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Encyclopedia > Juniper
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Juniperus
Juniperus communis shrubs in The Netherlands
Juniperus communis shrubs
in The Netherlands
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae
Genus: Juniperus
L.
Species
See text.

Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa in the Old World, and to the mountains of Central America in the New World. Download high resolution version (707x956, 203 KB)Common Juniper copied across from nl:wiki Source: nl:Afbeelding:Jeneverbes. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Orders & Families Cordaitales† Pinales   Pinaceae- Pine family   Araucariaceae- Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae- Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae- Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae- Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae- Plum-yew family   Taxaceae- Yew family Vojnovskyales† Voltziales† The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales† Pinales   Pinaceae- Pine family   Araucariaceae- Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae- Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae- Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae- Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae- Plum-yew family   Taxaceae- Yew family Vojnovskyales† Voltziales† The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Families Pinaceae, pine family Araucariaceae, araucaria family Podocarpaceae, yellow-wood family Phyllocladaceae Sciadopityaceae, umbrella-pine family Cupressaceae, cypress family Cephalotaxaceae, plum-yew family Taxaceae, yew family The Order Pinales in the Division Pinophyta, Class Pinopsida comprises all the extant conifers. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Map of Central America Central America is a central region of the Americas. ...

Cones and leaves of Juniperus communis
Cones and leaves of Juniperus communis

Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20-40 m tall, to columnar or low spreading shrubs with long trailing branches. They are evergreen with either needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either monoecious or dioecious. The female seed cones are very distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4-27 mm long, with 1-12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species these "berries" are red-brown or orange but in most they are blue; they are often aromatic (for their use as a spice, see Juniperus communis). The seed maturation time varies between species from 6-18 months after pollination. The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with 6-20 scales; most shed their pollen in early spring, but some species pollinate in the autumn.
Download high resolution version (882x519, 79 KB)Common Juniper shoot with cones - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (882x519, 79 KB)Common Juniper shoot with cones - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Shop with spices in Morocco A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavouring. ... Binomial name Juniperus communis L. Juniperus communis, the Common Juniper, is a shrub or small tree, very variable and often a low spreading shrub, but occasionally reaching 10 m tall. ...

Detail of Juniperus chinensis shoots, with juvenile (needle-like) leaves (left), and adult scale leaves and immature male cones (right)
Detail of Juniperus chinensis shoots, with juvenile (needle-like) leaves (left), and adult scale leaves and immature male cones (right)

Many junipers (e.g. J. chinensis, J. virginiana) have two types of leaves: seedlings and some twigs of older trees have needle-like leaves 5-25 mm long; and the leaves on mature plants are (mostly) tiny (2-4 mm long), overlapping and scale-like. When juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most often found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing 'whip' shoots are often intermediate between juvenile and adult. Download high resolution version (562x682, 79 KB)Juniperus chinensis shoots, with juvenile (needle-like) leaves (left), and adult scale leaves and immature male cones (right) - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (562x682, 79 KB)Juniperus chinensis shoots, with juvenile (needle-like) leaves (left), and adult scale leaves and immature male cones (right) - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


In some species (e.g. J. communis, J. squamata), all the foliage is of the juvenile needle-like type, with no scale leaves. In some of these (e.g. J. communis), the needles are jointed at the base, in others (e.g. J. squamata), the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed.


The needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage very prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise very similar juvenile foliage of cypresses (Cupressus, Chamaecyparis) and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Species See text. ... Species Chamaecyparis formosensis Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Chamaecyparis obtusa Chamaecyparis pisifera Chamaecyparis taiwanensis Chamaecyparis thyoides The genus Chamaecyparis is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that have the common name cypress; for the others, see cypress (disambiguation). ...


Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Bucculatrix inusitata and Juniper Carpet and is also eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera species such as Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, Juniper Pug and Pine Beauty. A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Super Families Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Micropterigoidea Heterobathmioidea Eriocranioidea Acanthopteroctetoidea Lophocoronoidea Neopseustoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Hepialoidea Nepticuloidea Incurvarioidea Palaephatoidea Tischeriodea Simaethistoidea Tineoidea Gracillarioidea Yponomeutoidea Gelechioidea Zygaenoidea Sesioidea Cossoidea Tortricoidea Choreutoida Urodoidea Galacticoidea Schreckensteinioidea Epermenioidea Pterophoroidea Aluctoidea Immoidea Axioidea Hyblaeoidea Thyridoidea Whalleyanoidea Pyraloidea Mimallonoidea Lasiocampoidea Geometroidea Drepanoidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidae Hedyloidea Noctuoidea Families About... Bucculatricidae is a family of moths. ... Binomial name Thera juniperata Linnaeus, 1758 The Juniper Carpet (Thera juniperata) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Chionodes is a genus of moths of the family Gelechiidae. ... Chionodes is a genus of moths of the family Gelechiidae. ... Binomial name Eupithecia pusillata Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Juniper Pug (Eupithecia pusillata) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Panolis flammea Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Pine Beauty (Panolis flammea) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ...


Classification

The number of juniper species is disputed, with two recent studies giving very different totals, Farjon (2001) accepting 52 species, and Adams (2004) accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though (particularly among the scale-leaved species) which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going. The section Juniperus an obvious monophyletic group though. In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ...

  • Juniperus sect. Juniperus: Needle-leaf junipers. The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, and jointed at the base (see below right).
    • Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus: Cones with 3 separate seeds; needles with one stomatal band.
      • Juniperus communis - Common Juniper
        • Juniperus communis subsp. alpina - Alpine Juniper
      • Juniperus conferta - Shore Juniper (syn. J. rigida var. conferta)
      • Juniperus rigida - Temple Juniper or Needle Juniper
    • Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus: Cones with 3 separate seeds; needles with two stomatal bands.
      • Juniperus brevifolia - Azores Juniper
      • Juniperus cedrus - Canary Islands Juniper
      • Juniperus deltoides - Eastern Prickly Juniper
      • Juniperus formosana - Chinese Prickly Juniper
      • Juniperus luchuensis - Ryukyu Juniper
      • Juniperus navicularis - Portuguese Prickly Juniper
      • Juniperus oxycedrus - Western Prickly Juniper or Cade Juniper
      • Juniperus macrocarpa (J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa) - Large-berry Juniper
    • Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus: Cones with 3 seeds fused together; needles with two stomatal bands.
Juniper needles, magnified. Left, Juniperus communis (Juniperus sect. Juniperus; note needles 'jointed' at base). Right, Juniperus chinensis (Juniperus sect. Sabina; note needles merging smoothly with the stem, not jointed at base).
Juniper needles, magnified. Left, Juniperus communis (Juniperus sect. Juniperus; note needles 'jointed' at base). Right, Juniperus chinensis (Juniperus sect. Sabina; note needles merging smoothly with the stem, not jointed at base).
Juniperus phoenicea on El Hierro, Canary Islands
Juniperus phoenicea on El Hierro, Canary Islands
An Eastern Juniper in October laden with ripe cones.
An Eastern Juniper in October laden with ripe cones.
  • Juniperus sect. Sabina: Scale-leaf junipers. The adult leaves are mostly scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, and the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base (including in the few that have only needle-like leaves; see below right).
    • Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here, though they form a paraphyletic group.
      • Juniperus angosturana - Mexican One-seed Juniper
      • Juniperus ashei - Ashe Juniper
      • Juniperus barbadensis - West Indies Juniper
      • Juniperus bermudiana - Bermuda Juniper
      • Juniperus blancoi - Blanco's Juniper
      • Juniperus californica - California Juniper
      • Juniperus chinensis - Chinese Juniper
        • Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii - Sargent's Juniper
      • Juniperus coahuilensis - Coahuila Juniper
      • Juniperus comitana - Comit├ín Juniper
      • Juniperus convallium - Mekong Juniper
      • Juniperus deppeana - Alligator Juniper
      • Juniperus durangensis - Durango Juniper
      • Juniperus excelsa - Greek Juniper
        • Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos - Persian Juniper
      • Juniperus flaccida - Mexican Weeping Juniper
      • Juniperus foetidissima - Stinking Juniper
      • Juniperus gamboana - Gamboa Juniper
      • Juniperus gaussenii - Gaussen's Juniper
      • Juniperus horizontalis - Creeping Juniper
      • Juniperus indica - Black Juniper
      • Juniperus jaliscana - Jalisco Juniper
      • Juniperus komarovii - Komarov's Juniper
      • Juniperus monosperma - One-seed Juniper
      • Juniperus monticola - Mountain Juniper
      • Juniperus occidentalis - Western Juniper
        • Juniperus occidentalis subsp. australis - Sierra Juniper
      • Juniperus osteosperma - Utah Juniper
      • Juniperus phoenicea - Phoenicean Juniper
      • Juniperus pinchotii - Pinchot Juniper
      • Juniperus procera - East African Juniper
      • Juniperus procumbens - Ibuki Juniper
      • Juniperus pseudosabina - Xinjiang Juniper
      • Juniperus recurva - Himalayan Juniper
        • Juniperus recurva var. coxii - Cox's Juniper
      • Juniperus sabina - Savin Juniper
        • Juniperus sabina var. davurica - Daurian Juniper
      • Juniperus saltillensis - Saltillo Juniper
      • Juniperus saltuaria - Sichuan Juniper
      • Juniperus scopulorum - Rocky Mountain Juniper
      • Juniperus semiglobosa - Russian Juniper
      • Juniperus squamata - Flaky Juniper
      • Juniperus standleyi - Standley's Juniper
      • Juniperus thurifera - Spanish Juniper
      • Juniperus tibetica - Tibetan Juniper
      • Juniperus virginiana - Eastern Juniper
        • Juniperus virginiana subsp. silicicola - Southern Juniper
      • Juniperus wallichiana - Himalayan Black Juniper

Binomial name Juniperus communis L. Juniperus communis, the Common Juniper, is a shrub or small tree, very variable and often a low spreading shrub, but occasionally reaching 10 m tall. ... Binomial name Juniperus cedrus Webb & Berthel. ... Binomial name Juniperus oxycedrus L. Juniperus oxycedrus, the Prickly Juniper or Cade Juniper, is a species of juniper, very variable in shape, forming a spreading shrub 2-3 m tall to a small erect tree 10-15 m tall. ... Binomial name Juniperus oxycedrus L. Juniperus oxycedrus, the Prickly Juniper or Cade Juniper, is a species of juniper, very variable in shape, forming a spreading shrub 2-3 m tall to a small erect tree 10-15 m tall. ... Binomial name Juniperus oxycedrus L. Juniperus oxycedrus, the Prickly Juniper or Cade Juniper, is a species of juniper, very variable in shape, forming a spreading shrub 2-3 m tall to a small erect tree 10-15 m tall. ... Binomial name Juniperus drupacea Labill. ... Juniper needles, magnified. ... Juniper needles, magnified. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 621 KB) Phoenicean Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea) at El Sabinar, El Hierro, Canary Islands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 621 KB) Phoenicean Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea) at El Sabinar, El Hierro, Canary Islands. ... El Hierros western end was for long time considered the end of the known world by the Europeans El Hierro, nicknamed Isla del Meridiano (The Meridian Island), is a Spanish island. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Download high resolution version (820x637, 195 KB)Eastern Juniper Juniperus virginiana. ... Download high resolution version (820x637, 195 KB)Eastern Juniper Juniperus virginiana. ... Species See text. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Binomial name Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper) is a drought-tolerant evergreen shrub or small tree, native to northeastern Mexico and the south-central United States north to southern Missouri; the largest areas are in central Texas, where extensive stands occur. ... Binomial name Juniperus bermudiana L. Juniperus bermudiana is a species of juniper endemic to Bermuda. ... Binomial name Juniperus californica Carr. ... Binomial name Juniperus chinensis L. Juniperus chinensis (Chinese Juniper, 龙柏) is a shrub or tree, very variable in shape, reaching 1-20 m tall. ... Binomial name Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Juniperus excelsa, commonly known as the Greek Juniper, is a juniper found throughout the eastern Mediterranean, from northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria across Turkey to Syria and the Lebanon, and the Caucasus mountains. ... Binomial name Juniperus horizontalis Moench Juniperus horizontalis (Creeping Juniper) is a low-growing shrubby juniper native to northern North America, throughout most of Canada from Yukon east to Newfoundland, and in the United States in Alaska, and locally from Montana east to Maine, reaching its furthest south in Wyoming and... Binomial name Juniperus indica Bertol. ... Binomial name Juniperus occidentalis Hook. ... Binomial name Juniperus osteosperma (Torr. ... Binomial name Juniperus procumbens (Siebold ex Endl. ... Binomial name Juniperus recurva Buch. ... Binomial name Juniperus sabina L. Juniperus sabina (Savin Juniper or Savin) is a shrubby juniper, very variable in shape, reaching 1-4 m tall. ... Juniperus scopulorum This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Juniperus squamata Buch. ... Binomial name Juniperus thurifera L. Juniperus thurifera (Spanish Juniper) is a juniper native to the mountains of the western Mediterranean region, from northwestern Italy and southern France (including Corsica) across eastern and central Spain to Morocco and locally in northern Algeria. ... Binomial name Juniperus virginiana L. Juniperus virginiana is a widespread North American species of juniper, known as Eastern Juniper or Eastern Redcedar (though it is unrelated to the cedars); the Lakota Native American name is Chansha, redwood or Hante. It is found from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico...

Additional notes

Some junipers are susceptible to Gymnosporangium rust disease, and can be a serious problem for those growing Apples, the alternate host of the disease. Species (juniper-hawthorn rust) (juniper-rowan rust) (juniper-hawthorn rust) (juniper-apple rust) (juniper-pear rust) (juniper-quince rust) (Japanese juniper-apple rust) Gymnosporangium is a fungus which infects alternately members of the genus Juniperus (junipers) and members of the family Rosaceae in the subfamily Maloideae (apples, pears, quinces, hawthorns... Binomial name Malus domestica Borkh. ...


The Rocky Mountain Juniper (J. scopulorum), One-seed Juniper (J. monosperma), Western Juniper (J. occidentalis), Utah Juniper (J. osteosperma) and California Juniper (J. californica) occur in the western United States. In the southwest United States there are four more species, including the Alligator Juniper (J. deppeana) with its thick bark checkered into scaly squares.


Many of the earliest prehistoric people lived in or near juniper forests which furnished them food, fuel, and wood for shelter or utensils. Many species, such as J. chinensis (Chinese Juniper) from eastern Asia, are extensively used in landscaping and horticulture, it is also a symbol of longevity. World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


Juniper berries are used in the distillation of gin and Jenever and the brewing of sahti. Juniper was also occasionally used in gruit, a mix of herbs used for flavouring beer prior to the use of hops. Gin and tonic. ... Jenever (also known as Genever), juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic, is the traditional liquor in the Netherlands and Flanders, from which modern gin has evolved. ... Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Gruit (or sometimes grut) is an old fashioned herb mixture used for bittering and flavouring beer, before the extensive use of hops. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling over 133,000 million litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ... Hop umbel in a Hallertau hopgarden Hops are a flavouring and stability agent in beer. ...


Some junipers are sometimes misleadingly called cedars, correctly the vernacular name for species in the genus Cedrus, family Pinaceae. Species Cedrus deodara Cedrus libani    var. ... Genera Subfamily Pinoideae     Pinus - pines (about 115 species) Subfamily Piceoideae     Picea - spruces (about 35 species) Subfamily Laricoideae     Cathaya (one species)     Larix - larches (about 14 species)     Pseudotsuga - douglas-firs (five species) Subfamily Abietoideae     Abies - firs (about 50 species)     Cedrus - cedars (two to four species)     Pseudolarix - golden larch (one species)     Keteleeria (three...


References and external links

  • Adams, R. P. 2004. Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus. Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-4250-X
  • Farjon, A. 2001. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. Kew. ISBN 1-84246-025-0
  • Junipers of the world
  • Gymnosperm Database - Juniperus
  • Arboretum de Villardebelle Photos of cones and foliage of selected species
  • Medicinal uses of Juniper in Armenia
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Juniperus

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