine family Cupressaceae, cypress family Cephalotaxaceae, plum-yew family Taxaceae, yew family The Order Pinales in the Division Pinophyta, Class Pinopsida comprises all the extant conifers. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Species 50-55 species; see text. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature refers to the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné â–¶(?), and in English usually under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the... Species 50-55 species; see text. ... Species Cedrus deodara Cedrus libani    var. ... The Lakota (IPA: ) (also Lakhota, Teton, Titonwon) are a Native American tribe. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... Juniperus scopulorum This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper) is a drought-tolerant evergreen shrub or small tree, native to northeastern Mexico and the south-central United States north to southern Missouri; the largest areas are in central Texas, where extensive stands occur. ...

Eastern Juniper trees
Eastern Juniper trees

Eastern Juniper is a dense slow-growing tree that may never become more than a bush on poor soil but is ordinarily from 5-18 m tall, rarely 25 m, with a short trunk from 30-60 cm (1-2 feet) in diameter, rarely 120 cm (4 feet) diameter. The largest trees, on bottomlands in southeastern states of the USA, can be 300 years old. The bark is reddish-brown, fibrous, and peels off in narrow strips. The leaves are of two types; sharp, spreading needle-like juvenile leaves 5-10 mm long, and tightly adpressed scale-like adult leaves 2-4 mm long. The juvenile leaves are found on young plants up to 1-3 years old, and as scattered shoots on adult trees, usually in shade. The cones are 3-7 mm long, berry-like with fleshy scales, dark purple-blue with a white wax cover giving an overall sky-blue color (though the wax often rubs off); they are mature in 6-8 months. The 'berries' furnish winter food for many birds, which disperse the wingless seeds. Eastern Redcedar (Juniper) Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:36, 19 Feb 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eastern Redcedar (Juniper) Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:36, 19 Feb 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Several types of berries from the market, but none of these are true berries. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


This species is a host for Apple rust disease. The Eastern Juniper is a pioneer invader, which means that it is one of the first trees to repopulate cleared, eroded, or otherwise damaged land. The tree can often be found along highways and near recent construction sites. Species (juniper-hawthorn rust) (juniper-rowan rust) (juniper-hawthorn rust) (juniper-apple rust) (juniper-pear rust) (juniper-quince rust) (Japanese juniper-apple rust) Gymnosporangium is a fungus which infects alternately members of the genus Juniperus (junipers) and members of the family Rosaceae in the subfamily Maloideae (apples, pears, quinces, hawthorns...


There are two subspecies, which intergrade where they meet:

  • Juniperus virginiana subsp. virginiana. Eastern Juniper / Redcedar. Eastern North America, from Maine west to southern Ontario and South Dakota, south to northernmost Florida and southwest into the post oak savannah of east-central Texas. Cones larger, 4-7 mm; scale leaves acute at apex; bark red-brown.
  • Juniperus virginiana subsp. silicicola. Southern or Sand Juniper / Redcedar. Along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from North Carolina south to central Florida and west to southeast Texas. Cones smaller, 3-4 mm; scale leaves blunt at apex; bark orange-brown. It is treated by some authors at the lower rank of variety, while others treat it as a distinct species.

State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci (D) Senators Olympia Snowe (R) Susan Collins (R) Official language(s) None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) • Land 917,741 km² • Water 158,654 km² (14. ... State nickname: The Mount Rushmore State Official languages English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Governor Mike Rounds (R) Senators Tim Johnson (D) John Thune (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 17th 199,905 km² 1. ... State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville (largest metropolitan area is Miami) Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official language(s) English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... ... State nickname: Tar Heel State; Old North State Other U.S. States Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley (D) Senators Elizabeth Dole (R) Richard Burr (R) Official language(s) English Area 139,509 km² (28th)  - Land 126,256 km²  - Water 13,227 km² (9. ... State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville (largest metropolitan area is Miami) Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official language(s) English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... ...

Uses

The fine-grained, soft brittle pinkish red to brownish red heartwood is fragrant, very light and very durable, even in contact with soil. It was once a premier wood for pencils. It makes great fence posts. Because the wood is naturally resistant to rot and is avoided by moths it is in demand as lining for clothes chests and closets, often referred to as cedar closets and cedar chests. The wood is marketed as "eastern redcedar" or "aromatic cedar". A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a material found as the primary content of the stems of woody plants, especially trees, but also shrubs. ...


Juniper oil is distilled from the wood, twigs and leaves. The cones are used to flavor gin and as a kidney medicine. Gin and tonic This article concerns the beverage. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Native American tribes used juniper wood poles to mark out agreed tribal hunting territories. French traders named Baton Rouge, Louisiana (meaning "red stick") from the reddish color of these poles. A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Hunting is most commonly applied to the practice of pursuing animals to capture or kill them for food, sport, or trade in their products. ... Founded Incorporated 1699 16 January 1817  County East Baton Rouge Parish Mayor Melvin Kip Holden Area  - Total  - Water 204. ...


During the dust bowl drought in the 1930s, the Prairie States Forest Project encouraged farmers to plant shelterbelts (wind breaks) made of Eastern Juniper throughout the Great Plains. They are still planted for this purpose. Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a series of dust storms caused by a massive drought and decades of inappropriate farming techniques that began in 1930 and lasted until 1941. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ...


Allergen

The pollen of Eastern Juniper is a known allergen, although not as potent as that of the related Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper) which sheds pollen a month earlier. People allergic to one are usually allergic to both. Eastern Juniper sheds pollen as early as late winter and through early spring. Consequently, what begins as an allergy to Ashe Juniper in the winter, may extend into spring since the pollination of the Eastern Juniper follows after that of the Ashe Juniper. An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Binomial name Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper) is a drought-tolerant evergreen shrub or small tree, native to northeastern Mexico and the south-central United States north to southern Missouri; the largest areas are in central Texas, where extensive stands occur. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Juniperus virginiana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (680 words)
Juniperus virginiana is a widespread North American species of juniper, known as Eastern Juniper or Eastern Redcedar (though it is unrelated to the cedars); the Lakota Native American name is Chansha, "redwood" or Hante'.
Further west, it is replaced by the related Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper), and to the southwest, Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper).
The pollen of Eastern Juniper is a known allergen, although not as potent as that of the related Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper) which sheds pollen a month earlier.
Trees of Wisconsin: Juniperus virginiana, eastern red-cedar (168 words)
Juniperus virginiana is a tree with a columnar growth form and leaves very similar to those of J.
Juniperus virginiana ranges across the eastern U.S.A. from southeastern South Dakota to Texas, east to Florida and New England.
In Wisconsin it is found mostly in the southern half, and is especially prominent in the southwestern counties where it is common on the sandy soils and dry slopes near the Wisconsin River and on the rocky slopes of the immediate drainage area of the Mississippi River.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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