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Encyclopedia > July Monarchy
Royaume français
French Kingdom

1830 – 1848
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Kingdom of France
Capital Paris
Language(s) French
Government Monarchy
King of the French
 - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe
Legislature Parliament
 - Upper house Chamber of Peers
 - Lower house Chamber of Deputies
History
 - July Revolution 1830
 - Revolution of 1848 1848
Currency French Franc

The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of liberal monarchy rule of France under Louis-Philippe. Charles X of the House of Bourbon was overthrown in the July Revolution,[1] and was succeeded on August 9, 1830 by Louis-Philippe of the House of Orléans (a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon). Proclaiming himself the "King of the French" (roi des Français) instead of "King of France" (roi de France), thus underscoring the supremacy of popular sovereignty, Louis-Philippe established a moderate, constitutional monarchy. The new regime's ideal was explicated by Louis-Philippe's famous statement in January 1831: "We will attempt to remain in a juste milieu (the just middle), in an equal distance from the excesses of popular power and the abuses of royal power."[2] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... The current coat of arms of France has been a symbol of France since 1953, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ... Chamber of Deputies (French: ) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: 1814 - 1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the Lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... The February 1848 Revolution in France ended the reign of King Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic (1848-1852). ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Popular Monarchy is a system of monarchical governance in which the monarchs title is linked with the people rather than a unitary state. ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


Pushed to the throne by an alliance between the people of Paris, the Republicans, who had set up barricades in the capital, and the liberal bourgeoisie, the "Citizen King" was overthrown by similar barricades during the February Revolution of 1848, which led to the proclamation of the Second Republic. After his ousting and subsequent exile to England, the liberal, Orleanist faction, continued to support a return of the House of Orléans to the throne, opposed by the counter-revolutionary Legitimists, but the July Monarchy was to be the last monarchy of France. The Legitimists withdrew from the political stage to their castles, leaving the stage opened for the struggle between the Orleanists and the Republicans. This article is about the capital of France. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Closeup of a collection of blinker equipped barricades A barricade is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Painting of a barricade on Rue Soufflot (with the Panthéon behind), Paris, June 1848. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ...

Contents

Overview

Louis-Philippe Ist, King of the French'. The King is depicted at the entrance of the Gallerie des batailles which he had amenaged in the Château de Versailles.
Louis-Philippe Ist, King of the French'. The King is depicted at the entrance of the Gallerie des batailles which he had amenaged in the Château de Versailles.
Further information: France in the nineteenth century

The July Monarchy (1830-1848) is generally seen as a period during which the haute bourgeoisie was dominant, and marked the shift from the counter-revolutionaries Legitimists to the Orleanists, who were willing to make some compromises with the changes brought by the 1789 Revolution. Louis-Philippe was crowned “King of the French,” instead of "King of France": this marked his acceptance of the popular sovereignty, which replaced the Ancien Régime 's divine right. Louis-Philippe clearly understood his base of power: the wealthy bourgeoisie had carried him aloft during the July Revolution through their work in the Parliament, and throughout his reign, he kept their interests in mind. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1522x2201, 857 KB) Beschrijving no rights high resolution; better quality Painted by Winterhalter in 1841 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of French monarchs Louis... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1522x2201, 857 KB) Beschrijving no rights high resolution; better quality Painted by Winterhalter in 1841 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of French monarchs Louis... Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Versailles: Garden front The Château de Versailles — often called the Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles — is a royal château, outside the gates of which the... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Popular Monarchy is a system of monarchical governance in which the monarchs title is linked with the people rather than a unitary state. ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ...


Louis-Philippe, who had flirted with liberalism in his youth, rejected much of the pomp and circumstance of the Bourbons and surrounded himself with merchants and bankers. The July Monarchy, however, remained a time of turmoil. A large group of Legitimists on the right demanded the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne. On the left, Republicanism and, later Socialism, remained a powerful force. Late in his reign Louis-Philippe became increasingly rigid and dogmatic and his President of the Council, François Guizot, had become deeply unpopular, but Louis-Philippe refused to remove him. The situation gradually escalated until the Revolutions of 1848 saw the fall of the monarchy and the creation of the Second Republic. This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in France. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre français) is the functional head of the government and of Cabinet of France. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... The February 1848 Revolution in France ended the reign of King Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic (1848-1852). ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ...


However, during the first several years of his regime, Louis-Philippe appeared to move his government toward legitimate, broad-based reform. The government found its source of legitimacy within the Charter of 1830, written by reform-minded members of Chamber of Deputies upon a platform of religious equality, the empowerment of the citizenry through the reestablishment of the National Guard, electoral reform, the reformation of the peerage system, and the lessening of royal authority. And indeed, Louis-Phillipe and his ministers adhered to policies that seemed to promote the central tenets of the constitution. However, the majority of these policies were veiled attempts to shore up the power and influence of the government and the bourgeoisie, rather than legitimate attempts to promote equality and empowerment for a broad constituency of the French population. Thus, though the July Monarchy seemed to move toward reform, this movement was largely illusory. The Charter of 1830 (French: ) instigated the July Monarchy in France. ... Chamber of Deputies (French: ) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: 1814 - 1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the Lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... The drapeau blanc or royal standard of the Kingdom of France The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ...


During the years of the July Monarchy, enfranchisement roughly doubled, from 94,000 under Charles X to more than 200,000 by 1848[citation needed]. However, this represented only roughly one percent of population, and as the requirements for voting were tax-based, only the wealthiest gained the privilege. By implication, the enlarged enfranchisement tended to favor the wealthy merchant bourgeoisie more than any other group. Beyond simply increasing their presence within the Chamber of Deputies, this electoral enlargement provided the bourgeoisie the means by which to challenge the nobility in legislative matters. Thus, while appearing to honor his pledge to increase suffrage, Louis-Philippe acted primarily to empower his supporters and increase his hold over the French Parliament. The inclusion of only the wealthiest also tended to undermine any possibility of the growth of a radical faction in Parliament, effectively serving socially conservative ends. Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Chamber of Deputies (French: ) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: 1814 - 1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the Lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage. ...

Liberty Leading the People (1830) by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution of 1830. The kid with the gun, at the right of the woman personifying Liberty, who holds the Republican, tricolor flag, would be Victor Hugo's inspiration for Gavroche in Les Misérables, who would die on the barricades on June 1832.
Liberty Leading the People (1830) by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution of 1830. The kid with the gun, at the right of the woman personifying Liberty, who holds the Republican, tricolor flag, would be Victor Hugo's inspiration for Gavroche in Les Misérables, who would die on the barricades on June 1832.

The reformed Charter of 1830 limited the power of the King – stripping him of his ability to propose and decree legislation, as well as limiting his executive authority. However, the King of the French still believed in a version of monarchy that held the king as much more than a figurehead for an elected Parliament, and as such, he was deeply involved in legislative affairs. One of the first acts of Louis-Philippe in constructing his cabinet was to appoint the rather conservative Casimir Perier as the premier of that body. Perier, a banker, was instrumental in shutting down many of the Republican secret societies and labor unions that had formed during the early years of the regime. In addition, he oversaw the dismemberment of the National Guard after it proved too supportive of radical ideologies. He performed all of these actions, of course, with royal approval. He was once quoted as saying that the source of French misery was the belief that there had been a revolution. “No Monsieur,” he said to another minister, “there has not been a revolution: there is simply a change at the head of state.”[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Liberty Leading the People (French: ) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled Charles X. A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the tricolore flag of the French Revolution in one hand and brandishing a... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (known in French as le drapeau tricolore, le drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, le drapeau de la France, rarely, le tricolore and, colloquially, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Gavroche is a fictional character from the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... Closeup of a collection of blinker equipped barricades A barricade is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. ... Casimir Pierre Périer, French statesman Casimir Pierre Périer (October 11, 1777 _ May 16, 1832) was a French statesman. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


Further expressions of this conservative trend came under the supervision of Perier and the then Minister of the Interior, François Guizot. The regime acknowledged early on that radicalism and republicanism threatened it, undermining its laissez-faire policies. Thus, the Monarchy declared the very term republican illegal in 1834. Guizot shut down republican clubs and disbanded republican publications. Republicans within the cabinet, like the banker Dupont, were all but excluded by Perier and his conservative clique. Distrusting the sole National Guard, Louis-Philippe increased the size of the army and reformed it in order to ensure its loyalty to the government. The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ...


Though two factions always persisted in the cabinet, split between liberal conservatives like Guizot (le parti de la Résistance, the Party of Resistance) and liberal reformers like the aforementioned journalist Adolphe Thiers (le parti du Mouvement, the Party of Movement), the latter never gained prominence. After Perier came count Molé, another conservative. After Molé came Thiers, a reformer later sacked by Louis-Philippe after attempting to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. After Thiers came the conservative Guizot. In particular, the Guizot administration was marked by increasingly authoritarian crackdowns on republicanism and dissent, and an increasingly pro-business laissez-faire policy. This policy included protective tariffs that defended the status quo and enriched French businessmen. Guizot’s government granted railway and mining contracts to the bourgeois supporters of the government, and even contributing some of the start-up costs. As workers under these policies had no legal right to assemble, unionize, or petition the government for increased pay or decreased hours, the July Monarchy under Perier, Molé, and Guizot generally proved detrimental to the lower classes. In fact, Guizot’s advice to those who were disenfranchised by the tax-based electoral requirements was a simple “enrichissez-vous” – enrich yourself. A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Louis, comte Molé, French statesman Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855), French statesman, was born in Paris. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...


Background

Main article: French Restoration

Following the ouster of Napoléon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. The ensuing period is called in French "The Restoration" and is characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics. Louis XVIII, brother of the deposed Louis XVI, ruled from 18141824 and was succeeded by his brother Charles X in 1824. Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Despite the return of the House of Bourbon to power, France was much changed from the era of the Ancien Régime. The egalitarianism and liberalism of the revolutionaries remained an important force and the autocracy and hierarchy of the earlier era could not be fully restored. The economic changes, which had been underway long before the revolution, had been further enhanced during the years of turmoil and were firmly entrenched by 1815. These changes had seen power shift from the noble landowners to the urban merchants. The administrative reforms of Napoleon, such as the Napoleonic Code and efficient bureaucracy, also remained in place. These changes produced a unified central government that was fiscally sound and had much control over all areas of French life, a sharp difference from the situation the Bourbons had faced before the Revolution. Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ...


Louis XVIII, for the most part, accepted that much had changed. However, he was pushed on his right by the Ultra-royalists, led by the comte de Villèle, who condemned the Doctrinaires' attempt to reconcile the Revolution with the monarchy through a constitutional monarchy. Instead, the Chambre introuvable elected in 1815 banished all Conventionnels who had voted Louis XVI's death and passed similar reactionary laws. Louis XVIII was forced to dissolve this Chamber, dominated by the Ultras, in 1816, fearing a popular uprising. The liberals thus governed until the 1820 assassination of the duc de Berry, brother of the king and known supporter of the Ultras, which brought Villèle's ultras back to power (vote of the Anti-Sacrilege Act in 1825, and of the loi sur le milliard des émigrés, Act on the émigrés' billions). Charles X of France, however, took a far more conservative line. He attempted to compensate the aristocrats for what they had lost in the revolution, curbed the freedom of the press, and reasserted the power of the Church. In 1830 the discontent caused by these changes and Charles X' authoritarian nomination of the Ultra prince de Polignac as minister culminated in an uprising in the streets of Paris, known as the 1830 July Revolution (or, in French, "Les trois Glorieuses" - The three Glorious days - of 27, 28 and 29 July). Charles was forced to flee and Louis-Philippe d'Orléans, a member of the Orléans branch of the family, and son of Philippe Égalité who had voted the death of his cousin Louis XVI, ascended the throne. Louis-Philippe ruled, not as "King of France" but as "King of the French" (an evocative difference for contemporaries). Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph Marie Anne Séraphin, comte de Villèle (April 14, 1773 - March 13, 1854), was a French statesman. ... Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830) to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... La Chambre introuvable is the name given by king Louis XVIII of France to the 1815-1816 Chamber of Deputies dominated by Ultra-royalists who completely refused the inheritance of the French Revolution. ... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry (1778 - February 13, 1820) was the younger son of Charles X of France and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... The Anti-Sacrilege Act (1825–1830) was a French law against blasphemy and sacrilege passed in January 1825 under King Charles X. The law was never applied (except for a minor point) and finally revoked under King Louis-Philippe in the first months of the July monarchy. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (Versailles, 1780 – March 29, 1847(dubious; discuss) ), was a French statesman. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... (Redirected from 27 July) July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... (Redirected from 28 July) July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Philippe (real name: Philippe Auclair) is a London-based French singer, songwriter, arranger and producer who has been active from the mid-80s onwards. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ...


Initial period (August 1830 - November 1830)

The Symbolic establishment of the new regime

Silver five-franc coin featuring Louis Philippe from 1834. The obverse French inscription is Louis Philippe I, Roi des Français (English: "Louis Philippe I, King of the French."
Silver five-franc coin featuring Louis Philippe from 1834. The obverse French inscription is Louis Philippe I, Roi des Français (English: "Louis Philippe I, King of the French."

On August 7, 1830, the 1814 Charter was revised. The preamble recalling the Ancien Régime was suppressed, and the King of France became the "King of the French," (also known as the "Citizen King") establishing the principle of national sovereignty over the principle of the divine right. The new Charter was a compromise between the Doctrinaires opposition to Charles X and the Republicans. Catholicism was not anymore a state religion, censorship repealed and the Republican, the tricolor flag re-established. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 398 pixel Image in higher resolution (980 × 488 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Silver five francs coin of Louis Philippe. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 398 pixel Image in higher resolution (980 × 488 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Silver five francs coin of Louis Philippe. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... Louis-Philippe I of France (October 6, 1773 – August 26, 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The French Charter of 1814 was a constitution granted by King Louis XVIII of France shortly after his restoration. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... Divine Right is a comic book created by Jim Lee and published by Wildstorm. ... Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830) to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. ... It has been suggested that Freedom of information in France be merged into this article or section. ... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ...


Louis-Philippe pledged his oath to the 1830 Charter on August 9 and got crowned, setting up the beginnings of the July Monarchy. Two days later, the first cabinet was formed, gathering the Constitutionalist opposition to Charles X, among whom Casimir Perier, the banker Jacques Laffitte, Count Molé, the duke of Broglie, François Guizot, etc. The new government's first aim being to bring back the public order, while at the same time feinting to acclaim the revolutionary forces which had just triumphed. Assisted by the people of Paris in overthrowing the Legitimists, the Orleanist bourgeoisie had to establish its new order. The Charter of 1830 (French: ) instigated the July Monarchy in France. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from May 20, 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Casimir Pierre Périer, French statesman Casimir Pierre Périer (October 11, 1777 _ May 16, 1832) was a French statesman. ... Jacques Laffitte, French politician Jacques Laffitte (October 24, 1767–May 26, 1844), was a French banker and politician. ... Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855) was a French statesman Molé was born in Paris. ... Victor, duc de Broglie, French statesman Achille-Léonce-Victor-Charles, 3rd duc de Broglie (November 28, 1785–January 26, 1870), was a French statesman and diplomat. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ...


Louis-Philippe decided on August 13, 1830 to establish the armoiries of the House of Orléans as state symbols. Reviewing on August 29 a parade of the Parisian National Guard which acclaimed it, he in turn exclaimed to its leader, La Fayette: "This is worth more to me than coronation at Reims!".[3] The new regime then decided on October 11 that all people injured during the Three Glorious Days (500 orphans, 500 widows and 3,850 people injured) would be given an award and presented a draft law indemnifying them to the height of 7 million, and created a commemorative medal for the July Revolutionaries. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ministers lost their style of Monseigneur and Excellence to become simply Monsieur le ministre. The new king's older son, Ferdinand-Philippe, was given the title of duke of Orléans and royal prince, while his daughters and his sister, Adélaïde d'Orléans, were named princesses of Orléans — and not of France, since there was no more any "King of France" nor "House of France." A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Monseigneur is an honorific in the French language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Monsieur means My Lord in French, and is now generally used as an honorific for all men, the equivalent to the English Mister. ... Ferdinand-Philippe HRH Prince Ferdinand-Philippe of Orléans (September 3, 1810—July 13, 1842) was Prince Royal of France. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Louise Marie Adelaide Eugènie dOrléans Louise Marie Adelaide Eugènie dOrléans (August 23, 1777 - December 31, 1847) was the daughter of Louis Philip II, Duke of Orléans and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre, and the sister of King Louis-Philippe...


Unpopular laws taken during the Restoration were repealed, including the 1816 amnesty law which had banished the regicides — apart of its article 4, concerning the Bonaparte family. The Church of Sainte-Geneviève was once again returned to its functions of a laic temple, under the name of Panthéon. Various budget restrictions struck the Catholic Church, while the 1825 Anti-Sacrilege Act which envisioned death penalties for sacrileges was repealed. For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... The Panthéon The Panthéon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... The Church of France is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Anti-Sacrilege Act (1825–1830) was a French law against blasphemy and sacrilege passed in January 1825 under King Charles X. The law was never applied (except for a minor point) and finally revoked under King Louis-Philippe in the first months of the July monarchy. ...


A permanent disorder

Civil unrest continued during three months, supported by the left-wing press. Louis-Philippe's government was not able to put an end to it, mostly because the National Guard was headed by one of the Republican leaders, the marquis de La Fayette. The latter requested a "popular throne surrounded by Republican institutions." The Republicans then gathered themselves in popular clubs, in the tradition established by the 1789 Revolution. Some of thoses were fronts for secret societies (for example, the Blanquist Société des Amis du Peuple), which requested political and social reforms, or the execution of Charles X' ministers (Jules de Polignac, Jean de Chantelauze, the Count de Peyronnet and the Count de Guernon-Ranville). Strikes and demonstrations were permanent. The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757–May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... The first french revolution. ... A secret society is a social organization that requires its members to conceal certain activities—such as rites of initiation or club ceremonies—from outsiders. ... Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 _ January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... Jules, prince de Polignac, French statesman Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (1780 - March 29, 1847), French statesman, played a conspicuous part in the clerical and ultra-royalist reaction after the Revolution. ... Pierre-Denis, comte de Peyronnet (Bordeaux, 9 October 1778) was the President of the Bordeaux Court in France in 1815, Minister of Justice from 1821 to 1828 and four times Minister of Interior. ...


In order to relaunch the economy and finally establish public order, the government had the Assembly vote in autumn 1830 a credit of 5 million Francs to subside public works, mostly roads. Then, to prevent bankruptcies and the increase of unemployment, especially in Paris, the government granted its guaranty for firms which encountered themselves in difficult situations, granting them 60 million. Those subsidies mainly went in the pockets of big entrepreneurs dedicated to the new regimes, such as the printer Firmin Didot. Firmin Didot (1764-1836) was a French printer, engraver, and type founder. ...


The death of the Prince of Condé on August 27, 1830, found hanged, set up the first scandal of the July Monarchy. The Legitimists quickly accused, without proofs, Louis-Philippe and the Queen Marie-Amélie of having assassinated the ultra-royalist Prince, with the alleged motive of letting their son, the duc d'Aumale, to set hands on his fortune. It is commonly accepted that he died following sexual games with his mistress, the baroness de Feuchères. Louis Henry II of Bourbon or Louis VI (April 13, 1756 ? August 30, 1830) was Prince of Condé from 1818 to his death. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Maria Amalia, Queen of the French, 9 August 1830–24 February 1848 Maria Amalia Teresa of the Two Sicilies (26 April 1782-24 March 1866) was Queen of the French from 1830-1848, consort to King Louis-Philippe. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Henri Eugène Philippe Louis dOrléans, duc dAumale (January 16, 1822 – May 7, 1897) was born in Paris. ... Portrait of Sophie Dawes, Baronne de Feuchères by Valbrun Alexis Léon Louis Sophie Dawes, Baronne de Feuchères (c. ...


Purge of the Legitimists

In the meanwhile, the government expelled out of the administration all of the Legitimists supporters who refused to pledge allegiance to the new regime, leading to the return to political affairs of most of the staff of the First Empire who had been expelled during the Second Restoration. This renewal of political and administrative staff was humorously illustrated by a vaudeville of Jean-François Bayard [4]. The Minister of the Interior, Guizot, renewed all the prefectoral administration and the mayors of large cities. The Minister of Justice, Dupont de l'Eure, assisted by his secretary general, Mérilhou, dismissed most of the public prosecutors. In the Army, the General de Bourmont, a follower of Charles X who was commanding the invasion of Algeria, was replaced by Bertrand Clauzel. Generals, ambassadors, plenipotentiary ministers and half of the Conseil d'Etat were replaced. In the Chamber of Deputies, a quarter of the seats (119) were submitted to a new election in October, leading to the defeat of the Legitimists. Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... Uniform hat of a French prefect A prefect (French: préfet) in France is the States representative in a department or region. ... Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure, French statesman Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure (February 27, 1767 - 1855) was a French lawyer and statesman. ... Louis-Auguste-Victor, Count de Ghaisnes de Bourmont (1773-1846) was a Marshall of France. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Bertrand, count Clauzel (or Clausel) (December 12, 1772 - April 21, 1842), marshal of France, was born at Mirepoix (Ariège), and served in the first campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars as one of the volunteers of 1791. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... Chamber of Deputies (French: ) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: 1814–1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the Lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage. ...


In sociological terms, however, this renewal of the political staff did not mark any great change of elites: land-owners, civil servants and liberal professions continued to dominate the state of affairs, leading the historian David Pinkney to deny any claim of a "new regime of a grande bourgeoisie".[5] Historian Guy Antonetti also underscores the similar sociological membership of the new elites, the main difference residing in the "substitution, inside the same social group, of the followers of a mentality in favour of the 1789 spirit to those who were opposed to it: socially similar, ideologically different. 1830 has only been a change of team in the same side, and not a change of side.[6] David Dave Pinkney (born July 5, 1952 in Bridlington, Yorkshire) is a British businessman and auto racing driver. ...


The "Resistance" and The "Movement"

Although some voices began to push for the closure of the Republican clubs, which fomented revolutionary agitation, le Minister of Justice, Dupont de l'Eure, and the Parisian public prosecutor, Bernard, both Republicans, refused to prosecute revolutionary associations (although the French law prohibited meetings of more than 20 persons). Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure, French statesman Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure (February 27, 1767 - 1855) was a French lawyer and statesman. ... In academic terms, French law can be divided into two areas: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular, civil law (droit civil) and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular, administrative law (droit administratif) and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel). However...


However, on 25 September 1830, the Minister of Interior Guizot responded to a deputy's question on the subject by stigmatizing the "revolutionary state," conflated with chaos, to which he opposed the "Glorious Revolution.".[7] Two political currents thereafter made their appearance on stage, and would structure political life under the July Monarchy: the "Parti du mouvement" (Party of the Movement) and the "Parti de la résistance" (Party of the Resistance). The first one was reformist and in favor of support to the nationalists which were trying, all over of Europe, to shake the grip of the various Empires in order to create nation-states. Its mouthpiece was Le National. The second one was conservative and supported peace with European monarchs, and had as mouthpiece Le Journal des débats. François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Le National is a 30-minute french newscast hosted by Geneviève Asselin, airing weekdays at 10:30pm on RDI. It focuses on news stories from across Canada, with most stories sourced from the local editions of Le Téléjournal airing across the country on Radio-Canada affiliates. ... Journal des Débats - Portrait of Monsieur Bertin, director, by Ingres The Journal des débats (Journal of Debates) was a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. ...


The trial of Charles X's ministers, arrested in August 1830 while they were fleeing, became the major political issue. The left requested their heads, but was opposed by Louis-Philippe who feared a spiral of violence and the renewal of revolutionary Terror. Thus, the Chamber of Deputies voted on 27 September 1830 a resolution charging the former ministers, but at the same time invited in an 8 October 1830 address to the king Louis-Philippe to present a draft law repealing the death penalty, at least concerning political matters. This in turn provoked popular discontent on 17 and 18 October, with the masses marching on the Fort of Vincennes where the ministers were detained. The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... For other uses of terror, see Terror. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Donjon of the Château de Vincennes protected by its own wall The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal castle in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis. ...


Following these riots, Interior Minister Guizot requested the resignation of the prefect of the Seine, Odilon Barrot, who had criticized the parliamentarians' address to the king. Supported by Victor de Broglie, Guizot considered that an important civil servant could not criticize an act of the Chamber of Deputies, moreover when the latter had been approved by the King and his government. Dupont de l'Eure took Barrot's side, threatening to resign if the King disavowed him. The banker Laffitte, one of the main figure of the Parti du mouvement, thereafter offered himself to coordinate the ministers between themselves with the title of "President of the Council." This immediately led Broglie and Guizot, of the Parti de l'Ordre, to resign, followed by Casimir Perier, André Dupin, the Count Molé and Joseph-Dominique Louis. Confronted to the Parti de l'Ordre 's defeat, Louis-Philippe decided to put Laffitte to trial, hoping that the exercise of power would discredit him. He thus called him to form a new government on 2 November 1830. Uniform hat of a French prefect A prefect (French: préfet) in France is the States representative in a department or region. ... French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ... Victor, duc de Broglie, French statesman Achille-Léonce-Victor-Charles, 3rd duc de Broglie (November 28, 1785–January 26, 1870), was a French statesman and diplomat. ... Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure (February 27, 1767 – March 3, 1855) was a French lawyer and statesman. ... Jacques Laffitte, French politician Jacques Laffitte (October 24, 1767–May 26, 1844), was a French banker and politician. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre français) is the functional head of the government and of Cabinet of France. ... Casimir P rier was the name of several persons: Casimir Pierre P rier (1777_1832), French statesman Auguste Casimir P rier (1811-1876), French diplomat, son of the former Jean Casimir-P rier (1847_1907), French politician, fifth French Republic This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (February 1, 1783 - November 8, 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. ... Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855) was a French statesman Molé was born in Paris. ... Joseph Dominique, baron Louis (November 13, 1755 - August 26, 1837), French statesman and financier, was born at Toul (Meurthe). ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Laffitte government (November 2, 1830 – March 13, 1831)

Donjon of the Château de Vincennes, where Charles X's ministers were detained.
Donjon of the Château de Vincennes, where Charles X's ministers were detained.

Although Louis-Philippe strongly disagreed with the banker Laffitte and secretly pledged to the duke of Broglie that he would not support him at all, the new President of the Council was tricked into trusting his king. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 622 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1174 × 1132 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 622 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1174 × 1132 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Another word for the keep of a castle. ... The chapel of Château de Vincennes (2005) The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal castle in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from May 20, 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ...


The trial of Charles X’s former ministers took place from 15 December to 21 December 1830 before the Chamber of Pairs, surrounded by rioters demanding their death. They were finally sentenced to life detention, accompanied by civil death for Polignac. La Fayette’s National Guard maintained the public order in Paris, affirming itself as the bourgeois watchdog of the new regime, while the new Interior Minister, Camille de Montalivet, kept the ministers in safety by detaining them in the fort of Vincennes. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The drapeau blanc or royal standard of the Kingdom of France The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... Civil death is a term that refers to the loss of all or almost all civil rights by a person due to a conviction for a felony or due to an act by the government of a country that results in the loss of civil rights. ... Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet (April 25, 1801 - January 4, 1880) was a French statesman and a Peer of France. ... Donjon of the Château de Vincennes protected by its own wall The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal castle in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis. ...


But by demonstrating the National Guard’s importance, La Fayette had made his position fragile, and was quickly forced to resign. This led to the Minister of Justice Dupont de l’Eure’s resignation. Furthermore, in order to avoid exclusive dependence on the National Guard, the “Citizen King” charged Marshal Soult, the new Minister of War, of reorganizing the Army. Soult presented in February 1831 his project aiming to increase the militaries’ effectives and passed, among other reforms, the 9 March 1831 law creating the Foreign Legion. Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Legionnaire redirects here. ...


In the meanwhile, the government enacted various reforms demanded by the Parti du Mouvement, which had been registered in the Charter (art. 69). The 21 March 1831 law on municipal councils reestablished the principle of election and enlarged the electoral base (founded on census suffrage) which was tenfold increased in comparison with the legislative elections (approximatively 2 million to 3 million electors on a total population of 32,6 million. The 22 March 1831 law re-organized the National Guard; the 19 April 1831 law, voted after two months of debate in Parliament and promulgated after Laffitte’s downfall, decreased the electoral cens from 300 to 200 Francs and the eligibility cens from 1,000 to 500 Francs. The number of voters increased from a number of less than 100,000 to 166,000: one Frenchman on 170 possessed the right to vote. is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the political process. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The February 1831 riots

François Guizot, a leader of the Parti de l'Ordre.
François Guizot, a leader of the Parti de l'Ordre.

Despite these reforms, which targeted the bourgeoisie rather than the people, Paris was once again rocked by riots on 14 February and 15 February 1831, leading to Laffitte’s downfall. The immediate cause of the riots was to be found in a funeral service organized by the Legitimists at Saint-Germains l’Auxerrois Church in memory of the ultra-royalist duke of Berry, assassinated in 1820. The commemoration turned into a political demonstration in favour of the count of Chambord, Legitimist pretender to the throne. Seeing in this celebration an intolerable provocation, the Republican rioters ransacked the church two days in a row, before turning towards other churches. The revolutionary movement spread to other cities. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (502 × 625 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (502 × 625 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Saint-Germain lAuxerrois Saint-Germain lAuxerrois The Church of Saint-Germain lAuxerrois is situated at 2, Place du Louvre, Paris 75001; the nearest Métro station is Louvre. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry (1778 - February 13, 1820), younger son of Charles X of France, was born at Versailles. ... Henri dArtois, « comte de Chambord Â» Henri V (Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord – September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) was King of France and Navarre from 2 to 9 August 1830 and afterwards the Legitimist Pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. ...


Confronted to renewed unrest, the government abstained from any strong repression. The prefect of the Seine Odilon Barrot, the prefect of police Jean-Jacques Baude, and the new commandant of the National Guard, General Mouton, remained passive, triggering Guizot’s indignation, as well as the Republican Armand Carrel’s criticisms against alleged demagogy of the government.[8] Far from repressing the crowds, the government had the Archbishop of Paris Mgr. de Quélen arrested, as well as the friar of Saint-Germain-l’Auxerrois and other priests accused, along with some other monarchists, of having provoked the masses. French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties... Georges Mouton, comte de Lobau (February 21, 1770 - November 21, 1838) was a French soldier and political figure who rose to the rank of Marshal of France. ... Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Armand Carrel (May 8, 1800 _ July 25, 1836) was a French writer. ... Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ... The archbishop of Paris is one of twenty-three archbishops in France. ... Hyacinthe Louis de Quelen Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen (Paris, October 8, 1778 - December 31, 1839) was Archbishop of Paris. ...


In a gesture of appeasement, Laffitte, supported by the royal prince Ferdinand-Philippe, duke of Orléans, proposed to the king to suppress the fleur-de-lys, symbol of the Ancien Régime, on the state seal. With obvious discontent, Louis-Philippe finally signed the 16 February 1831 ordinance substituting to the armoiries of the House of Orléans a shield with an open book, on which could be read “Charte de 1830”. Another symbol of the monarchy, the fleur-de-lys, was removed from public buildings, etc. This new defeat of the king sealed Laffitte’s fate. Fleur de Lys is a Canadian superheroine created in 1984 by Mark Shainblum and Gabriel Morrissette. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


On 19 February 1831, Guizot verbally attacked Laffitte in the Chamber of Deputies, daring him to dissolve the Chamber and present himself before the electors. Laffitte accepted, but the king, who was the only one entitled to dissolve the Chamber, preferred to wait some more days. In the meanwhile, the prefect of the Seine Odilon Barrot was replaced by Taillepied de Bondy at Montalivet's request, and the prefect of police Baude by Vivien de Goubert. To make matters worse, in this insurrectionary climate, the economic situation was fairly bad. [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This is a history of the economy of France. ...


Louis-Philippe finally tricked Laffitte into resigning, by having his Minister of Foreign Affairs, Horace Sébastiani, pass him a note written by the French ambassador to Vienna, Marshal Maison, and arrived in Paris on 4 March 1831, which announced an imminent Austrian intervention in Italy. Taking knowledge of this note in Le Moniteur of 8 March, the President of the Council Laffitte requested immediate explanations from his Minister Sébastiani, who disclosed to him that he had followed royal orders. After a meeting with the king, Laffitte submitted to the Council of Minister's a belligerent program, and was subsequently disavowed, forcing him to resign. Most of his ministers had already negotiated their positions in the forthcoming government. Sébastiani redirects here. ... Nicolas Joseph Maison (December 19, 1770 - February 13, 1840), born in Épinay-sur-Seine, was a Marshal of France and Minister of War. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Casimir Perier government (March 13, 1831 – May 16, 1832)

Having succeeded in outdoing the Parti du Mouvement, the "Citizen King" called to power the Parti de la Résistance. However, Louis-Philippe was not really much more comfortable with one side than with the other, being closer to the center. Furthermore, he felt no sympathy for its leader, the banker Casimir Perier, who replaced Laffitte on 13 March 1831 as head of the government. His aim was more to re-establish order in the country, letting the Parti de la Résistance assume the responsibility of unpopular measures. Casimir P rier was the name of several persons: Casimir Pierre P rier (1777_1832), French statesman Auguste Casimir P rier (1811-1876), French diplomat, son of the former Jean Casimir-P rier (1847_1907), French politician, fifth French Republic This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Perier, however, managed to impose to the king his conditions, among which the pre-eminence of the President of the Council over other ministers, and his right to call cabinet councils outside of the effective presence of the king. Furthermore, Casimir Perier obtained that the liberal royal prince, Ferdinand-Philippe d'Orléans, ceased to participate to the Council of Ministers. Despite this, Perier valued the king's prestige, haling him, on 21 September 1831, to move from his family residence, the Palais-Royal, to the royal palace, the Tuileries. Ferdinand-Philippe HRH Prince Ferdinand-Philippe of Orléans (September 3, 1810—July 13, 1842) was Prince Royal of France. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard The Tuileries Palace stood in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed. ...


The banker Perier established the new government's principles on 18 March 1831: ministerial solidarity and authority of the government on the administration: "the principle of the July Revolution... is not insurrection... it is resistance to the aggression of the power"[9] and, on the external plan, "a pacific attitude and the respect of the non-intervention principle." The vast majority of the Chamber applauded the new government and granted him a comfortable majority. Perier garnered the support of the cabinet through oaths of solidarity and strict discipline for dissenters. He excluded reformers from official discourse, and abandoned the regime’s unofficial policy of mediating in labor disputes in favor of a strict laissez-faire policy that favored employers. Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


Civil unrest (Canut Revolt) and repression

Main article: Canut revolts
The Canut Revolt in Lyon, October 1831.
The Canut Revolt in Lyon, October 1831.

On 14 March 1831, under the initiative of a patriotic society created by the mayor of Metz, Jean-Baptiste Bouchotte, the opposition's press launched a campaign in order to gather funds to create a national association aimed at struggling against any Bourbon Restoration and the risks of foreign invasion. All of the major figures of the Republican Left (La Fayette, Dupont de l'Eure, Jean Maximilien Lamarque, Odilon Barrot, etc.) supported it. Local committees were created all over France, leading the new president of the Council, Casimir Perier, to enact a circular prohibiting civil servants to take membership in this association, charged of rivaling the state itself by implicitly accusing it of not complying with its duties. There were three Canut revolts (French: ) in Lyon during the first half of the 19th Century. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the French city. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of... Jean Maximilien Lamarque (1770-1832) was a Napoleonic General who later became a member of French Parliament. ... French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ...


In the beginning of April 1831, the government took some impopular measures, forcing several important personalities to resign: Odilon Barrot was revoked from the Council of State, General Lamarque's military command suppressed, Bouchotte and the Marquis de Laborde forced to resign. When on 15 April 1831 the Cour d'assises acquitted several young Republicans (Godefroy Cavaignac, Joseph Guinard and Audry de Puyraveau's son), mostly officers of the National Guard who had been arrested during the December 1830 troubles consecutive to the trial of Charles X's ministers, new riots acclaimed the news on 15-16 April. But Perier, implementing the 10 April 1831 law outlawing public meetings, used the military as well as the National Guard to dissolve the crowds. In May, the government used for the first time firehoses as crowd control techniques. In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... Alexandre de Laborde Comte[1] Louis-Joseph-Alexandre de Laborde (Paris 17 September 1773 — Paris 20 October 1842) was a French antiquary, liberal politician and writer, a member of the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques[2] (1832), under the rubric political economy. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The French Cour dAssises (Assize Court) is the court charged to judge people accused of felonies (crimes as known by French law), and one of the only to be composed of a popular jury. ... Éléonore-Louis Godefroi Cavaignac (1801 - May 5, 1845), better known as Godefroi Cavaignac, was the eldest son of Jean-Baptiste Cavaignac, the brother of General Eugène Cavaignac and uncle of Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Indoor firehose A firehose is a thick, high-pressure hose used to carry water or other fire retardant (such as foam) to a fire to extinguish it. ... Crowd control is controlling a crowd who are not a riot and not a demonstration. ...


Another riot, started on the rue Saint-Denis on 14 June 1831, degenerated into an open battle against the National Guard, assisted by the Dragoons and the infantry. The riots continued on 15 June and 16 June. is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A light dragoon from the American Revolution A dragoon is a soldier trained to fight on foot, but transport himself on horseback. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The major unrest, however, took place in Lyon with the Canuts Revolt, started on 21 November 1831, and during which parts of the National Guard took the demonstrators' side. In two days, the Canuts took control of the city and expelled General Roguet and the mayor Victor Prunelle. On 25 November, Casimir Perier announced to the Chamber of Deputies that Marshal Soult, assisted by the royal prince, would immediately march on Lyon with 20,000 men. They entered the former capital of the Gaul on 3 December, re-establishing order without any bloodshed. This article is about the French city. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Civil unrest, however, was permanent, and not only in Paris. On 11 March 1832, sedition exploded in Grenoble during the Carnaval. The prefect had canceled the festivities after that a grotesque mask of Louis-Philippe had been shown, leading to popular demonstrations. The prefect then tried to have the National Guard dissolve the masses, but the latter refused, forcing him to call on the army. The 35th regiment of infantry (infanterie de ligne) obeyed the orders, but this in turn led the population to request their expulsion from the city. This was done on 15 March, and the 35th regiment replaced by the 6th regiment, from Lyon. When Casimir Perier learnt the news, he dissolved the National Guard of Grenoble and immediately recalled the 35th regiment to Grenoble. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grenoblo) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Beside this permanent unrest, present in all of the provinces, Dauphiné, Picardie, in Carcassone, Alsace, etc., various Republican conspiracies threatened the government (conspiracy of the Tours de Notre-Dame in January 1832, of the rue des Prouvaires in February 1832, etc.) Even the trials were seized by the Republicans as a tribune opportunity: at the trial of the Blanquist Société des Amis du peuple in January 1832, Raspail harshly criticized the king while Auguste Blanqui gave free way to his socialist ideas. All of the accused denounced the government's tyranny, the incredibly high cost of Louis-Philippe's civil list, police persecutions, etc. The omnipresence of the French police, organized during the French First Empire by Fouché, was depicted by the Legitimist writer Balzac in Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. The strength of the opposition led the royal prince to shift a bit more to the right-wing. Flag of the Dauphiné Dauphiné (Occitan : Daufinat, Arpitan : Dôfenâ, archaic English: ), usually referred to as the Dauphiné, is a former province in southeastern France, roughly corresponding to the present departments of the Isère (Isera), Drôme (Drôma), and Hautes-Alpes (Hiôtas-Arpes). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Amiens Regional President Claude Gewerc (PS) (since 2004) Departments Aisne Oise Somme Arrondissements 13 Cantons 129 Communes 2,292 Statistics Land area1 19,399 km² Population (Ranked 12th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... For other uses of the name Carcassonne, see Carcassonne (disambiguation). ... Elsaß redirects here. ... Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 _ January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... For other uses, see Raspail (disambiguation). ... Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 _ January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... Joseph Fouché Joseph Fouché, duc dOtrante (May 21, 1763 Le Pellerin, near Nantes, France - December 25, 1820 Trieste, then Austria, now Italy) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Balzac redirects here. ... Introduction Honoré de Balzacs Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes, translated either as The Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans or as The Harlot High and Low, was published in four parts from 1838-1847. ...


The legislative elections of July 1831

Further information: French legislative election, 1831

In the second half of May 1831, Louis-Philippe, accompanied by Marshal Soult, started an official travel to Normandie and Picardie, where he was well received. From 6 June to 1 July 1831, he traveled in the east, where there was stronger Republican and Bonapartist activity, along with his two elder sons, the royal prince and the duke of Nemours, as well as with the comte d'Argout. The king stopped in Meaux, Château-Thierry, Châlons-sur-Marne (renamed Châlons-en-Champagne in 1998), Valmy, Verdun and Metz. There, in the name of the municipal council, the mayor made a very political speech where he expressed the wish to have the Peers' heredity suppressed, adding that France should intervene in Poland to assist the November Uprising against Russia. Louis-Philippe flatly denied all of these pretensions, stating that the municipal councils or the National Guard had no legitimacy in such matters. The king continued his visit to Nancy, Lunéville, Strasbourg, Colmar, Mulhouse, Besançon and Troyes, and his travel was, on the whole, an occasion to re-affirm his authority. The 1831 general election organized the second legislature of the July Monarchy. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Amiens Regional President Claude Gewerc (PS) (since 2004) Departments Aisne Oise Somme Arrondissements 13 Cantons 129 Communes 2,292 Statistics Land area1 19,399 km² Population (Ranked 12th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... Ferdinand-Philippe HRH Prince Ferdinand-Philippe of Orléans (September 3, 1810—July 13, 1842) was Prince Royal of France. ... Louis, Duke of Nemours Louis Charles Philippe Raphael, 16th duc de Nemours (October 25, 1814 – June 26, 1896) was the second son of the duke of Orleans, afterwards King Louis-Philippe of France, and his wife Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Meaux Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Meaux-Nord, Meaux-Sud Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Pays de Meaux Mayor Jean-François Copé (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 39 m–107 m Land area... Château-Thierry is a commune of north-eastern France, about 56 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. ... Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. ... Valmy is a village and commune in the Sainte-Menehould arrondissement of the Marne département in France. ... Capital Verdun Government Republic Historical era Middle Ages  - Established Uncertain  - Three Bishoprics     annexed by France   1552  - Treaty of Westphalia     recognises annexation   1648 For other uses see Verdun (disambiguation) Verdun (medieval German: Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... For other uses, see Nancy (disambiguation). ... Lunéville is a commune in the French région of Lorraine. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Petite Venise Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... Mulhouse (French: , pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse, pronounced ; German: ; i. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... City flag City coat of arms A street in Troyes. ...


Louis-Philippe had decided in the château de Saint-Cloud, on 31 May 1831, to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, fixing legislative elections for 5 July 1831. However, he signed another ordinance on 23 June in Colmar in order to have them advanced to 23 July 1831, so as to avoid the risk of Republican agitation during the commemorations of the July Revolution. The general elections took place without incident, according to the new electoral law of 19 April 1831. However, the results disappointed the king and the president of the Council Perier: more than half of the deputies were re-elected, and their positions were unknown. The Legitimists obtained 104 seats, the Orleanist Liberals 282 and the Republicans 73. The Château de Saint-Cloud was a royal château in France, built on a magnificent site overlooking the Seine at Saint-Cloud in Hauts-de-Seine, about 10 kilometres west of Paris. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The 1831 general election organized the second legislature of the July Monarchy. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Look up republican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On 23 July 1831, the king developed Casimir Perier's program in the speech from the Throne: strict application of the Charter inside, and strict defense of the interests of France and its independence abroad. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the...


The deputies elected in the second round baron Girod de l'Ain, the government's candidate (181 votes), as president of the Chamber of Deputies, against the banker Laffitte (176 votes). But Dupont de l'Eure gained the first vice presidency with 182 voices (on a total of 344), while the government's candidate, André Dupin, lost with 153 voices only. Casimir Perier, who considered that his parliamentary majority was not strong enough, decided to resign. Chamber of Deputies (French: ) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: 1814–1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the Lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage. ... Jacques Laffitte, French politician Jacques Laffitte (October 24, 1767–May 26, 1844), was a French banker and politician. ... Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure (February 27, 1767 – March 3, 1855) was a French lawyer and statesman. ... André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (February 1, 1783 - November 8, 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. ...


Louis-Philippe thereafter turned towards Odilon Barrot, who refused to assume governmental responsibilities, pointing out that he had only a hundred voices in the Chamber. However, during the 2 and 3 August 1831 elections of questeurs and secretaries, the Chamber elected mostly governmental candidates such as André Dupin or Benjamin Delessert, who obtained a strong majority against a far-left candidate, Eusèbe de Salverte. Finally, William I of the Netherlands's decision to invade Belgium — the Belgian Revolution had taken place the preceding year — on August 2, 1831, constrained Casimir Perier to remain in power in order to respond to the Belgian's assistance request. French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (February 1, 1783 - November 8, 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. ... For other men at some time in history called William I of Orange-Nassau, see William of Orange. ... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


During the parliamentary debates concerning France's imminent intervention in Belgium, several deputies, led by baron Bignon, unsuccessfully requested a similar intervention to support Polish independence. However, on the domestic level, Casimir Perier decided to back up before the dominant opposition, and satisfied an old claim of the Left by repealing the Peers' heredity. Finally, the 2 March 1832 law on Louis-Philippe's pension fixed its amount to 12 million Francs a year, and one million for the royal prince, the duke of Orléans. The 28 April 1832 law, named after the Justice Minister Félix Barthe, reformed the 1810 Penal Code and the Code d'instruction criminelle. Louis Pierre Edouard, Baron Bignon (January 3, 1771 - 1841) was a French diplomatist and historian Louis de Bignon was born at Rouen (Normandy), the son of a dyer. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The 1832 Cholera epidemic

The cholera pandemic, originated in India in 1815, reached Paris around 20 March, 1832 and killed more than 13,000 people in April. The pandemic would last until September 1832, killing in total 100,000 with 20,000 of that in Paris alone.[10] The disease, which origins were unknown at the time, provoked a popular panic. The people of Paris suspected poisoners, while the scavengers and mendiants revolted against the authoritative measures of public health. According to the historian and philosopher Michel Foucault, the cholera outbreak was first fought by what he called "social medicine," which focused on flux, circulation of air, location of cemeteries, etc. All those concerns, born of the miasma theory of disease, were thus mixed with urbanistic concerns of the management of populations. Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... A mendiant is a traditional French confection composed of a chocolate disk studded with nuts and dried fruits representing the four mendicant or monastic orders of the Dominicans, Augustinians, Franciscans and Carmelites. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... The miasmatic theory of disease held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. In general, this concept has been supplanted by the more scientifically founded germ theory of disease. ... Urbanism is the study of cities - their geographic, economic, political, social and cultural environment, and the imprint of all these forces on the built environment. ...


The cholera also struck the royal princess Madame Adélaïde, as well as d'Argout and Guizot. Casimir Perier, who went to visit on 1 April 1832, with the royal prince, the patients at the Hôtel-Dieu, was also infected, leading him to stop his ministerial activities, before dying on 16 May 1832. Louise Marie Adelaide Eugènie dOrléans Louise Marie Adelaide Eugènie dOrléans (August 23, 1777 - December 31, 1847) was the daughter of Louis Philip II, Duke of Orléans and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre, and the sister of King Louis-Philippe... Caricature of the Comte dArgout by Honoré Daumier. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Casimir P rier was the name of several persons: Casimir Pierre P rier (1777_1832), French statesman Auguste Casimir P rier (1811-1876), French diplomat, son of the former Jean Casimir-P rier (1847_1907), French politician, fifth French Republic This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hôtel-Dieu (hostel of God) is the old name given to the principal hospital in French towns, for instance: The Hôtel-Dieu in Paris was founded in the year AD 660, has been extended at various times, and was entirely rebuilt between 1868-1878. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The consolidation of the regime (1832 - 1835)

King Louis-Philippe was not unhappy to see Casimir Perier withdraw from the political scene, as he complained that Perier assumed all of the credits of the government's policies, while he himself had to assume all of its defaults.[11] The "Citizen King" was therefore not pressed to find a new president of the Council, all the more since the Parliament was in vacation and that the troubled situation requested energical and swift measures.


Indeed, the regime was attacked on all sides. The Legitimist duchess of Berry attempted an uprising in spring 1832 in Provence and Vendée, a stronghold of the ultra-royalists, while the Republicans headed an insurrection in Paris on 5 June 1832, on the occasion of the funerals of one of their leaders, General Lamarque, also struck dead by the cholera. General Mouton crushed the rebellion, killing 800. The scene was later depicted by Victor Hugo in Les Misérables, and is where Gavroche died. The title of Duc de Berry in the French nobility was frequently created for junior members of the French royal family. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Vendée is a department in west central France, on the Atlantic Ocean . ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Jean Maximilien Lamarque (1770-1832) was a Napoleonic General who later became a member of French Parliament. ... Georges Mouton, comte de Lobau (February 21, 1770 - November 21, 1838) was a French soldier and political figure who rose to the rank of Marshal of France. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... Gavroche is a fictional character from the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. ...


This double victory, both on the Carlists Legitimists and on the Republicans, was a success for the regime.[12] Furthermore, the death of the duke of Reichstadt (Napoléon II) on 22 July 1832, in Vienna, marked another defeat for the Bonapartist opposition. Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Duke of Reichstadt can mean: Duke of Reichstadt (Herzog von Reichstadt in German), a title given to Napoleon II of France Napoleon II: Duke of Reichstadt (Napoleon II: Herzog von Reichstadt), the title of an operetta by Petar Stojanović Zákupy (Reichstadt) Imperial Free City (Reichsstadt) Is also a RYBAller... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ...


Finally, Louis-Philippe had his elder daughter, Louise d'Orléans, married to the new king of the Belgians, Leopold I, on the anniversary of the establishment of the July Monarchy (9 August). Since the archbishop of Paris Quélen, a Legitimist, refused to celebrate this mixed marriage between a Catholic and a Lutheran, the wedding took place in the château de Compiègne. This royal alliance strengthened Louis-Philippe's position abroad. Louise-Marie, Queen of the Belgians (Louise-Marie Thérèse Charlotte Isabelle dOrléans) - fille de France, and Queen of the Belgians as the wife of King Leopold I. Born in Palermo, Sicily on April 3, 1812, she was the eldest daughter of the future King Louis-Phillippe... Leopold I can refer to the following: Leopold I, Markgrave of Austria Leopold I, Duke of Austria and Styria Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of Belgium Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The archbishop of Paris is one of twenty-three archbishops in France. ... Hyacinthe Louis de Quelen. ... The Château de Compiègne seen from the garden The Château de Compiègne is a French château, a royal residence built for Louis XV and restored by Napoleon. ...


First Soult Government

Louis-Philippe called a trusted man, Marshal Soult, to the presidency of the Council in October 1832. Soult was supported by a triumvirate composed of the main politicians of that time: Adolphe Thiers, the duke de Broglie and François Guizot. The conservative Journal des débats spoke of a "coalition of all talents",[13] while the King of the French would eventually speak, with obvious deception, of a "Casimir Perier in three persons." In a circular addressed to the high civil servants and military officers, the new President of the Council, Soult, stated that he would explicitly followed the policies of Perier ("order inside", "peace abroad") and denounced both the Legitimist right-wing opposition and the Republican left-wing opposition. Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Arms of the ducs de Broglie (or, a saltire anchory azure) Disambiguation: For the physicist, see Louis de Broglie Did you want to research the de Broglie hypothesis? The title of Duc de Broglie was a French peerage belonging to a family of Piedmontese origin, which emigrated to France in... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Journal des Débats - Portrait of Monsieur Bertin, director, by Ingres The Journal des Débats is a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. ...


The new Minister of Interior, Adolphe Thiers, had his first success on 7 November 1832 with the arrest in Nantes of the rebellious duchess of Berry, detained in the citadel of Blaye. The duchess was then expelled to Italy on 8 June 1833. A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The title of Duc de Berry in the French nobility was frequently created for junior members of the French royal family. ... Blaye is a commune of the Gironde département, in France. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The opening of the parliamentary session on 19 November 1832, was a success for the regime. The governmental candidate, André Dupin, was easily elected in the first round as President of the Chamber, with 234 votes against 136 for the candidate of the opposition, Jacques Laffitte. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (February 1, 1783 - November 8, 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. ...


In Belgium, Marshal Gérard assisted the young Belgian monarchy with 70,000 men, taking back the citadel of Antwerp, which capitulated on 23 December 1832. Étienne Maurice Gérard, comte Gérard (April 4, 1773 – April 17, 1852) was a French general and statesman. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Strengthened by these recent successes, Louis-Philippe initiated two visits in the provinces, first in the north to meet with the victorious Marshal Gérard and his men, and then in Normandie, where Legitimist troubles continued, from August to September 1833. In order to conciliate themselves to public opinion, the new government took some popular measures, such a program of public works, leading to the achievement of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, or the re-establishment, on 21 June 1833, of Napoleon I's statue on the Colonne Vendôme. The Minister of Public Instruction and Cults, François Guizot, had the famous law on primary education voted in June 1833, leading to the creation of an elementary school in each commune. For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... La Place Vendôme Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ...


Finally, a ministerial change was enacted after duke de Broglie's resignation on 1 April 1834. Broglie had been put in minority in the Chamber concerning the ratification of a treaty signed with the United States in 1831. This was a subject of satisfaction for the king, as it took out of the triumvirate the individual he disliked the most. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


April 1834 insurrections

The ministerial change coincide with the return of insurrectionary troubles in various cities of France. At the end of February 1834, a law submitting to public authorization the activities of the town criers, leading to several days of confrontations with the police. Furthermore, the 10 April 1834 law, primarily aimed against the Republican Society of Human Rights (Société des Droits de l'Homme), envisioned a crack-down on non-authorized associations. On April 9, 1834, when the Chamber of Peers was to vote the law, the Second Canut Revolt exploded in Lyon. The Minister of the Interior, Adolphe Thiers, decided to abandon the city to the insurgents, taking it back on 13 April, with casualties of a 100 to 200 dead on both sides. A town crier is a person who is employed by a town council to make public announcements in the streets. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The massacre of the rue Transnonain, Paris, on 14 April 1834, depicted by the caricaturist Honoré Daumier.
The massacre of the rue Transnonain, Paris, on 14 April 1834, depicted by the caricaturist Honoré Daumier.

The Republicans attempted to spread the insurrection to other cities, but failed in Marseille, Vienne, Poitiers and Châlons-sur-Marne. The threat was more serious in Grenoble and especially in Saint-Etienne on 11 April, but finally public order was swiftly restored. The greater danger to the regime was, as often, in Paris. Expecting troubles, Thiers had concentrated 40,000 men there, visited by the king on 10 April. Furthermore, Thiers had made "preventive arrests" against the 150 main leaders of the Society of Human Rights, and outlawed its mouthpiece, La Tribune des départements. Despite these measures, barricades were set up in the evening of 13 April 1834, leading to a harsh repression, including a massacre of all the inhabitants of a house (men, women, children and elders) from where a shot had been fired, immortalized by a lithography of Honoré Daumier. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... This article is about the French département. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grenoblo) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... Saint Etienne may mean: Saint-Étienne, a city in south-eastern France, 80 km from Lyon. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Preventive detention is a system in which the citizens of a country can be arrested without being told the grounds for the arrest. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ...


To express their support to the monarchy, both Chambers gathered themselves in the Palace of the Tuileries on 14 April. In a gesture of appeasement, Louis-Philippe renounced to his feast-day celebration on 1 May, and publicly announced that the sums that were to be engaged in these festivities would be dedicated to the orphans, widows and injured. In the same time, he ordered Marshal Soult to make wide publicity of these events in all of France (the provinces being more conservative than Paris), to convince them of the "necessary increase of the Army.".[14] Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ...


More than 2,000 arrests were made following the riots, in particular in Paris and Lyon. The suspects were deferred to the Chamber of Paris, in accordance with art. 28 of the Charter of 1830, for conspiracy against state security (attentat contre la sûreté de l'État). The Republican movement was decapitated, so much that even the funerals of La Fayette on 20 May 1834, were quiet. As soon as 13 May, the Chamber of Deputies voted a credit of 14 million in order to increase the army to 360,000 men. Two days later, they also adopted a very repressive law on detention and use of military weapons. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legislative elections of 21 June 1834

Further information: French legislative election, 1834

Louis-Philippe decided to seize the occasion to dissolve the Chamber and organize new elections, held on 21 June 1834. However, the results were not as good as expected: although the Republicans were almost excluded, the Opposition retained around 150 seats (approximatively 30 Legitimists, the rest being followers of Odilon Barrot, who was an Orleanist supporter of the regime, but headed the Parti du mouvement). Furthermore, in the ranks of the majority itself, composed of about 300 deputies, a new faction, the Tiers-Parti, led by André Dupin, could on some occasions defect to the majority and give its voices to the Left. The new Chamber re-elected on 31 July 1834 Dupin as President of the Chamber with 247 voices against 33 for Jacques Laffitte and 24 for Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard. Furthermore, a large majority (256 against 39) voted an ambiguous address to the king which, although polite, did not abstain from criticizing Louis-Philippe. The latter immediately decided, on August 16, 1834, to put the Parliament in vacation until the end of the year. The 1834 general election organized the third legislature of the July Monarchy. ... The 1834 general election organized the third legislature of the July Monarchy. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ... André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (February 1, 1783 - November 8, 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jacques Laffitte, French politician Jacques Laffitte (October 24, 1767–May 26, 1844), was a French banker and politician. ... Pierre Paul Royer-Collard (June 21, 1763 - September 2, 1845), was a French statesman and philosopher. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Short lived governments (July 1834 - February 1835)

Thiers and Guizot, who dominated the triumvirate, decided to get rid of Marshal Soult, appreciated by the king for his compliance to his will. Seizing the opportunity of an incident concerning the French possessions in Algeria, they pushed Soult to resign on 18 July 1834. He was replaced by Marshal Gérard, the other ministers remaining in place. Gérard, however, was forced to resign, on 29 October 1834, over the question of an amnesty concerning the 2,000 prisoners detained in April. Louis-Philippe, the Doctrinaires (among whom Guizot and Thiers) and the core of the government opposed it, but the Tiers Parti managed to convince Gérard to pronounce it, underscoring the logistical difficulties in organizing such a large trial before the Chamber of Peers. A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Étienne Maurice Gérard, comte Gérard (April 4, 1773 – April 17, 1852) was a French general and statesman. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830) to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. ...


Gérard's resignation opened up a four month ministerial crisis, until Louis-Philippe finally composed a government entirely issued from the Tiers Parti. However, after André Dupin's refusal to assume its presidency, the king made the mistake of calling, on 10 November 1834, a figure of the First Empire, the duc de Bassano. The latter, crippled with debts, became the object of public hilarity after that his creditors decided to seize his ministerial salary. Frightened, all of the ministers decided to resign, three days later, without even advising Bassano, whose government became known as the "Three Days Minister." On 18 November 1834, Louis-Philippe called Marshal Mortier, duke of Trévise, to the Presidency, and the latter formed exactly the same government as Bassano. This crisis ridiculed the Tiers Parti while the Doctrinaires triumphed. is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano, French statesman Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano (1763-1839), French statesman and publicist, was born at Dijon. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | Marshals of France | 1768 births | 1835 deaths ...


On 1 December 1834, Mortier's government decided to submit a motion of confidence to the Parliament, obtaining a clear majority (184 voices against 117). Despite this, Mortier had to resign two months later, on 20 February 1835, officially for health reasons. The opposition had denounced a government without a leader, accusing Mortier of being Louis-Philippe's puppet. The saying that Thiers had opposed to Charles X, "the king rules but does not govern" (le roi règne mais ne gouverne pas), was addressed this time to the "Citizen King". is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The name Charles X is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles X of France Charles X of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Evolution towards Parliamentarism (1835 - 1840)

The polemics which led to Marshal Mortier's resignation, fed by monarchists such as Baron Massias or the Count of Roederer, all turned around the question of the Parliament's prerogatives. On one hand, Louis-Philippe wanted to be able to follow his policy, in particular around "reserved domains" such as military affairs or diplomacy. Head of the state, he also wanted to be able to lead the government, if need by bypassing the President of the Council, the first of all ministers. On the other hand, part of the deputies stated that the ministers needed a leader issued from the parliamentary majority, and thus wanted to continue the evolution towards parliamentarism which had only been sketched with the Charter of 1830. The Charter did not include any mechanism of political responsibility of the ministers towards the Chamber (confidence motion or censorship motion). Furthermore, the function of a President of the Council itself was not registered in the Charter. Polemic is the art or practice of disputation or controversy, as in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... Categories: People stubs | Marshals of France | 1768 births | 1835 deaths ... Comte Pierre Louis Roederer (February 15, 1754 - December 17, 1835) was a French politician and economist, politically active in the era of the French Revolution and First French Republic. ... A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The Charter of 1830 (French: ) instigated the July Monarchy in France. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


The Broglie minister (March 1835-February 1836)

In this context, the deputies decided to support Victor de Broglie as head of the government, mainly because he was the king's less likely choice, as Louis-Philippe disliked both his anglophilia and his independence. After a three weeks ministerial crisis, during which the "Citizen King" successively called forth the count Molé, André Dupin, Marshal Soult, General Sébastiani and Gérard, he was finally forced to rely on the duc de Broglie and to accept his conditions, which were close to those imposed before by Casimir Perier. Victor, duc de Broglie, French statesman Achille-Léonce-Victor-Charles, 3rd duc de Broglie (November 28, 1785–January 26, 1870), was a French statesman and diplomat. ... Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855) was a French statesman Molé was born in Paris. ... André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (February 1, 1783 - November 8, 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... Sébastiani redirects here. ... Étienne Maurice Gérard, comte Gérard (April 4, 1773 – April 17, 1852) was a French general and statesman. ...


As in the first Soult government, the new cabinet rest on the triumvirate Broglie (Foreign affairs) - Guizot (Public instruction) - Thiers (Interior). Broglie's first act was to take a personal revenge on the Chamber by having it ratified (by 289 votes against 137) the 4 July 1831 treaty with the United States, something which the deputies had refused him in 1834. He also obtained a large majority on the debate on the secret funds, which worked as an unofficial motion of confidence (256 voices against 129). is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Trial of the April insurgents

Broglie's most important task was the trial of the April insurgees, which began on 5 May 1835 before the Chamber of Peers. The Peers finally inculpated only 164 detainees on the 2,000 prisoners, of which 43 were judged in absentia. Those defendants who were present for their trial multiplied incidents of procedure, and attempted by all means to transform the trial into a tribune for Republicanism. On 12 July 1835, parts of them, among which the main leaders of the Parisian insurrection, escaped from the Prison of Sainte-Pélagie through an underground tunnel. The Court of Peers gave its sentence against the insurgees of Lyon on 13 August 1835, and against the other defendants in December 1835 and January 1836. The sentences were rather mild: a few condamnations to deportation, and lots of short-term prison sentences and some acquittals. is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sainte-Pélagie was a prison in Paris from 1790 to 1895. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ...


The Fieschi attentat (28 July 1835)

Attentat de Fieschi, on 28 July 1835. By Eugène Lami, 1845. Château de Versailles.
Attentat de Fieschi, on 28 July 1835. By Eugène Lami, 1845. Château de Versailles.

Against their hopes, the trial finally turned to the Republicans' disadvantage, by giving them a radical image which reminded the public opinion of the excesses of Jacobinism and frightened the bourgeois. The Fieschi attentat of July 1835, which took place during a review of the National Guard in Paris by Louis-Philippe for the commemorations of the July Revolution, further scared the notables. On the boulevard du Temple, near Place de la République, a machine infernale composed of tens of guns shot on the king. The latter, however, was only lightly injured, while his sons, Ferdinand-Philippe, duc d'Orléans, Louis-Charles d'Orléans, duc de Nemours and François d'Orléans, prince de Joinville, escaped uharmed. However, Marshal Mortier and ten other persons were killed, while tens were injured (among which seven died in the following days). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Eugène Louis Lami (January 12, 1800 - December 19, 1890) was a French painter and lithographer. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Versailles: Garden front The Château de Versailles — often called the Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles — is a royal château, outside the gates of which the... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794). ... Infernal machine may refer to: Any explosive device (French: machine infernale) designed with harmful or destructive intent. ... François-Ferdinand-Philippe-Louis-Marie dOrléans, prince de Joinville (14 August 1818 - 16 June 1900) was the third son of Louis Philippe, duc dOrléans, afterwards king of the French and his wife Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. ... Categories: People stubs | Marshals of France | 1768 births | 1835 deaths ...


The conspirators, the adventurer Giuseppe Fieschi and two Republicans (Pierre Morey and Théodore Pépin) members of the Society of Human Rights, were arrested in September 1835. Judged before the Court of Peers, they were sentenced to death and guillotined on 19 February 1836. Giuseppe Marco Fieschi (1790 - February 19, 1836), the chief conspirator in the attempt on the life of Louis Philippe in July 1835, was a native of Murato in Corsica. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the decapitation device. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The September 1835 laws

The Fieschi attentat shocked the bourgeois' and most of France, generally more conservative than the people of Paris. The Republicans were discredited in the country, and the opinion ready for energical measures.


The first law reinforced the powers of the president of the Cour d'assises and of the public prosecutor against those accused of rebellion, detention of prohibited weapons or insurrectionary attempts. It was adopted on August 13, 1835, by 212 voices against 72. The French Cour dAssises (Assize Court) is the court charged to judge people accused of felonies (crimes as known by French law), and one of the only to be composed of a popular jury. ... In countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system, the prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The second law reformed the procedure before the jurys of the Assises. The 4 March 1831 law restricted the declaration of innocence or culpability to the sole juries, excluding the professional magistrates belonging to the Cour d'assises, and requested a 2/3 majority (8 voices against 4) for a culpability sentence. The new law changed that to a simple majority (7 against 5), and was adopted on 20 August 1835 by 224 voices against 149. is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The third law restricted freedom of press, and provoked passionate debates. It aimed at outlawing discussions concerning the king, the dynasty and constitutional monarchy, accused of having prepared the grounds for the Fieschi attentat. Despite a strong opposition to the draft, the law was voted on 29 August 1830 by 226 voices against 153. In standard conditions, France does not have censorship laws, being a liberal democracy respectful of freedom of press. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The definitive consolidation of the regime

These three laws were simultaneously promulgated on 9 September 1835, and marked the definitive success of the policy of Résistance engaged since Casimir Perier against the Republicans. The July Monarchy was thereafter assured of its grounds, discussions concerning its legitimity being outrightly outlawed. The Opposition could now only discuss of the interpretation of the Charter and claim an evolution towards parliamentarism. Demands for the enlargement of the electoral base became more frequent, however, in 1840, leading to the re-appearance of Republican Opposition through the claim to universal suffrage. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Casimir P rier was the name of several persons: Casimir Pierre P rier (1777_1832), French statesman Auguste Casimir P rier (1811-1876), French diplomat, son of the former Jean Casimir-P rier (1847_1907), French politician, fifth French Republic This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ...


The Broglie minister, however, finally fell on a question concerning public debt. The Minister of Finances, Georges Humann, announced on 14 January 1836 his intention to proceed to a conversion of the rent in order to lighten the public debt, a very unpopular measures among the supporters of the regime, since the rent was a fundamental component of the bourgeoisie's wealth. Thereby, the Council of Ministers immediately disavowed Humann, while the Duke de Broglie explained to the Chamber that his proposition was not supported by the government. However, his tone was judged insulting by the deputies, and one of them, the banker Alexandre Gouin, immediately deposed a draft law concerning the conversion of the rent. On 5 February 1836, a short majority of deputies (194 against 192) decided to continue the examination of the draft, thus disavowing Broglie's cabinet. The government immediately resign: for the first time, a cabinet had fallen after having been put in minority before the Chamber of Deputies, a sure victory of parliamentarism. This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The first Thiers government (February-September 1836)

Louis-Philippe thus decided to pretend to play the parliamentary card, with the secret intention of neutralizing it. He took advantage of the ministerial crisis to get rid of the Doctrinaires (Broglie and Guizot), called some Tiers Parti politicians to give an illusion of an opening to the Left, and finally called forth Adolphe Thiers on 22 February 1836, in an attempt to achieve of convincing him to take his distances with the liberal Doctrinaires, and also to burn his legitimity in government until the time came to call forth the Count Molé, whom the king had decided since a long time to make his President of the Council. Louis-Philippe thus separated the center-right from the center-left, strategically attempting to dissolve the Tiers Parti, a dangerous game since this could also lead to the dissolving of the parliamentary majority itself and create endless ministerial crises. Furthermore, as the duc de Broglie himself warned him, when Thiers would eventually be pushed out, he would fatally shift to the Left and transform himself in a particularly dangerous opponent. Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830) to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855) was a French statesman Molé was born in Paris. ...


In the Chamber, the debate on the secret funds, marked by a remarked speech by Guizot and an evasive response by the Justice Minister, Sauzet, was concluded by a favorable vote for the government (251 voices against 99). On the other hand, the draft proposition on the conversion of the rents was easily postponed by the deputies on 22 March 1836, another sign that it had been only a pretext. Sauzet is the name of several communes in France: Sauzet, in the Drôme department Sauzet, in the Gard department Sauzet, in the Lot department Category: ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Thiers' motivations for accepting to be head of government and to take the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were to enable him to negotiate the Duc d'Orléans' wedding with an Austrian archduchess. Since the Fieschi attentat, Ferdinand-Philippe's wedding (he had just reached 25) had became an obsession of the king, and Thiers wanted to be the operator of a spectacular reversion of alliances in Europe, as Choiseul had done before him. But Metternich and the archduchess Sophie of Bavaria, who dominated the court in Vienna, rejected an alliance with the House of Orléans, which they deemed too fragile. Ferdinand-Philippe HRH Prince Ferdinand-Philippe of Orléans (September 3, 1810—July 13, 1842) was Prince Royal of France. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 - June 11, 1858) (sometimes rendered in English as Prince Clemens Metternich) was an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. ... Portrait of Archduchess Sophie by Joseph Stieler (1832) Sophie Friederike Dorothee Wilhelmine, Princess of Bavaria (27 January 1805 – 28 May 1872) was born to King Maximilian I of Bavaria and his second wife, Karoline of Baden. ...


Another attentat against Louis-Philippe, by Alibaud on 25 June 1836, justified their fears. These two setbacks upset Thiers. On 29 July 1836, the inauguration of the Arc de Triomphe, supposed to be the scene of a national concord ceremony, during which the July Monarchy would have captured the glory of the Revolution and of the Empire, finally took place in catimini, at seven in the morning and without the king's presence. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era...


To re-establish his popularity and in order to take his revenge from Austria, Thiers was considering a military intervention in Spain, requested by the Queen Regent Marie Christine de Bourbon who was confronted to the Carlist rebellion. But Louis-Philippe, advised by Talleyrand and Soult, strongly opposed the intervention, leading to Thiers' resignation. This new event, during which the government had fallen not because of the Parliament but because of a disagreement with the king on foreign policies, demonstrated that the evolution towards parliamentarism was far from being assured. Maria Christina, Queen Regent of Spain, by Vicente López y Portaña Maria Christina of Bourbon, Princess of the Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain (Maria Cristina Ferdinanda of the Two Sicilies branch of the Royal House of Bourbon) (April 27, 1806–August 22, 1878) was Queen Consort of Spain... Combatants Carlists supporting Infante Carlos of Spain Portuguese loyal to Miguel of Portugal Liberals (Isabelinos or Cristinos) supporting Isabella II of Spain and her regent mother Maria Christina Great Britain France Portuguese loyal to Pedro IV Commanders Tomás de Zumalacárregui Ramón Cabrera Rafael Maroto Sebestian Gabriel de... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was a French diplomat. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1769 – November 26, 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of France in 1804. ...


The two Molé governments (September 1836 - March 1839)

The Count Molé composed a new government on 6 September 1836, including the Doctrinaires Guizot, Tanneguy Duchâtel and Adrien de Gasparin. This new cabinet did not include any personality of the Three Glorious, something the press immediately highlighted. Molé immediately took some humanist measures in order to assure his popularity: generalisation of prison cells to avoid "mutual teaching of crime", suppression of the chain of convicts exposed to the public, royal pardon for 52 political prisoners (Legitimists and Republicans), in particular for Charles X' former ministers. On 25 October 1836, the inauguration of the Obelisk of Luxor (a gift from the vice-king of Egypt, Mehemet Ali) on the Place de la Concorde was the scene of a public ovation for the King. Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855) was a French statesman Molé was born in Paris. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A prison Cell A prison cell or detention cell refers to the accommodation of a prisoner in a prison or jail. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ...


1836 Bonapartist uprising

On 30 October 1836, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte attempted an uprising in Strasbourg, which was quickly countered. The Bonapartist prince and his accomplices were arrested on the same day. The king, wanting to avoid a public trial, and without legal proceedings, ordered that Louis-Napoléon be taken to Lorient where he was put on board the frigate L'Andromède, which sailed for the United States on 21 November. The other conjurees were transferred before the Cour d'assises of Strasbourg, who acquitted them on 18 January 1837. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis Bonaparte Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (September 2, 1779 - July 25, 1844) one of three younger brothers of the Emperor Napoleon I of France, who made him king of Holland in 1806. ... This article is about The place Lorient in France. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


loi de disjonction

Thereafter, on 24 January 1837, the Minister of War, General Simon Bernard (Baron), deposed a draft law - loi de disjonction - aimed at separating, in case of insurrection, civilians, who would be judged by the Cour d'assises, and non-civilians, who would be judged by a war council. The opposition adamantly rejected the project, and surprisingly managed to have the Chamber refuse it, on 7 March 1837, by a very short majority of 211 voices against 209. is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Simon Bernard (1779 - 1839) was a French general of engineers born in Dole, educated at the Ecole Polytechnique, and entered the army in the corps of engineers. ... The French Cour dAssises (Assize Court) is the court charged to judge people accused of felonies (crimes as known by French law), and one of the only to be composed of a popular jury. ... Court Martial redirects here. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


However, Louis-Philippe decided to go against public expectation, and the logic of parliamentarism, by maintaining the Molé government in place. But the government was deprived of any solid parliamentary majority, and thus paralyzed. During a month and a half, the king tried various ministerial combinations before composing a new government which included Camille de Montalivet, who was close to him, but excluded Guizot, who had more and more troubles working with Molé, confirmed as head of the government. Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet (April 25, 1801 - January 4, 1880) was a French statesman and a Peer of France. ...


This new government was almost a provocation for the Chamber: not only Molé was maintained, but de Salvandy, who had been in charge of the "loi de disjonction", and Lacave-Laplagne, in charge of a draft concerning the Belgian Queen's dot — both laws having been rejected by the deputies — were also members of the new cabinet. The press spoke of a "Cabinet of the castle" or "Cabinet of lackeys", and all expected it to be short-lived. Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy (June 11, 1795 - December 16, 1856), was a French politician. ...


The wedding of the duc d'Orléans

However, in his first speech, on April 18, 1837, Molé cut short all critics with the announcement of the future wedding of the royal Prince with the Princess Hélène de Mecklembourg-Schwerin. Taken by surprise, the deputies voted the increase of the duc d'Orléans' dot, which had been previously rejected, as well as the increase of the dot of the Queen of the Belgians. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Ferdinand-Philippe HRH Prince Ferdinand-Philippe of Orléans (September 3, 1810—July 13, 1842) was Prince Royal of France. ... Louise-Marie, Queen of the Belgians (Louise-Marie Thérèse Charlotte Isabelle dOrléans) - fille de France, and Queen of the Belgians as the wife of King Leopold I. Born in Palermo, Sicily on April 3, 1812, she was the eldest daughter of the future King Louis-Phillippe...


After this promising beginning, Molé's government managed to obtain in May the Parliament's confidence during the debate on the secret funds, despite Odilon Barrot's attacks (250 voices against 112). An 8 May 1837 ordinance granted general amnesty to all political prisoners, while crucifixes were re-established in the courts, and the Church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois, closed since 1831, authorized to renew with cult activities. To demonstrate that public order had been restored, the king passed in review the National Guard on Place de la Concorde. On 30 May 1837, the duc d'Orléans's wedding was celebrated at the château de Fontainebleau. is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Saint-Germain lAuxerrois Saint-Germain lAuxerrois The Church of Saint-Germain lAuxerrois is situated at 2, Place du Louvre, Paris 75001; the nearest Métro station is Louvre. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Royal Château of Fontainebleau (in the Seine-et-Marne département) is one of the largest French royal châteaux. ...


A few days later, on 10 June, Louis-Philippe inaugurated the château de Versailles, the restoration of which, begun in 1833, was to establish a Museum of the History of France, dedicated to "all the glories of France". The king had closely followed and personally financed the project entrusted to the architect Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine. In a symbol of national reconciliation, the military glories of the Revolution and of the Empire, even those of the Restoration, were to sit side by side with those of the Ancien Régime. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Versailles: Garden front The Château de Versailles — often called the Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles — is a royal château, outside the gates of which the... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ...


The legislative elections of 4 November 1837

Further information: French legislative election, 1837

Molé's government thus seemed stable, helped by the return of economic prosperity. Therefore, the king and Molé decided, against the duc d'Orléans' opinion, that the moment was auspicious for the dissolving of the Chamber, done on 3 October 1837. In order to weigh on the forthcoming elections, Louis-Philippe decided the Constantine expedition in Algeria, a military success of General Valée and the duc de Nemours, second son of Louis-Philippe, who took Constantine on 13 October. The 1837 general election organized the fourth legislature of the July Monarchy. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Sylvain-Charles, comte Valée (December 17, 1773 - August 16, 1846), born in Brienne-le-Château, was a Marshal of France. ... Louis, Duke of Nemours Louis Charles Philippe Raphael, 16th duc de Nemours (October 25, 1814 – June 26, 1896) was the second son of the duke of Orleans, afterwards King Louis-Philippe of France, and his wife Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. ... Look up Constantine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, the 4 November 1837 elections did not respond to Louis-Philippe's hopes. On a total of 459 deputies, only a relative majority of 220 were supporters of the regime. About 20 Legitimists had been elected, and 30 Republicans. The center-right (Doctrinaires) had approximatively 30 deputies, the center-left about the double, and the dynastic opposition (Odilon Barrot) 65. The Tiers parti had only about 15 deputies, and 30 more were undecided. Such a composite Chamber carried the risk of the formation of a heterogeneous coalition against the government. The 1837 general election organized the fourth legislature of the July Monarchy. ... Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830) to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. ...


As early as January 1838, the government was hotly contested, in particular by Charles Gauguier, concerning the deputies who were also civil servants. On 9 January, he accused the government of electoral manipulation in order to have loyal civil servants elected. These, who had been 178 in the preceding Chamber, were now 191. Adolphe Thiers and his allies also defied the government, concerning the Spanish affairs. However, with the help of the Doctrinaires, Molé obtained a favorable vote for the address to the king on 13 January 1838, with 216 voices against 116. is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Molé's cabinet appeared to be taken hostage by the Doctrinaires, at the exact moment when Guizot was taking his distance with the President of the Council. All of Thiers' efforts would be thereafter focused on pushing the Doctrinaires away from the ministerial majority. During the vote on the secret funds, both Guizot, in the Chamber of Deputies, and the duc de Broglie, in the Chamber of Pairs, criticized the cabinet, although accepting to vote favorably. François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Victor, duc de Broglie, French statesman Achille-Léonce-Victor-Charles, 3rd duc de Broglie (November 28, 1785–January 26, 1870), was a French statesman and diplomat. ...


On 10 May 1838, the deputies rejected the governmental plan of railway development, after having adopted, a week earlier, the project on conversion of the rents opposed by Molé. The Peers, however, supported Molé and rejected the latter. On 20 June 1838, Molé succeeded in having the Assembly vote the 1839 budget before the parliamentary vacations. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


On the opening of the parliamentary session in December 1838, André Dupin was elected by a very short majority (183 voices against 178 for Hippolyte Passy, the center-left candidate and adamant opponent to the "Castle cabinet") as President of the Chamber. A coalition, including Guizot, Thiers, Prosper Duvergier de Hauranne and Hippolyte Passy, had formed itself during summer, but it did not prevent the vote of a favorable address to the King (221 voices for against 208). André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (February 1, 1783 - November 8, 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. ...


The legislative elections of 2 March 1839

Further information: French legislative election, 1839

Confronted to such a slight and incertain majority, Molé presented his resignation to the king on 22 January 1839. Louis-Philippe first attempted to refuse it, and then, approaching Marshal Soult, who was not very convinced, proposed him to take the lead. Soult finally accepted after the funeral of the king's daughter, the duchesse de Wurtemberg, on the conditions of organizing anticipated elections. During the electoral campaign, the left-wing opposition cried out at a constitutional coup, comparing the 1837 and 1839 dissolvings to the consecutive dissolvings of Charles X in 1830. Thiers compared Molé to Polignac, one of Charles X's ministers. The 1839 general election organized the fifth legislature of the July Monarchy. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... Jules, prince de Polignac, French statesman Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (1780 - March 29, 1847), French statesman, played a conspicuous part in the clerical and ultra-royalist reaction after the Revolution. ...


The 2 March 1839 elections were a deception for the king, with the loss of two loyal deputies, while the coalition gathered 240 members (against only 199 for the government). Molé presented his resignation to the king on 8 March, which Louis-Philippe was forced to accept. The 1839 general election organized the fifth legislature of the July Monarchy. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Second Soult government (May 1839 - February 1840)

Armand Barbès, one of the leaders of the Republican insurrection of 12 May 1839. Lithography by Jeannin.
Armand Barbès, one of the leaders of the Republican insurrection of 12 May 1839. Lithography by Jeannin.

After Molé's fall, Louis-Philippe immediately called upon Marshal Soul, who attempted, without success, to form a government including the three leaders of the coalition who had taken down Molé: Guizot, Thiers and Odilon Barrot. Confronted to the Doctrinaires' refusal, he then tried to form a center-left cabinet, which also stumbled upon Thiers' intransigeancy concerning the Spanish affairs. These successive setbacks forced the king to postpone to 4 April 1839 the opening of the parliamentary session. Thiers also refused to be associated with the duc de Broglie and Guizot. The king then attempted to keep him at bay by offering him an embassy, which provoked the outcries of Thiers' friends. Finally, Louis-Philippe resigned himself in composing, on 31 March 1839, a transitional and neutral government. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 534 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (551 × 618 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 534 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (551 × 618 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Armand Barbès (1809-1870) was a French politician, surnamed the Bayard of Democracy; imprisoned in 1848, liberated in 1854; expatriated himself voluntarily; died at the Hague. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The parliamentary session opened on 4 April on a quasi-insurrectionary atmosphere, a large mob had gathered around the Palais-Bourbon, seat of the Assembly, singing La Marseillaise and rioting. The left-wing press charged the government of provocations. Thiers supported Odilon Barrot as President of the Chamber, but his attitude during the negotiations for the formation of a new cabinet had disappointed some of his friends. A part of the center-left thus decided to present Hippolyte Passy against Barrot. The latter won with 227 voices against 193, supported by the ministerial deputies and the Doctrinaires. This vote demonstrated that the coalition had imploded, and that a right-wing majority could be formed to oppose any left-wing solution. is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The grand Roman portico added to the Palais Bourbon in 1806-08, Poyet, architect The Palais Bourbon, a palace located on the Place de la Concorde, Paris, is the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ...


Despite this, the negotiations for the formation of a new cabinet still were unsuccessful, Thiers making his friends promise to request his authorization before accepting any governmental function. The situation seemed totally blocked, when on 12 May, 1838, the Société des saisons, a secret, Republican society, headed by Martin Bernard, Armand Barbès and Auguste Blanqui, organized an insurrection in the rue Saint-Denis and the rue Saint-Martin in Paris. The League of the Just, founded in 1836, participated in this uprising.[15] However, not only was it a failure, and the conjurees arrested, but this allowed Louis-Philippe to form a new government on the same day, presided by Marshal Soult who had assured him of his loyal support. Armand Barbès (1809-1870) was a French politician, surnamed the Bayard of Democracy; imprisoned in 1848, liberated in 1854; expatriated himself voluntarily; died at the Hague. ... Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 _ January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ...


At the end of May, the vote on the secret funds gave a large majority to the new government, who also had the budget voted without any problems. The parliamentary vacation was decreeded on 6 August, 1838, and the new session opened on 23 December, during which the Chamber voted a rather favorable address to the government by 212 voices against 43. Soult's cabinet, however, fell on 20 February, 1839, 226 deputies having voted against the dotation project of the duc de Nemours (only 200 votes for), who was to marry Victoire de Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha. Proudhon noted in a letter the inconsequence of the bourgeoisie, who supported the king without supporting its consequences[16] Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ...


The second Thiers cabinet (March - October 1840)

Soult's fall contraigned the king to call on the main left-wing figure, Adolphe Thiers. Guizot, one of the only remaining right-wing alternative, had just been named ambassador to London and left France. Thiers' aim was to establish definitively parliamentarism, with a "king that rules but does not govern", and a cabinet emanating from the parliamentary majority and responsible before it. Henceforth, he obviously went against Louis-Philippe's conception. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ...


Thiers formed his government on 1 March 1840. He had first pretended to offer the presidency of the Council to the duc de Broglie, and then Soult, before accepting it and taking in the same time the Foreign Affairs. His cabinet was formed of rather young politicians (47 years-old average), Thiers himself being only 42. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Relations with the king were immediately difficult. Louis-Philippe embarrassed Thiers by suggesting him to nominate his friend Horace Sébastiani as Marshal, which would target him to the same criticisms he had previously done against political favoritism and the use of governmental power. Thiers thus decided to postpone Sébastiani's advancement. Sébastiani redirects here. ...


Thiers obtained an easy majority during the debate on the secret funds in March 1840 (246 voices against 160). Although he was classified as center-left, Thiers' second government was highly conservative, dedicated to the protection of the interests of the bourgeoisie. Although he had the deputies vote the conversion of the rents, a left-wing proposal, he was sure that it would be rejected by the Peers, which is effectively what happened. On 16 May, 1840, Thiers harshly recused universal suffrage and social reforms after a speech by the Radical François Arago, who had related electoral reform and social reform.[17] Arago was attempting to unite the left-wing by tying together universal suffrage claims and Socialist claims, appeared in the 1840s, concerning the "right of work" (droit au travail). He considered that the electoral reform to establish universal suffrage should precede the social reform, which he considered as an emergency. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... François Arago François Jean Dominique Arago (February 26, 1786 – October 2, 1853) was a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and politician. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


On 15 June 1838, Thiers obtained the postponement of a proposition made by the conservative deputy of Versailles, Ovide de Rémilly who, seizing himself of an old claim of the Left, aimed at outlawing the nomination of deputies to salaried public offices during their mandate. As Thiers had previously supported this proposition, he was acutely criticized by the Left. is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ...


Social problems related to the economic crisis started in 1839 provoked since the end of August 1838 strike actions and riots in the textile, clothing and construction sectors. On 7 September 1839, the cabinet-makers of the faubourg Saint-Antoine started to put up barricades. Thiers responded by sending the National Guard and using all the recourses of the laws prohibiting public meetings. In economics, crisis is an old term in business cycle theory, referring to the sharp transition to a recession. ... Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Cabinet making is the practice of utilizing many woodworking skills to create cabinets, shelving and furniture. ...


Thiers also renewed the Banque de France's privilege until 1867 at so advantageous conditions that the Bank had a commemorative gold medal wedged. Several laws also established steam ocean liners, their exploitation being conceded to companies subsided by the state. Other laws granted credits or guarantees to railway companies in difficulty. One of the Banque de Frances offices in Paris. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Return of Napoleon's ashes

The transfert Le transfert of Napoleon's ashes on board of La Belle Poule on 15 October 1840. Painting by Eugène Isabey.
The transfert Le transfert of Napoleon's ashes on board of La Belle Poule on 15 October 1840. Painting by Eugène Isabey.

At the same time that Thiers favored the conservative bourgeoisie, he also made sure to satisfy the Left's want of glory. On 12 May 1840, the Minister of the Interior, Charles de Rémusat, announced to the deputies that the king had decided that the remains of Napoléon would be transferred to the Invalides. With the British government's agreement, the prince de Joinville sailed to Saint Helena on the frigate La Belle Poule to retrieve them. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2205x1400, 1009 KB) Le transfert des cendres de Napoléon à bord de La Belle Poule, le 15 octobre 1840 Louis-Eugène-Gabriel Isabey (1803 - 1886) http://members. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2205x1400, 1009 KB) Le transfert des cendres de Napoléon à bord de La Belle Poule, le 15 octobre 1840 Louis-Eugène-Gabriel Isabey (1803 - 1886) http://members. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hurricane before Saint Malo. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Charles François Marie, Comte de Rémusat (March 13, 1797 - January 6, 1875), was a French politician and writer. ... Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... The church at the Invalides, with its dome Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement, now containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings... François-Ferdinand-Philippe-Louis-Marie dOrléans, prince de Joinville (14 August 1818 - 16 June 1900) was the third son of Louis Philippe, duc dOrléans, afterwards king of the French and his wife Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. ...


This announcement immediately struck the public opinion, which enflammed itself with patriotic fervor. Thiers saw in this act the achievement of the rehabilitation of the Revolution and of the Empire, which he had enterprised in his Histoire de la Révolution française and his Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire, while Louis-Philippe, who was reluctant, aimed at capturing to his profit a bit of the imperial glory, just as he had appropriated the legitime monarchy's glory in the Château de Versailles. The prince Louis-Napoléon decided to seize the opportunity to land in Boulogne-sur-Mer on 6 August 1840, with the aim of rallying the 42th infantry regiment (42e régiment de ligne). along with some accomplices among whom one of Napoléon's comrades in Saint Helena, the General de Montholon. Although Montholon was in reality a double agent used by the French government to spy, in London, on Louis-Napoléon, Montholon deceived Thiers by letting him think that the operation would take place in Metz. However, Bonaparte's operation was a complete failure, and he was detained with his men in the Fort of Ham (Picardie). Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808, Paris, France - January 9, 1873, Chislehurst, Kent, England) was a President of France, and later, Emperor of the French. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Amiens Regional President Claude Gewerc (PS) (since 2004) Departments Aisne Oise Somme Arrondissements 13 Cantons 129 Communes 2,292 Statistics Land area1 19,399 km² Population (Ranked 12th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


Their trial took place before the Chamber of Peers from 28 September 1840 to 6 October 1840, in a general indifference. The public's attention was concentrated on the trial of Marie Lafarge, before the Cour d'assises of Tulle, the defendant being accused of having poisoned her husband. Defended by the famous Legitimist lawyer Pierre-Antoine Berryer, Bonaparte was sentenced to life detention, by 152 votes (against 160 abstentions, on a total of 312 Peers). "We do not kill insane people, all right! but we do confine them,[18] declared the Journal des débats, in this period of intense discussions concerning parricides, mental disease and reform of the penal code.[19] Marie-Fortunée LaFarge, née Capelle (January 15, 1816 - November 7, 1852) was a Frenchwoman who was convicted of murdering her husband by arsenic poisoning in 1840. ... Antoine Pierre Berryer (1790 - November 29, 1868), French advocate and parliamentary orator, was the son of an eminent advocate and counsellor to the parlement. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... Journal des Débats - Portrait of Monsieur Bertin, director, by Ingres The Journal des Débats is a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patricide. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ...


Colonization of Algeria

Further information: French rule in Algeria

The conquest of Algeria, initiated in the last days of the Bourbon Restoration, was now confronted to Abd-el-Kader's raids, punishing Marshal Valée and the duc d'Orléans's expedition to the Portes de Fer in autumn 1839, which had gone against the clauses of the 1837 Treaty of Tafna between General Bugeaud and Abd-el-Kader. Thiers pushed in favor of a colonization of the interior of the country, until the limits of the desert. He convinced the king, who saw in Algeria an ideal theater for his son to cover the House of Orléans of glory, and persuaded him to send General Bugeaud as first governor general of Algeria. Bugeaud, who would lead a harsh repression against the natives, would be officially nominated on 29 December 1840, a few days after Thiers' fall. French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... `Abd al_Qādir al_Jazāirī. ... Sylvain-Charles, comte Valée (December 17, 1773 - August 16, 1846), born in Brienne-le-Château, was a Marshal of France. ... Ferdinand-Philippe HRH Prince Ferdinand-Philippe of Orléans (September 3, 1810—July 13, 1842) was Prince Royal of France. ... The Treaty of Tafna (executed by Abd-el-Kader) was signed by both Abd-el-Kader and General Thomas Robert Bugeaud on May 30, 1837. ... Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France. ... Beylerbey: Bey of beys Kalifah: Governor acting in the absence of the Beylerbey Aga (Agha): Military Commander For continuation after independence, see: Presidents of Algeria http://www. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Orient affairs, a pretext for Thiers' fall

Thiers supported Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt, in his ambition to constitute a vast Arabian Empire from Egypt to Syria. He tried to intercede in order to have him sign an agreement with the Ottoman Empire, unbeknownst to the four other European powers (England, Austria, Prussia and Russia). However, informed of these negotiations, the British Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lord Palmerston, quickly negotiated a treaty between the four powers to sort out the "Orient Question". When revealed, the London Convention of 15 July 1840 provoked in France an explosion of patriotic fury: France had been ousted of a zone where it traditionally exerced its influence, while Prussia, which had no interest in it, was associated to the treaty. Although Louis-Philippe pretended to join the general protestations, he knew that he could take advantage of the situation to get rid of Thiers. See Mehemet Ali (Turkey) for the Turkish foreign minister and regent. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, commonly called the London Convention or LC 72, covers the deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, and platforms. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The latter flattered patriotic feelings by decreeting, on 29 July 1840, a partial mobilization, and by starting, on 13 September 1840, the works on the fortifications of Paris. But France remained passive when, on 2 October 1840, the British navy shelled Beirut. Mehemet Ali was then immediately destituted by the Sultan. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The History of Paris spans over 2,500 years, during which time the city grew from a small Celtic settlement to the multicultural capital of a modern European state and one of the worlds major global cities. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


Following long negotiations between the king and Thiers, a compromise was found on 7 October 1840: France would renounce in supporting Mehemet Ali's pretensions on Syria but would declare to the European powers that Egypt should remain at all costs indemn. England thereafter recognized Mehmet Ali's hereditary rule on Egypt: France had obtained a return to the situation of 1832. Despite this, the rupture between Thiers and Louis-Philippe was now definitive. On 29 October 1840, when Charles de Rémusat presented to the Council of Ministers the draft of the speech of the throne, prepared by Hippolyte Passy, Louis-Philippe found it too aggressive. After a short discussion, Thiers and his associates collectively presented their resignation to the king, who accepted them. On the following day, Louis-Philippe ordered to fetch Marshal Soult and Guizot so they could rejoin Paris as soon as possible. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Charles François Marie, Comte de Rémusat (March 13, 1797 - January 6, 1875), was a French politician and writer. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ...


The Guizot government (1840 - 1848)

Council of Ministers in the Palais des Tuileries: Marshal Soult presents to Louis-Philippe a draft law on 15 August 1842. Guizot stands on the left. Painting of Claude Jacquand (1803-1878), said Claudius-Jacquand, 1844.
Council of Ministers in the Palais des Tuileries: Marshal Soult presents to Louis-Philippe a draft law on 15 August 1842. Guizot stands on the left. Painting of Claude Jacquand (1803-1878), said Claudius-Jacquand, 1844.

When Louis-Philippe called to power Guizot and the Doctrinaires, representants of the center-right after the center-left Thiers, he surely imagined that this would be only temporary, and that he would soon be able to call back Molé. But the new cabinet formed by Guizot would remain closely knit, and finally win the king's trust, Guizot becoming his favorite president of the Council. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard The Tuileries Palace stood in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


On 26 October 1840, Guizot arrived to Paris from London. He took for himself the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and let Soult assume the nominal presidency. This satisfied the king and the royal family, while Guizot himself was sure of being manipulating as he wanted the old Marshal Soult. As the center-left had refused to remain in the government, Guizot's cabinet included only conservatives, ranging from the ministerial center to the center-right Doctrinaires. is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The July Column was erected in honor of the Three Glorious. The Orient Question was settled by the London Straits Convention of 1841, which permitted a first reconciliation between France and England. This in turn favorized the colonization of Algeria. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In the London Straits Convention concluded on 13 July 1841 between the Great Powers of Europe at the time - Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia - the ancient rule of the Ottoman Empire was re-established by closing the Turkish straits of Bosporus and the Dardanelles (which linked the... Anglo-French relations describes relations between the governments of France and the United Kingdom (UK). ...


Both the government and the Chamber were Orleanists. Those were divided into Odilon Barrot's Dynastic Left (Gauche dynastique), which requested the enlargement of electoral cens to the petty bourgeoisie and had as mouthpiece Le Siècle; the center-left, headed by Adolphe Thiers, which aimed at restricting the royal prerogatives and influence, and which had as mouthpiece Le Constitutionnel; the conservatives, headed by Guizot and Count Molé, who wanted to preserve the regime and defended their ideas in Le Journal des débats and La Presse. French politician Odilon Barrot Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (September 19, 1791 - August 6, 1873), was a French politician. ... Petit-bourgeois or Anglicised petty bourgeois is a French term that reffered to the members of the lower middle social-classes. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Louis Mathieu, comte Molé (January 24, 1781 - November 23, 1855) was a French statesman Molé was born in Paris. ... Journal des Débats - Portrait of Monsieur Bertin, director, by Ingres The Journal des débats (Journal of Debates) was a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. ... La Presse, founded in 1884, is a large-circulation French-language daily newspaper published in Montreal, Quebec. ...


Guizot refused any reforms, rejecting a decrease of the electoral cens. According to him, the monarchy should favorize the "middle classes", gathered by land ownership, a "moral" tied to money, work and savings. "Enrichissez-vous par le travail et par l'épargne et ainsi vous serez électeur !" (Get rich through work and savings and then you will be electors!) was his famous statement. Guizot was helped in his aims by a comfortable growth of 3,5% a year, from 1840 to 1846. The transport network was quickly enlarged. An 1842 law organized the national railway network, which passed from 600 to 1,850 km, a sure sign that the Industrial Revolution had fully reached France. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


A threatened system

Further information: Economic history of France and History of the Left in France

This period of Industrial Revolution was characterized by the appearance of a new social phenomena, baptized pauperism. Related to industrialization and the rural exodus, working poors were common. Furthermore, the former congregations of the Ancien Régime had disappeared. Workers had 14 hours work, daily wages of 0,20 Francs, and no possibility of organizing themselves in trade unions. 250,000 beggars were registered, and 3 million citizens registered in the charity offices. State assistance was nonexistent. The only social law of the July Monarchy was to outlaw, in 1841, labor of children under 8 years old, and night labor for those of less than 13 years. The law, however, was almost never implemented. This is a history of the economy of France. ... The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Pauperism (Lat. ... Rural exodus is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of agriculture. ... Working poor is a term used to describe individuals and families who maintain regular employment but remain in relative poverty due to low levels of pay and dependent expenses. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Child labour is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ...


Christians imagined a "charitable economy", while the ideas of Socialism, in particular Utopian Socialism (Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, etc.) diffused themselves. Blanqui theorized Socialist coups d'état, the socialist and anarchist thinker Proudhon theorized mutualism. On the other hand, Liberals, inspired by Adam Smith, imagined a solution in laissez-faire and the end of tariffs, which Great Britain, the dominant European power, had started in 1846 with the repeal of the Corn Laws. Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... Saint-Simon can refer to various people: Claude de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (1607–1693), French courtier Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (1675–1755), French soldier, diplomatist and writer of memoirs Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825), the founder of French socialism Simon... This article is about the French utopian socialist philosopher. ... Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 _ January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ...


Marx in Paris (1843-1848)

In 1843, Karl Marx arrived in Paris and met there Friedrich Engels. Paris at this time was the home and headquarters to German, British, Polish, and Italian revolutionaries. Marx had come to Paris to work with Arnold Ruge, another revolutionary from Germany, on the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, while Engels had come especially to meet Paris. There, he showed him his work, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844. Marx wrote for the Vorwärts revolutionary newspaper, established and run by the secret society called League of the Just, and studied Proudhon, whom he criticized in The Poverty of Philosophy (1847). He developed his theory of alienation in the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, published posthumously, as well as his theory of ideology in The German Ideology (1845), in which he criticized the Young Hegelians: "It has not occurred to any one of these philosophers to inquire into the connection of German philosophy with German reality, the relation of their criticism to their own material surroundings.".[20] For the first time, Marx related history of ideas with economic history, linking the "ideological superstructure" with the "economical infrastructure", and thus tying together philosophy and economics. Inspired both by Friedrich Hegel and Adam Smith, he imagined an original theory based on the key, Marxist notion, of class struggle, which appeared to him self-evident in the Parisian context of insurrection and permanent turmoil. "The dominant ideology is the ideology of the dominant class," did he conclude in his essay, setting up the program for the years to come, a program which would be further explicited in The Communist Manifesto, published on 21 February 1848, as the manifesto of the Communist League, three days before the proclamation of the Second Republic. Arrested and expelled to Belgium, Marx was then invited by the new regime back to Paris, where he was able to witness the June Days Uprising first hand. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Engels redirects here. ... Arnold Ruge (13 September 1802 _ 31 December 1880) was a German philosopher and political writer. ... The Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher (German–French Yearbooks) was a journal published in Paris by Karl Marx and Arnold Ruge. ... The Condition of the Working Class is the best-known work of Friedrich Engels, and in many ways still the best study of the working class in Victorian England. ... Vorwärts, central organ of the German Social-Democratic Party published daily in Berlin from 1891 to 1933 by decision of the partys Halle Congress, as the successor of Berliner Volksblatt, founded in 1884. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... The Poverty of Philosphy is a book by Karl Marx published in Paris and Brussels in 1847. ... Marxs theory of alienation (Entfremdung in German), as expressed in the writings of young Karl Marx, refers to the separation of things that naturally belong together, or to antagonism between things that are properly in harmony. ... Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 (also referred to as The Paris Manuscripts) are a series of notes written between April and August 1844 by Karl Marx. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The German Ideology (1845) was a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1845. ... The Young Hegelians, later known as the Left Hegelians, were a group of students and young professors at the University of Berlin following Georg Hegels death in 1831. ... German philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in German language, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Leibniz through Kant and Hegel to contemporary philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas. ... Marxist theory is an academic specialization in Western academias. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise Map of the French Second Republic Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic President  - 1848 - 1852 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Legislature National Assembly History  - Revolutions of 1848 in France 1848  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Disestablished 1852 Currency... The June Days Uprising (French: les journées de Juin) refers to the workers revolt on June 21, 1848, after the closure of the National Workshops created by the Second Republic to give work to the unemployed. ...


Final years (1846-1848)

The 1846 harvest was poor, in France as elsewhere (especially Ireland, but also Galicia and Bohemia). A rise in the price of wheat, the dietary staple of the common people, provoked a food shortage, while purchasing power decreased. The resulting fall in domestic consumption led to a crisis of industrial overproduction. This in turn immediately led to massive lay-offs, and thus to a large withdrawal of savings, leading to a banking crisis. Bankruptcies multiplied, and stock prices on the stock exchanges collapsed. The government reacted by importing Russian wheat, which created a negative balance of trade. The program of public works therefore stopped. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Purchasing Power- the amount of value of a good/services compared to the amount paid. ... In economics, overproduction refers to excess supply of products being sold on the market. ... Downsizing is a euphemism referring to layoffs initiated by a company in order to cut labor costs by reducing the size of the company. ... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ... The balance of trade encompasses the activity of exports and imports, like the work of this cargo ship going through the Panama Canal. ... Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Henceforth, there was an increase in workers' demonstrations, with riots in the Buzançais in 1847. In Roubaix, a city in the industrial north, 60% of the workers were unemployed. At the same time, the regime was marred by several political scandals (Teste-Cubières corruption scandal, revealed in May 1847, or Charles de Choiseul-Praslin's suicide after having murdered his wife, daughter of Horace Sébastiani). Roubaix (Dutch Robaais) is a city of northern France, in the Nord département, located near the cities of Lille and Tourcoing and the Belgian border. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... This is a list of major political scandals in France: 1816 shipwreck of and search for French frigate Medusa off the west coast of Africa Dreyfus Affair, 1894 treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus - exposed by writer Emile Zola on January 13, 1898 The Ben Barka affair, 1965 disappearance of the... Charles Laure Hugues Théobald, duc de Choiseul-Praslin (June 29, 1804-August 24, 1847) was a French nobleman and politician, who served as a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1838-1842. ... Sébastiani redirects here. ...


Since the right of association was strictly restricted, and public meetings prohibited since 1835, the Opposition was paralyzed. In order to sidestep this law, political dissidents used civil funerals of their comrades as occasions of public demonstrations. Family celebrations and banquets also served as pretexts for gatherings. At the end of the regime, the campagne des banquets took place in all of the big cities of France. Louis-Philippe firmly reacted to this threat, and prohibited the final banquet, which was to be held on 14 January 1848. Postponed to 22 February, this banquet would provoke the February 1848 Revolution. Freedom of association is a human right and concept in constitutional law based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... The Campagne des banquets (Banquets Campaign) were political meetings during the July Monarchy in France which destabilized the King of the French Louis-Philippe. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Painting of a barricade on Rue Soufflot (with the Panthéon behind), Paris, June 1848. ...


End of the Monarchy

Further information: French Revolution of 1848

After some unrest, the king replaced Guizot by Thiers who advocated repression. Greeted with hostility by the troops in the Carrousel, in front of the Palace of the Tuileries, the king finally decided to abdicate in favor of his grandson, Philippe d'Orléans, entrusting the regency to his daughter-in-law, Hélène de Mecklembourg-Schwerin. It was in vain as the Second Republic was proclaimed on 24 February 1848, on the Place de la Bastille, before the July Column. Up to 1848 in France As 1848 began, liberals awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting revolution after his death. ... Carrousel is a booklet published in 1987 containing three short texts written by Vladimir Nabokov in 1923 for Karussel, a Russian cabaret. ... Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris (August 24, 1838 – September 8, 1894) was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. ... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise Map of the French Second Republic Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic President  - 1848 - 1852 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Legislature National Assembly History  - Revolutions of 1848 in France 1848  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Disestablished 1852 Currency... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Place de la Bastille ( ) is a square in Paris, where the Bastille prison stood until it was stormed and subsequently torn down between July 14, 1789 and July 14, 1790 during the French Revolution; no vestige of it remains. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Louis-Philippe, who claimed to be the "Citizen King" linked to the country by a popular sovereignty contract in which he found his legitimity, did not see that the French people were advocating an enlargement of the electoral body, for some by a decrease of the electoral tax, and for others by the establishment of universal suffrage. Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ...


Although the end of the July Monarchy was close to being a civil war, the period was also characterized by an effervescence of artistic and intellectual creation. French art of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, visual and plastic works of art made in France or by French citizens during the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonapartes Consulate (1799-1804) and Empire (1804-1814), the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814...


References

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  1. ^ or Three Glorious Days
  2. ^ Louis-Philippe was responding to an address sent by the city of Gaillac, who had declared that it submitted itself to the King's government "in order to assure the development of the conquests of July" . Louis-Philippe thus responded (in French): « Nous chercherons à nous tenir dans un juste milieu, également éloigné des excès du pouvoir populaire et des abus du pouvoir royal. » Quoted by Guy Antonetti, Louis-Philippe, Paris, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2002 (p.713)
  3. ^ French: « Cela vaut mieux pour moi que le sacre de Reims ! »
  4. ^ La Foire aux places, comédie-vaudeville in one act of Jean-François Bayard, played at the théâtre du Vaudeville on 25 September 1830, showed the solicitors, gathered in the antechamber of a minister: « Qu'on nous place / Et que justice se fasse. / Qu'on nous place / Tous en masse. / Que les placés / Soient chassés ! » (quoted by Guy Antonetti, Louis-Philippe, Paris, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2002, p. 625) « Savez-vous ce que c'est qu'un carliste ? interroge un humoriste. Un carliste, c'est un homme qui occupe un poste dont un autre homme a envie ! » (ibid.)
  5. ^ David H. Pinkney, The French Revolution of 1830, 1972 ; French translation: La Révolution de 1830 en France, Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1988 – ISBN 2-13-040275-5
  6. ^ French: « La grande différence entre la Restauration et la monarchie de Juillet, avance Guy Antonetti, n'a pas tant résidé dans la substitution d'un groupe social à un autre que dans la substitution, à l'intérieur du même groupe social, des tenants d'une mentalité favorable à l'esprit de 89 aux tenants d'une mentalité qui lui était hostile: socialement semblables, idéologiquement différents. 1830 n'a été qu'un changement d'équipe dans le même camp et non un changement de camp. » in Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 627
  7. ^ Guizot: « Messieurs, nous avons fait une révolution, une heureuse, une glorieuse révolution ; mais nous n'avons pas prétendu mettre la France en état révolutionnaire, la maintenir dans le trouble qui accompagne une telle situation. » Il définit l’« état révolutionnaire » : « Toutes les choses sont mises en question; toutes les prétentions sont indéfinies ; des appels continuels sont faits à la force, à la violence. [...] Eh bien ! Messieurs, nous aimons le progrès, nous désirons le mouvement progressif, [...] mais le désordre n'est pas le mouvement, le trouble n'est pas le progrès, l'état révolutionnaire n'est pas l'état ascendant de la société. » (quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 632)
  8. ^ Armand Carrel in Le National (16-02-1831) : « C'est au peuple qu'on rend compte des arrestations carlistes. Pour calmer l'émeute, on s'humilie devant elle; on lui jure qu'on est gouverné par elle, qu'on obéit à ses inspirations. » (quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 649)
  9. ^ French: « le principe de la révolution de juillet [...] ce n'est pas l'insurrection, [...] c'est la résistance à l'agression du pouvoir », Antonetti, op.cit., p.656
  10. ^ La Petite Gazette Généalogique, Amicale Généalogie. "Le Choléra". Retrieved on 2006-04-10.(French)
  11. ^ « J'avais beau faire [...], dit-il, tout ce qui se faisait de bon était attribué à Casimir Perier, et les incidents malheureux retombaient à ma charge; aujourd'hui, au moins, on verra que c'est moi qui règne seul, tout seul. » (Rodolphe Apponyi, Journal, 18 mai 1832, quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 689)
  12. ^ On 7 June 1832, Rodolphe Apponyi noted in his Journal: « Il me semble que ce n'est que depuis hier qu'on peut dater le règne de Louis-Philippe; il paraît être persuadé qu'on ne peut réussir dans ce pays qu'avec de la force, et, dorénavant, il n'agira plus autrement. » (quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 696)
  13. ^ French: "coalition de tous les talents"
  14. ^ Louis-Philippe to Soult, 17 April 1834, quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 723
  15. ^ Marx and the Permanent Revolution in France: Background to the Communist Manifesto by Bernard Moss, p.10, in The Socialist Register, 1998
  16. ^ Proudhon, in a 27 February 1840 letter to a friend: « Qui veut le roi, veut une famille royale, veut une cour, veut des princes du sang, veut tout ce qui s'ensuit. Le Journal des débats dit vrai: les bourgeois conservateurs et dynastiques démembrent et démolissent la royauté, dont ils sont envieux comme des crapauds. » (Quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 809)
  17. ^ Thiers: « On vous a parlé de souveraineté nationale, entendue comme souveraineté du nombre. C'est le principe le plus dangereux et le plus funeste qu'on puisse alléguer en présence d'une société. En langage constitutionnel, quand vous dites souveraineté nationale, vous dites la souveraineté du roi et des deux chambres, exprimant la souveraineté de la nation par des votes réguliers, par l'exercice de leurs droits constitutionnels. [...] Quiconque, à la porte de cette assemblée, dit: “J'ai un droit”, ment. Il n'y a de droits que ceux que la loi a reconnus. » and also « Je tiens pour dangereux, pour très dangereux, les hommes qui persuaderaient à ce peuple que ce n'est pas en travaillant, mais que c'est en se donnant certaines institutions qu'ils seront meilleurs, qu'ils seront plus heureux. [...] Dites au peuple qu'en changeant les institutions politiques il aura le bien-être, vous le rendrez anarchiste et pas autre chose. » (Quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 813)
  18. ^ « On ne tue pas les fous, soit ! mais on les enferme », in Le Journal des débats (quoted by Guy Antonetti, Op. cit., p. 818)
  19. ^ See Michel Foucault, Moi, Pierre Rivière, ayant égorgé ma mère, ma sœur et mon frère (Gallimard, 1973). English transl.: I, Pierre Rivière, Having Slaughtered my Mother, my Sister and my Brother (Penguin, 1975)
  20. ^ Karl Marx, The German Ideology, 1845 (Part I, "Ideology in General, German Ideology in Particular" (English)

The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... The February 1848 Revolution in France ended the reign of King Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic (1848-1852). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... With a total fertility rate of 2. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans... Location in France Gaillac is a town and commune in the département of Tarn, in the south of France, some 50km north-east of Toulouse. ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Armand Carrel (May 8, 1800 _ July 25, 1836) was a French writer. ... Le National is a 30-minute french newscast hosted by Geneviève Asselin, airing weekdays at 10:30pm on RDI. It focuses on news stories from across Canada, with most stories sourced from the local editions of Le Téléjournal airing across the country on Radio-Canada affiliates. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... Journal des Débats - Portrait of Monsieur Bertin, director, by Ingres The Journal des débats (Journal of Debates) was a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. ... Journal des Débats - Portrait of Monsieur Bertin, director, by Ingres The Journal des débats (Journal of Debates) was a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The German Ideology (1845) was a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1845. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Sources

  • Antonetti, Guy. Louis-Philippe, Paris, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2002 – ISBN 2-213-59222-7
  • Collingham, H.A.C. The July Monarchy: A Political History of France, 1830-1848. London; New York: Longman, 1988
  • Pinkney, David H. “Laissez-Fair or Intervention? Labor Policy in the First Months of the July Monarchy.” in French Historical Studies, Vol. 3. No. 1. (Spring, 1963), pp. 123-128.

French Historical Studies is the quarterly journal of the Society for French Historical Studies (SFHS), one of the two primary historical societies devoted to the study of French history headquartered in the United States. ...

See also

The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes: French Revolution (1789–1792) French First Republic (1792–1804) First French Empire under Napoleon (1804–1814) Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830) July Monarchy... This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in France. ... French art of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, visual and plastic works of art made in France or by French citizens during the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonapartes Consulate (1799-1804) and Empire (1804-1814), the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814... French literature of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1799 to 1900. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... This article is about political groups and tendencies in France. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
July Monarchy information - Search.com (1084 words)
The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France.
The "July Monarchy" was to last until 24 February, 1848 when the Second Republic was established.
During the years of the July Monarchy, enfranchisement roughly doubled, from 94,000 under Charles X to more than 200,000 by 1848.
July Monarchy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (339 words)
The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France.
The "July Monarchy" was to last until 24 February 1848 when the Second Republic was established.
The July Monarchy, time and time again, would push for legislation and reform measures aimed at increasing the stake of the bourgeoisie within the French government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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