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Encyclopedia > Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg after their conviction
Born May 12, 1918(1918-05-12) (Julius)
September 28, 1915(1915-09-28) (Ethel)
New York City, New York, United States (both)
Died June 19, 1953 (aged 35) (Julius)
June 19, 1953 (aged 37) (Ethel)
Sing Sing (both)
Penalty Capital punishment
Status Executed
Occupation Electrical engineer (Julius), Actress, Singer, Secretary (Ethel)
Children Michael Meeropol and Robert Meeropol

Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915June 19, 1953) were American citizens who received international attention when they were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2139x1947, 435 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Portal:Espionage/Selected biography Portal:Espionage ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternative meaning: Sing Sing (band) Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a prison in Ossining, New York. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Secretary (disambiguation). ... Michael Meeropol (born 1943) is the oldest son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. ... Robert Meeropol (b. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


The guilt of the Rosenbergs and the appropriateness of their sentence have been subject of perennial debate; however, information released after the Cold War has been taken as confirming a charge against Julius about espionage, but not in relation to atomic bombs. Recent information does not support the charge that the Rosenbergs provided information that led to the Soviet Union developing the atomic bomb — the rationale for their execution.[1] According to the former Soviet agent who was Julius's contact: "He didn't understand anything about the atomic bomb and he couldn't help us."[2]

Contents

Background

Julius Rosenberg was born to a poor family of Jewish immigrants in New York City on May 12, 1918. His parents worked in the sweat shops of the Lower East Side. Julius became a leader in the Young Communist League where, in 1936, he met Ethel, whom he married three years later. He graduated from the City College of New York with a degree in electrical engineering in 1939 and joined the Army Signal Corps in 1940, where he worked on radar equipment. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Young Communist League, USA (YCL-USA) is the fraternal youth organization of the Communist Party, USA. It should not be confused with its British counterpart, also called the Young Communist League. ... “City College” redirects here. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Branch insignia of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, representing Myers Wigwag The U.S. Army Signal Corps was founded in 1861 by United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, a physician by training. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


Ethel Greenglass was born on September 28, 1915, in New York City, also to a Jewish family. She was an aspiring actress and singer, but eventually took a secretarial job at a shipping company. She became involved in labor disputes and joined the Young Communist League, USA, where she met Julius. The Rosenbergs had two sons named Robert and Michael, who were adopted by teacher and songwriter Abel Meeropol (and took the Meeropol surname) after their parents' execution. is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Young Communist League, USA (YCL-USA) is the fraternal youth organization of the Communist Party, USA. It should not be confused with its British counterpart, also called the Young Communist League. ... Robert Meeropol (b. ... Michael Meeropol (born 1943) is the oldest son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. ... The American writer Abel Meeropol (1903 - 1986) is best known under his pseudonym Lewis Allan, under which he wrote the anti-lynching song Strange Fruit, famously performed by Billie Holiday. ...


According to his supposed former NKVD handler, Alexandre Feklisov, Julius Rosenberg was originally recruited by the KGB on Labor Day 1942, by former NKVD spymaster Semyon Semenov.[3] Allegedly, Julius had been introduced to Semenov by Bernard Schuster, a high-ranking member of the Communist Party USA as well as Earl Browder's personal NKVD liaison, and after Semenov was recalled to Moscow in 1944, his duties were taken over by his apprentice, Feklisov.[3] Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... Alexandre Feklisov Aleksandr Semyonovich Feklisov was the KGB Case Officer who recruited Julius Rosenberg and Klaus Fuchs, among others. ... This article is about the holiday in the United States. ... A Spymaster is a ringleader of a spy ring, run by a secret service. ... Semyon Semenov, NY Rezidentura X-line, 1938 - 1944 Semyon Markovich Semenov, (1911–1986): graduated from the Moscow Textile Institute in 1936 with a specialty in power engineering. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891–June 27, 1973) was an American socialist and leader of the Communist Party USA. // Early years Browder was born in Wichita, Kansas. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


According to Feklisov, Julius provided thousands of classified reports from Emerson Radio, including a complete proximity fuze, the same design that was used to shoot down Gary Powers's U-2 in 1960. Under Feklisov's administration, Julius Rosenberg is said to have recruited sympathetic individuals to the KGB’s service, including Joel Barr, Alfred Sarant, William Perl and Morton Sobell.[4] Emerson Electric Company NYSE: EMR is a major multinational corporation headquartered in St. ... A proximity fuze (also called a VT fuze, for variable time) is a fuze that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when the distance to target becomes smaller than a predetermined value or when the target passes through a given plane. ... Francis Gary Powers with a model of the U-2. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Joel Barr, also Iozef Veniaminovich Berg and Joseph Berg (January 1, 1916–August 1, 1998), was part of the Soviet Atomic Spy Ring Born Joyel Barr in New York City to immigrant parents of Ukrainian-Jewish origin, he attended City College of New York with Julius Rosenberg, and later worked... Alfred Epaminondas Sarant, also Filipp Georgievich Staros and Philip Georgievich Staros, was a member of the Communist Political Association in New York City in 1944 and an engineer who was part of the Rosenberg spy ring that reported to Soviet intelligence in New York City. ... William Perl, whose real name was William Mutterperl, was a student at the City College of New York. ... Morton Sobell (born April 11, 1917 in New York City) was an American engineer who worked for General Electric and Reeves Electronics on military and government contracts. ...


According to Feklisov's account, he was supplied by Perl, under Julius Rosenberg’s direction, with thousands of documents from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics including a complete set of design and production drawings for the Lockheed's P-80 Shooting Star. Feklisov says he learned through Julius that his brother-in-law David Greenglass was working on the top-secret Manhattan Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and used Julius to recruit him.[3] NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first operational jet fighter used by the United States Army Air Forces and, as the F-80, saw extensive combat in Korea with the United States Air Force. ... David Greenglass (b. ... An example of a U.S. classified document; page 13 of a U.S. National Security Agency report[1] on the USS Liberty incident, partially declassified and released to the public in July 2003. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ...


The USSR and the U.S. became allies during World War II after Nazi Germany's surprise attack on the USSR in 1941, but the U.S. government was highly suspicious of Joseph Stalin's long-term intentions. Therefore the Americans did not share information or seek assistance from the Soviet Union for the Manhattan Project. However, the Soviets were aware of the project as a result of espionage penetration of the U.S. government and made a number of attempts to infiltrate its operations at the University of California, Berkeley. A number of project members — some high-profile, others lower in rank — did voluntarily give secret information to Soviet agents, many because they were sympathetic to Communism (or the Soviet Union's role in the war) and did not feel the U.S. should have a monopoly on atomic weapons.[5] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... United States Government redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article is about the economic term. ...


After the war, the U.S. continued to protect its nuclear secrets, but the Soviet Union was able to produce its own atomic weapons by 1949. The West was shocked by the speed with which the Soviets were able to stage their first nuclear test, "Joe 1." It was then discovered in January 1950 that a German refugee theoretical physicist working for the British mission in the Manhattan Project, Klaus Fuchs, gave key documents to the Russians throughout the war. Through Fuchs' confession, U.S. and United Kingdom intelligence agents were able to make a case against his "courier," Harry Gold, who was arrested on May 23, 1950. A former machinist at Los Alamos, Sergeant David Greenglass confessed to having passed secret information on to the USSR through Gold as well. Though he initially denied any involvement by his sister, Ethel Rosenberg, he claimed that her husband, Julius, had convinced his wife to recruit him while on a visit to him in Albuquerque, New Mexico in 1944 and that Julius had also passed secrets. Another accused conspirator, Morton Sobell, was on vacation in Mexico City when both Rosenbergs were arrested. According to his story published in On Doing Time, he tried to figure out a way to reach Europe without a passport but ultimately abandoned that effort and was back in Mexico City when he was kidnapped by members of the Mexican secret police and driven to the U.S. border where he was arrested. The government claimed he had been deported, but in 1956 the Mexican government officially declared that he had never been deported. Regardless of how he was returned to the U.S., he was arrested and stood trial with the Rosenbergs on one count of conspiracy to commit espionage. Occident redirects here. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... External links http://gawain. ... Theoretical physics attempts to understand the world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, predicting physical phenomena through a physical theory. There are three types of theories in physics; mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ... Harry Gold Harry Gold (b. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A machinist is a craftsman who uses machine tools to make parts or alter parts by cutting away excess material. ... David Greenglass (b. ... Albuquerque redirects here. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Morton Sobell (born April 11, 1917 in New York City) was an American engineer who worked for General Electric and Reeves Electronics on military and government contracts. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... The United Mexican States are a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the president of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party electoral system. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Trial and conviction

Police photograph of Julius Rosenberg after his arrest.
Police photograph of Julius Rosenberg after his arrest.
Mugshot of Ethel Rosenberg.
Mugshot of Ethel Rosenberg.

The trial of the Rosenbergs and Sobell began on March 6, 1951. The prosecution's primary witness, David Greenglass, stated that his sister Ethel typed notes containing U.S. nuclear secrets in the Rosenberg apartment in September 1945. He also asserted that a sketch he made of a cross-section of the implosion-type atom bomb (the one dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, as opposed to the "gun method" triggering device that was in the one dropped on Hiroshima) was also turned over to Julius Rosenberg at that meeting. Image File history File links Julius_Rosenberg_mugshot. ... Image File history File links Julius_Rosenberg_mugshot. ... Image File history File links Ethel_Rosenberg_mugshot. ... Image File history File links Ethel_Rosenberg_mugshot. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Greenglass (b. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ...


From the beginning, the trial attracted a high amount of media attention, like the trial of Alger Hiss. Aside from the Rosenbergs' own defense during the trial, there was not one single public expression of doubt as to their guilt in any media (even the left-wing and Communist press) before and during the trial. The first break in the media unanimity would not occur until August of 1951 when a series of articles ran in the left-wing newspaper The National Guardian. Only after the publication of those articles was a defense committee formed. Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ... Left wing redirects here. ...


However, between the trial and the executions there were widespread protests and claims of anti-Semitism. For example Nobel Prize winner Jean-Paul Sartre called the case "a legal lynching which smears with blood a whole nation. By killing the Rosenbergs, you have quite simply tried to halt the progress of science by human sacrifice. Magic, witch-hunts, auto-da-fés, sacrifices — we are here getting to the point: your country is sick with fear... you are afraid of the shadow of your own bomb."[6] Others, including non-Communists such as Albert Einstein and Nobel-Prize-winning atomic scientist and Chemist Harold Urey,[citation needed] as well as Communists or left-leaning artists such as Nelson Algren, Dashiell Hammett, Jean Cocteau, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, protested the position of the American government in what some termed America's Dreyfus Affair. Pablo Picasso wrote for a French magazine, "The hours count. The minutes count. Do not let this crime against humanity take place."[7] Pope Pius XII also condemned the execution.[8] The all-Black International Longshoremen’s Association Local 968 stopped working for a day in protest.[9] Cinema artists including Fritz Lang and Bertolt Brecht registered their protest.[10] Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Harold Urey, circa 1963. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957, born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez in Guanajuato, Gto. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of Expressionism. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ...


Although the notes allegedly typed by Ethel apparently contained little that was relevant to the Soviet atomic bomb project, this was sufficient evidence for the jury to convict on the conspiracy to commit espionage charge.


It is believed that part of the reason Ethel was indicted along with Julius was so that the prosecution could use her as a 'lever' to pressure Julius into giving up the names of others who were involved.[11] If that was the case, it did not work. On the witness stand, Julius asserted his right under the U.S. Constitution's Fifth Amendment to not incriminate himself whenever asked about his involvement in the Communist Party or with its members. Ethel did similarly. Neither defendant was viewed sympathetically by the jury. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Amendment V (the Fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


The role played by Assistant U.S. Attorney Roy Cohn, the prosecutor in the case, is controversial, since Cohn stated in his autobiography that he influenced the selection of the judge, and pushed him to impose the death penalty on both Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. ... Roy Marcus Cohn (February 20, 1927 – August 2, 1986) was an American lawyer who came to prominence during the investigations by Senator Joseph McCarthy into Communism in the government and especially during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. ...


The Rosenbergs were convicted on March 29, 1951, and on April 5 were sentenced to death by Judge Irving Kaufman under Section 2 of the 1917 Espionage Act, 50 U.S. Code 32 (now 18 U.S. Code 794), which prohibits transmitting or attempting to transmit to a foreign government information "relating to the national defense." The conviction helped to fuel Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigations into anti-American activities by U.S. citizens. While their devotion to the Communist cause was well documented, the Rosenbergs denied the espionage charges even as they faced the electric chair. is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Irving Robert Kaufman (June 24, 1910 - February 1, 1992) was a federal judge in the United States. ... The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, on June 15, 1917, which made it a crime for a person to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ...


The couple were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War. In imposing the death penalty, Judge Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War: For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...

I consider your crime worse than murder...I believe your conduct in putting into the hands of the Russians the A-Bomb years before our best scientists predicted Russia would perfect the bomb has already caused, in my opinion, the Communist aggression in Korea, with the resultant casualties exceeding 50,000 and who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason. Indeed, by your betrayal you undoubtedly have altered the course of history to the disadvantage of our country. No one can say that we do not live in a constant state of tension. We have evidence of your treachery all around us every day for the civilian defense activities throughout the nation are aimed at preparing us for an atom bomb attack.[12]

Their case has been at the center of the controversy over communism in the United States ever since, with supporters steadfastly maintaining that their conviction was an egregious example of persecution typical of the "hysteria" of those times (see McCarthyism) and likening it to the witch hunts that marred Salem and medieval Europe (a comparison that provided the inspiration for Arthur Miller's critically acclaimed play, The Crucible). There is also a quotation by Ethel and Julius Rosenberg saying "We are the first victims of American fascism". This article is about the Korean civilization. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... For the 1996 film, see The Crucible (1996 film). ...


After the publication of the series in The National Guardian and the formation of the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, some Americans came to believe both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grassroots campaign was started to try to stop the couple's execution. Pope Pius XII appealed to President Dwight D. Eisenhower to spare the couple,[13] but he refused on February 11, 1953, and all other appeals were also unsuccessful.[2] A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a political movement) is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Execution

The couple were executed at sundown in the electric chair at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953. This was delayed from the originally scheduled date of June 18 because, on June 17, Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas had granted a stay of execution. That stay resulted from the intervention in the case of Fyke Farmer, a Tennessee lawyer whose efforts had previously met with scorn from the Rosenbergs' attorney.[14] The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... Alternative meaning: Sing Sing (band) Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a prison in Ossining, New York. ... Ossining is a town located in Westchester County, New York. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Associate Justice or Puisne (pronounced puny) Justice is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice. ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... A stay of execution is a court order to temporarily suspend the execution of a court judgement. ...


On June 18, the Court was called back into special session to dispose of Douglas' stay rather than let the execution be delayed for months while the appeal that was the basis of the stay wended its way through the lower courts. The Court did not vacate Douglas's stay until noon on June 19. Thus, the execution then was scheduled for later in the evening after the start of the Jewish Sabbath. Desperately playing for more time, their lawyer, Emanuel Bloch, filed a complaint that this offended their Jewish heritage — so the execution was scheduled before sunset. Reports of the execution state that Julius died after the first application of electricity, but Ethel did not succumb immediately and was subjected to two more electrical charges before being pronounced dead. The chair was designed for a man of average size; and Ethel Rosenberg was a petite woman: this discrepancy resulted, it is claimed, in the electrodes fitting poorly and making poor electrical contact. Eyewitness testimony (as given by a newsreel report featured in the 1982 documentary film The Atomic Cafe) describes smoke rising from her head. For other uses, see Sabbath. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... Eyewitness may refer to the following: For the court system type of eye witness, witness For the TV show, Eyewitness (TV) For the movie, Eyewitness (film) For the nonfiction book series, Eyewitness (books) For Royal Hunts album, Eyewitness (album) For the WW1 writer pseudonym, see Ernest Dunlop Swinton For... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... The Atomic Café is an acclaimed documentary film created from a broad range of archival of film from the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s - including newsreel clips, television news footage, U.S. government-produced films (including military training films), advertisements, television and radio programs. ...


Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are buried at Wellwood Cemetery in Pinelawn (Suffolk County), New York. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ...


The Rosenbergs' children

The Rosenbergs' two sons, Robert and Michael, were orphaned by the executions, and no relatives dared adopt them for fear of ostracism or worse. They were finally adopted by the songwriter Abel Meeropol and his wife Anne, and they assumed the Meeropol surname. Abel Meeropol (under the pen name of Lewis Allan) wrote the classic anti-lynching anthem "Strange Fruit", made famous by singer Billie Holiday. Robert and Michael co-wrote a book about the experience, We are Your Sons: The Legacy of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (1975), and Robert wrote another book in 2004, An Execution in the Family: One Son's Journey. In 1990, Robert founded the Rosenberg Fund for Children, a non-profit foundation that provides support for children whose parents are leftist activists involved in court cases. Robert Meeropol (b. ... Michael Meeropol (born 1943) is the oldest son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. ... Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ... The American writer Abel Meeropol (1903 - 1986) is best known under his pseudonym Lewis Allan, under which he wrote the anti-lynching song Strange Fruit, famously performed by Billie Holiday. ... For other uses, see Strange Fruit (disambiguation). ... Billie Holiday (born Eleanora Fagan; April 7, 1915 – July 17, 1959) was an American jazz singer and songwriter. ... The Rosenberg Fund for Children, founded in 1990 by Robert Meeropol and named in honor of his parents Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, the only two United States civilians to be executed for conspiracy to commit espionage during the Cold War. ... Left wing redirects here. ...


Michael's daughter, Ivy Meeropol, directed a 2004 documentary about her grandparents, Heir to an Execution, which was featured at the Sundance Film Festival. Ivy Meeropol (1968 - ) is the producer and director of the 2004 documentary Heir to an Execution. ... The Sundance Film Festival is a film festival in the state of Utah in the United States. ...


The E. L. Doctorow novel, The Book of Daniel, is based on the Rosenberg case as seen through the eyes of the (fictionalised) son. It inspired the Sidney Lumet film, Daniel, starring Timothy Hutton. E.L. Doctorow, photograph by Jill Krementz, from back cover of Doctorows 1975 novel Ragtime Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (born January 6, 1931, New York, New York) is the author of several critically acclaimed novels that blend history and social criticism. ... The Book of Daniel (1971) is semi-historical novel by E. L. Doctorow, loosely based on the trial and execution of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. ... Portrait of Sidney Lumet, May 7, 1939. ... Daniel is a 1983 film which was adapted by E. L. Doctorow from his novel The Book of Daniel. ... Image:Timhut. ...


Further bibliography detail

  • Feklisov, Aleksandr, and Kostin, Sergei, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs, Enigma Books (2001) 978-929631-24-7
  • Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth, Henry Holt (1983), hardcover, ISBN 0-03-049036-7
  • Robert and Michael Meeropol, "We Are Your Sons, The Legacy of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg," Second Edition, University of Illinois Press, 1986. [chapter 15 is a detailed refutation of Radosh and Milton's scholarship], hardcover ISBN 0-252-01263-1
  • Robert Meeropol, "An Execution in the Family," St. Martin's Press, 2003.
  • Tema Nason, Ethel: The Fictional Autobiography of Ethel Rosenberg (originally published by Delacourt, 1990, ISBN 0-440-21110-7, paperback by Dell, 1991, same ISBN, and by Syracuse, 2002, ISBN 0-8156-0745-8), a fictional account of Ethel's life and intuitively included things that came out in later accounts.
  • John Wexley The Judgment of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Illustrated Section in appendix at back of book. Text in English.[15]

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rosenberg trial

Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was the presumed assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Atom Spies, is a term referring to people in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada who are thought to have illicitly given information about nuclear weapons production or design to the Soviet Union during World War II and the early Cold War. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ New York Times, "KGB Agent Plays Down Atomic Role of Rosenbergs" (March 16, 1997).
  3. ^ a b c Feklisov, Aleksandr; Kostin, Sergei (2001). The Man Behind the Rosenbergs. Enigma books. ISBN 1-929631-08-1. 
  4. ^ Feklisov, Aleksandr; Kostin, Sergei (2001). The Man Behind the Rosenbergs. Enigma books, 140-147. ISBN 1-929631-08-1. 
  5. ^ See Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstell, Bombshell, Times Books, 1997 (ISBN 0-8129-2861-X) with reference to Theodore Alvin Hall and Saville Sax and their motives.
  6. ^ Schneir, Invitation to an Inquest, p. 254
  7. ^ L’Humanité may 1951
  8. ^ Ellen Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1998), p.137
  9. ^ "Unions throughout U.S. joining in plea to save the Rosenbergs," Daily Worker, January 15, 1953.
  10. ^ Malcolm P. Sharp; Was Justice Done? The Rosenberg-Sobell Case; with an introduction by Harold Urey p. 132 Copyright 1954 MReview Press; Library of Congress#56-10953
  11. ^ Roberts, Sam (2001). The Brother: The Untold Story of the Rosenberge Case. Random House, 425-426,432. ISBN 0-375-76124-1. 
  12. ^ Judge Kaufman's Statement Upon Sentencing the Rosenbergs on the site of the University of Kansas City-Missouri School of Law. Accessed 28 September 2006.
  13. ^ Press, Associated. "50 years later, Rosenberg execution is still fresh", USAtoday.com, Gannett Co Inc, 2003-06-17. Retrieved on 2008-01-08. 
  14. ^ E. Thomas Wood, "Nashville now and then: A lawyer's last gamble", 2007-06-17. Retrieved on 2007-08-08. 
  15. ^ Published by Bookville London by arrangement with Cameron Associates New York in 1956 with no ISBN

11. Stanley Yalkowsky, "The murder of the Rosenbergs" Crucible Publications (July 1990) ISBN 978-0962098420 Theodore Halls ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... E. Thomas Wood (born October 9, 1963) is an American journalist, historian, and freelance writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Executed at Sundown, 50 Years Ago; New York Times

External links

Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ... Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikinfo | Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (1050 words)
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were American Communists who captured and maintained world attention after being accused and convicted of spying for the Soviet Union.
Ethel Rosenberg was born on September 28, 1915 in New York.
Julius Rosenberg's main KGB contact was Alexander Feklisov, who met Julius on over 50 occasions over a three year period beginning in 1943.
Rosenbergs Trial: An Account of the Trial with links. (3188 words)
The primary interest of the FBI in Ethel Rosenberg in July of 1950, lay in the possibility of threatening her with prosecution as a means of convincing Julius to talk.
Ethel was imprisoned immediately, denied even the opportunity to return home to arrange care for her two sons, who had been spending the afternoon with a neighbor.
Julius Rosenberg testified as to his modest lifestyle, inconsistent-- it was suggested by the defense-- with the rewards one would expect a world class spy to have received.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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