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Encyclopedia > Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar
Dictator of the Roman Republic
Bust of Julius Caesar.
Reign October, 49 BCMarch 15, 44 BC
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar
Born 12 July 100 BC - 102 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died 15 March 44 BC (aged 57)
Rome, Roman Republic
Predecessor Lucius Cornelius Sulla (as Dictator of the Roman Republic)
Successor Augustus (as Roman Emperor)
Consort 1) Cornelia Cinna minor 84 BC68 BC
2) Pompeia Sulla 68 BC63 BC
3) Calpurnia Pisonis 59 BC44 BC
Issue Julia Caesaris
Royal House Julio-Claudian
Father Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder
Mother Aurelia Cotta

Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation [ˈgaːius ˈjuːlius ˈkaɪsar]; English pronunciation [ˈgaɪəs ˈdʒuːliəs ˈsiːzəɹ]; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BCMarch 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men of classical antiquity. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 331 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1450 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Büste des Gaius Iulius Caesar Beschreibung: Die Büste von Gaius Julius Caesar im Archäologischen Nationalmuseum, Napoli Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra im... Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC - 102 BC - 101 BC 100 BC... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Cornelia Cinna minor (94 BC[citation needed] – 69 BC[1] or 68 BC[2]), daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, one of the great leaders of the Marian party, was married to Gaius Julius Caesar, who would become one of Romes greatest conquerors and its dictator. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65... Pompeia Sulla (fl. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Calpurnia Pisonis (1st century BC), daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Julia Caesaris (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS) was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar the dictator, by Cornelia Cinna, and his only child in marriage. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder (135 BC – 85 BC), also called Gaius Julius Caesar III and Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, was a Roman politician, supporter and brother-in-law of Gaius Marius, and father of Julius Caesar, Dictator of Rome. ... Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (120 BC-54 BC) was the mother of Julius Caesar. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC - 102 BC - 101 BC 100 BC... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


A politician of the populares tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus which dominated Roman politics for several years, but was fiercely opposed by optimates like Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, and he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC; the collapse of the triumvirate, however, led to a stand-off with Pompey and the Senate. Leading his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he became the undisputed master of the Roman world. Populares (Favoring the people, singular popularis) were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the peoples assemblies in an effort to break the stranglehold of the nobiles and optimates on political power. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Combatants Roman Republic and Trinovantes Britons Commanders Julius Caesar, Commius, Trebonius, Mandubracius Cassivellaunus, Cingetorix, Segovax, Carvilius, Taximagulus Strength 56 - Around 10,000 legionary troops (Legio VII, Legio X), unknown numbers of cavalry forces and transports. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction, Roman senate, the Optimates faction, Commanders Julius Caesar Pompey†, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius† Sextus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman... Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior. ...


After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He was proclaimed dictator for life, and he heavily centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic. These events provoked a hitherto friend of Caesar, Marcus Junius Brutus, and a group of other senators, to assassinate the dictator on the Ides of March (March 15) in 44 BC. The assassins hoped to restore the normal running of the Republic, but they provoked another Roman civil war, which led eventually to the establishment of the autocratic Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Roman Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...


Much of Caesar's life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus. Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... Appian (c. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

Contents

Life

Early life

Julius Cæsar.
Julius Cæsar.

Caesar was born in 100 BC - 102 BC into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus.[2] The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarian section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesum).[3] The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle.[4] Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favoured this interpretation of his name.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... Julius (fem. ... In Greek and Roman mythology, Ascanius was a son of Aeneas and Creusa. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), is a surgical incision through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more fetuses. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ...


Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, having produced only three consuls. Caesar's father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, reached the rank of praetor, the second highest of the Republic's elected magistracies, and governed the province of Asia, perhaps through the influence of his prominent brother-in-law Gaius Marius.[6] His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family which had produced several consuls. Marcus Antonius Gnipho, an orator and grammarian of Gaulish origin, was employed as Caesar's tutor.[7] Caesar had two sisters, both called Julia. Little else is recorded of Caesar's childhood. Suetonius and Plutarch's biographies of him both begin abruptly in Caesar's teens; the opening paragraphs of both appear to be lost.[8] This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder (135 BC – 85 BC), also called Gaius Julius Caesar III and Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, was a Roman politician, supporter and brother-in-law of Gaius Marius, and father of Julius Caesar, Dictator of Rome. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul who was an ex-consul, an honor granted only to Asia and the other rich province of Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (120 BC-54 BC) was the mother of Julius Caesar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Julia is the name of two daughters of Gaius Julius Caesar III and Aurelia Cotta, who were also the parents of Julius Caesar. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Caesar's formative years were a time of turmoil. The Social War was fought from 91 to 88 BC between Rome and her Italian allies over the issue of Roman citizenship, while Mithridates of Pontus threatened Rome's eastern provinces. Domestically, Roman politics was divided between two broad factions, the optimates, who favoured aristocratic rule via the Senate, and the populares, who preferred to appeal directly to the electorate. Caesar's uncle Marius was a popularis; Marius' protégé and rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla was an optimas. Both Marius and Sulla distinguished themselves in the Social War, and both wanted command of the war against Mithridates, which was initially given to Sulla; but when Sulla left the city to take command of his army, a tribune passed a law transferring the appointment to Marius. Sulla responded by marching on Rome, reclaiming his command and forcing Marius into exile, but when he left on campaign Marius returned at the head of a makeshift army. He and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna seized the city and declared Sulla a public enemy, and Marius's troops took violent revenge on Sulla's supporters. Marius died early in 86 BC, but his faction remained in power.[9] Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Populares (Favoring the people, singular popularis) were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the peoples assemblies in an effort to break the stranglehold of the nobiles and optimates on political power. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Lucius Cornelius Cinna[1] (d. ...


In 85 BC Caesar's father died suddenly while putting on his shoes one morning,[10] and at sixteen, Caesar was the head of the family. The following year he was nominated to be the new Flamen Dialis, high priest of Jupiter, as Merula, the previous incumbent, had died in Marius's purges.[11] Since the holder of that position not only had to be a patrician but also be married to a patrician, he broke off his engagement to Cossutia, a girl of wealthy equestrian family he had been betrothed to since boyhood, and married Cinna's daughter Cornelia.[12] The Flamen Dialis was an important position in Roman religion. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Lucius Cornelius Merula (d. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... Cornelia Cinna minor (94 BC[citation needed] – 69 BC[1] or 68 BC[2]), daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, one of the great leaders of the Marian party, was married to Gaius Julius Caesar, who would become one of Romes greatest conquerors and its dictator. ...


Then, having brought Mithridates to terms, Sulla returned to finish the civil war against Marius' followers. After a campaign throughout Italy he seized Rome at the Battle of the Colline Gate in November 82 BC and had himself appointed to the revived office of dictator; but whereas a dictator was traditionally appointed for six months at a time, Sulla's appointment had no term limit. Statues of Marius were destroyed and Marius' body was exhumed and thrown in the Tiber. Cinna was already dead, killed by his own soldiers in a mutiny.[13] Sulla's proscriptions saw hundreds of his political enemies killed or exiled. Caesar, as the nephew of Marius and son-in-law of Cinna, was targeted. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry and his priesthood, but refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar.[8] The battle of the Colline Gate, fought in November of 82 BC, was the final battle of the civil war between the peoples party of ancient Rome (originally led by Marius) and the aristocrats led by Sulla. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... A vestal Virgin, engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, ca 1890: Leightons artistic sense has won over his passion for historical accuracy in showing the veil over the Vestals head at sacrifices, the suffibulum, as translucent, instead of fine white wool In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins were the...


Early career

Rather than returning to Rome, Caesar joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia. He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the siege of Mytilene. On a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes's fleet, he spent so long at his court that rumours of an affair with the king arose, which would persist for the rest of his life.[14] Ironically, the loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career: the Flamen Dialis was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army.[15] Marcus Minucius Thermus was Propraetor of Asia in 80 BC. Julius Caesars first assignment was to the office of this man. ... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul who was an ex-consul, an honor granted only to Asia and the other rich province of Africa. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini, is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Lesbos but the modern name is Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Nicomedes IV, known as Philopator, was the king of Bithynia, from c. ...


In 80 BC, after two years in office, Sulla resigned his dictatorship, re-established consular government and, after serving as consul, retired to private life.[16] Caesar later ridiculed Sulla's relinquishing of the dictatorship—"Sulla did not know his political ABC's".[17] He died two years later in 78 BC and was accorded a state funeral.[18] Hearing of Sulla's death, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. Lacking means since his inheritance was confiscated, he acquired a modest house in the Subura, a lower class neighborhood of Rome.[19] His return coincided with an attempted anti-Sullan coup by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, but Caesar, lacking confidence in Lepidus's leadership, did not participate.[20] Instead he turned to legal advocacy. He became known for his exceptional oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. Even Cicero praised him: "Come now, what orator would you rank above him...?"[21] Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar travelled to Rhodes in 75 BC to study under Apollonius Molon, who had previously taught Cicero.[22] Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... The Suburra is the modern Italian name for a neighborhood of Rome; in Antiquity, the word was usually spelled Subura, and was a red-light district. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120-77 BC), was a Roman statesman. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος Rhódhos; Italian Rodi; [[Ladino language| ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, situated in eastern Aegean Sea. ... Apollonius Molon (sometimes called simply Molon), Greek rhetorician, who flourished about 70 BC. He was a native of Alabanda, a pupil of Menecles, and settled at Rhodes. ...


On the way across the Aegean Sea,[23] Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa.[24] He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents of gold, he insisted they ask for fifty. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them in Pergamon. The governor of Asia refused to execute them as Caesar demanded, preferring to sell them as slaves, but Caesar returned to the coast and had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised to when in captivity – a promise the pirates had taken as a joke. He then proceeded to Rhodes, but was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from Pontus. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... Farmakos is a small Greek island about 17 nautical miles from Leros. ... A talent is an ancient unit of mass. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul who was an ex-consul, an honor granted only to Asia and the other rich province of Africa. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ...


On his return to Rome he was elected military tribune, a first step on the cursus honorum of Roman politics. The war against Spartacus took place around this time (73 - 71 BC), but it is not recorded what role, if any, Caesar played in it. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC, and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia, widow of Marius, and included images of Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession. His own wife Cornelia also died that year. After her funeral Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Hispania under Antistius Vetus. While there he is said to have encountered a statue of Alexander the Great, and realised with dissatisfaction he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. He requested, and was granted, an early discharge from his duties, and returned to Roman politics. On his return he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla.[25] He was elected aedile and restored the trophies of Marius's victories; a controversial move given the Sullan regime was still in place. He also brought prosecutions against men who had benefited from Sulla's proscriptions, and spent a great deal of borrowed money on public works and games, outshining his colleague Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. He was also suspected of involvement in two abortive coup attempts.[26] Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honour) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830 Spartacus (ca. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Pompeia Sulla (fl. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d. ...


Caesar comes to prominence

63 BC was an eventful year for Caesar. He persuaded a tribune, Titus Labienus, to prosecute the optimate senator Gaius Rabirius for the political murder, 37 years previously, of the tribune Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, and had himself appointed as one of the two judges to try the case. Rabirius was defended by both Cicero and Quintus Hortensius, but was convicted of perduellio (treason). While he was exercising his right of appeal to the people, the praetor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer adjourned the assembly by taking down the military flag from the Janiculum hill. Labienus could have resumed the prosecution at a later session, but did not do so: Caesar's point had been made, and the matter was allowed to drop.[27] Labienus would remain an important ally of Caesar over the next decade. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2736 × 3648 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2736 × 3648 pixel, file size: 2. ... Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresien-Platz, Vienna. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Titus Labienus (ca. ... There is also Gaius Rabirius (poet) Gaius Rabirius was a senator who was involved in the death of Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. ... Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, Roman demagogue. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Quintus Hortensius (114 - 50 BC), surnamed Hortalus, was a Roman orator and advocate. ... In Roman law, perduellio was roughly equivalent to high treason. ... The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ...


The same year, Caesar ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the Roman state religion, after the death of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had been appointed to the post by Sulla. He ran against two powerful optimates, the former consuls Quintus Lutatius Catulus and Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. There were accusations of bribery by all sides. Caesar is said to have told his mother on the morning of the election that he would return as Pontifex Maximus or not at all, expecting to be forced into exile by the enormous debts he had run up to fund his campaign. In the event he won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing.[28] The post came with an official residence on the Via Sacra.[19] Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ... Quintus Lutatius Catulus Caesar was a Roman general and was consul with Marius in 102 BC. He was originally Sextus Julius Caesar, son of Sextus Julius Caesar (brother of Gaius Julius Caesar, who was father of Gaius Julius Caesar, who was in turn father of Julius Caesar) and brother of... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Via Sacra (Latin: Sacred Road) is the main street of ancient Rome, leading from the top of the Capitoline Hill, through some of the most important religious sites of the Forum (where it is the widest street), to the Colosseum. ...


When Cicero, who was consul that year, exposed Catiline's conspiracy to seize control of the republic, Catulus and others accused Caesar of involvement in the plot.[29] Caesar, who had been elected praetor for the following year, took part in the debate in the Senate on how to deal with the conspirators. During the debate, Caesar was passed a note. Marcus Porcius Cato, who would become his most implacable political opponent, accused him of corresponding with the conspirators, and demanded that the message be read aloud. Caesar passed him the note, which, embarrassingly, turned out to be a love letter from Cato's half-sister Servilia. Caesar argued persuasively against the death penalty for the conspirators, proposing life imprisonment instead, but a speech by Cato proved decisive, and the conspirators were executed.[30] The following year a commission was set up to investigate the conspiracy, and Caesar was again accused of complicity. On Cicero's evidence that he had reported what he knew of the plot voluntarily, however, he was cleared, and one of his accusers, and also one of the commissioners, were sent to prison.[31] Lucius Sergius Catilina (110 BC?–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Servilia Caepionis (b. ...


While praetor in 62 BC, Caesar supported Metellus Celer, now tribune, in proposing controversial legislation, and the pair were so obstinate they were suspended from office by the Senate. Caesar attempted to continue to perform his duties, only giving way when violence was threatened. The Senate was persuaded to reinstate him after he quelled public demonstrations in his favour.[32]


That year the festival of the Bona Dea ("good goddess") was held at Caesar's house. No men were permitted to attend, but a young patrician named Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to gain admittance disguised as a woman, apparently for the purpose of seducing Caesar's wife Pompeia. He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, careful not to offend one of the most powerful patrician families of Rome, and Clodius was acquitted after rampant bribery and intimidation. Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "my wife ought not even to be under suspicion."[33] In Roman mythology, Bona Dea (the good goddess) was a goddess of fertility, healing, virginity and women. ... Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC, died January 18, 52 BC), was a Roman politician, chiefly remembered for his feuds with Titus Annius Milo and Marcus Tullius Cicero and introducing the grain dole. ... Pompeia Sulla (fl. ...


After his praetorship, Caesar was appointed to govern Hispania Ulterior (Outer Iberia), but he was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of Rome's richest men. In return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey, Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others. Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Hispania he conquered the Callaici and Lusitani, being hailed as imperator by his troops, reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem.[34] During the Roman Republic, Hispania Ulterior was a region of Hispania roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... The Callaici or callaeci were a single or various tribes living in the North of Douro River in Northern Portugal and Galicia (Spain). ... The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe, or various tribes, from the western Iberian peninsula (province of Lusitania), who spoke a Lusitanian language until the conquest of their territory by the Romans. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ...


Being hailed as imperator entitled Caesar to a triumph. However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen. He could not do both in the time available. He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia, but Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship.[35] A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


First consulship and first triumvirate

The election was dirty. Caesar canvassed Cicero for support, and made an alliance with the wealthy Lucceius, but the establishment threw its financial weight behind the conservative Bibulus, and even Cato, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in his favour. Caesar and Bibulus were elected as consuls for 59 BC.[36]


Caesar was already in Crassus's political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey, who was unsuccessfully fighting the Senate for ratification of his eastern settlements and farmland for his veterans. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds since they were consuls together in 70 BC, and Caesar knew if he allied himself with one he would lose the support of the other, so he endeavoured to reconcile them. Between the three of them, they had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate (rule of three men), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia.[37] Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, who was elected to the consulship for the following year.[38] Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Julia Caesaris (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS) was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar the dictator, by Cornelia Cinna, and his only child in marriage. ... Calpurnia Pisonis (1st century BC), daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar. ... Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus was a statesman of ancient Rome and the father-in-law of Gaius Julius Caesar. ...


Caesar proposed a law for the redistribution of public lands to the poor, a proposal supported by Pompey, by force of arms if need be, and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, and the triumvirate's opponents were intimidated. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters. His lictors had their fasces broken, two tribunes accompanying him were wounded, and Bibulus himself had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts to obstruct Caesar's legislation proved ineffective. Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar".[39] The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Roman fasces. ...


When Caesar and Bibulus were first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit Caesar's future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than governorship of a province, as their proconsular duties after their year of office was over.[40] With the help of Piso and Pompey, Caesar later had this overturned, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) and Illyricum (the western Balkans), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions. His term of office, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one.[41] When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province.[42] Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Transalpine Gaul was a Roman province whose name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. ...


Conquest of Gaul

Main article: Gallic Wars
Roman silver Denarius with the head of captive Gaul 48 BC, following the campaigns of Caesar.
Roman silver Denarius with the head of captive Gaul 48 BC, following the campaigns of Caesar.

Caesar was still deeply in debt, and there was money to be made as a provincial governor, whether by extortion[43] or by military adventurism. Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces, Illyricum and Gallia Narbonensis, bordered on unconquered territory, and independent Gaul was known to be unstable. Rome's allies the Aedui had been defeated by their Gallic rivals, with the help of a contingent of Germanic Suebi under Ariovistus, who had settled in conquered Aeduan land, and the Helvetii were mobilising for a mass migration, which the Romans feared had warlike intent. Caesar raised two new legions and defeated first the Helvetii, then Ariovistus, and left his army in winter quarters in the territory of the Sequani, signaling that his interest in the lands outside Gallia Narbonensis would not be temporary.[44] Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 618 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (743 × 721 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 618 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (743 × 721 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... First row : c. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Aedui tribe. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ariovistus was king of the germanic tribe of the Suebis, as described in Julius Caesars The Gallic Wars. ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ...


He began his second year with double the military strength he had begun with, having raised another two legions in Cisalpine Gaul during the winter. The legality of this was dubious, as the Cisalpine Gauls were not Roman citizens. In response to Caesar's activities the previous year, the Belgic tribes of north-eastern Gaul had begun to arm themselves. Caesar treated this as an aggressive move, and, after an inconclusive engagement against a united Belgic army, conquered the tribes piecemeal. Meanwhile, one legion, commanded by Crassus' son Publius, began the conquest of the tribes of the Armorican peninsula.[45] The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ...


During the spring of 56 BC the Triumvirate held a conference at Luca (modern Lucca) in Cisalpine Gaul. Rome was in turmoil, and Clodius' populist campaigns had been undermining relations between Crassus and Pompey. The meeting renewed the Triumvirate and extended Caesar's proconsulship for another five years. Crassus and Pompey would be consuls again, with similarly long-term proconsulships to follow: Syria for Crassus, the Hispanian provinces for Pompey.[46] The conquest of Armorica was completed when Caesar defeated the Veneti in a naval battle, while young Crassus conquered the Aquitani of the south-west. By the end of campaigning in 56 BC only the Morini and Menapii of the coastal Low Countries still held out.[47] Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ... Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC, died January 18, 52 BC), was a Roman politician, chiefly remembered for his feuds with Titus Annius Milo and Marcus Tullius Cicero and introducing the grain dole. ... The Veneti were a seafaring people who lived in what is now Brittany, France. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... Morini was a tribe of gauls-page not finished Categories: Articles to be expanded | Gauls ... The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul in the 1st century BC, dwelling around the Rhine estuary, and extending inland towards the Ardennes. ...


In 55 BC Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge. Late that summer, having subdued the Morini and Menapii, he crossed to Britain, claiming that the Britons had aided the Veneti against him the previous year. His intelligence was poor, and although he gained a beachhead on the Kent coast he was unable to advance further, and returned to Gaul for the winter.[48] He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more. He advanced inland, establishing Mandubracius of the Trinovantes as a friendly king and bringing his rival, Cassivellaunus, to terms. But poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, led by Ambiorix of the Eburones, forcing Caesar to campaign through the winter and into the following year. With the defeat of Ambiorix, Caesar believed Gaul was now pacified.[49] The Usipetes were a Germanic tribe that existed during the 1st century. ... The Tencteri were a small Germanic tribe located on the eastern bank of the Rhine river. ... Mandubracius or Mandubratius was a king of the Trinovantes of south-eastern Britain in the 1st century BC. // Mandubracius was the son of a Trinovantian king, named Imanuentius in some manuscripts of Julius Caesars De Bello Gallico, who was overthrown and killed by the warlord Cassivellaunus some time before... The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic tribes that lived in pre-Roman Britain. ... Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesars second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He also appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouths kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli... Statue of Ambiorix in Tongeren. ... The Eburones were a Belgic tribe based of north-eastern Gaul in the 1st century BC. Julius Caesar describes them as being of Germanic origin. ...


While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth. Caesar tried to resecure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece Octavia in marriage, alienating Octavia's husband Gaius Marcellus, but Pompey declined. In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of Parthia. Rome was on the edge of violence. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married Cornelia, daughter of Caesar's political opponent Quintus Metellus Scipio, whom he invited to become his consular colleague once order was restored. The Triumvirate was dead.[50] Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... See Gaius Claudius Marcellus for other men of this name, or Gaius Claudius Marcellus Major for his cousin, consul of 49 BC. Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, Roman consul in 50 BC, husband of Octavia Minor, and friend of Cicero. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Cornelia Metella (1st century BC) is one of the few Roman women cited by ancient sources. ...

Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar.

In 52 BC another, larger revolt erupted in Gaul, led by Vercingetorix of the Arverni. Vercingetorix managed to unite the Gallic tribes and proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar in several engagements including the Battle of Gergovia, but Caesar's elaborate siege-works at the Battle of Alesia finally forced his surrender.[51] Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year,[52] Gaul was effectively conquered. Image File history File links Vercingetorix_caesar. ... Image File history File links Vercingetorix_caesar. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Arverni tribe. ... The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC at Gergovia (modern Gergovie), the chief town of the Arverni, situated on a hill in Auvergne, about eight miles from the Puy de Dome, France. ... Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ...


Titus Labienus was Caesar's most senior legate during his Gallic campaigns, having the status of propraetor.[53] Other prominent men who served under him included his relative Lucius Julius Caesar, [54] Crassus' sons Marcus[55] and Publius,[56] Cicero's brother Quintus,[57] Decimus Brutus,[58] and Mark Antony.[59] Titus Labienus (ca. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... In Ancient Rome, several men of the Julii Caesares family were named Lucius Julius Caesar. ... Quintus Tullius Cicero was the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero. ... Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ...


Civil war

Main article: Caesar's civil war
An engraving depicting Gaius Julius Caesar.
An engraving depicting Gaius Julius Caesar.

In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to return to Rome and disband his army because his term as Proconsul had finished. Moreover, the Senate forbade Caesar to stand for a second consulship in absentia. Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and politically marginalised if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a Consul or without the power of his army. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. On January 10, 49 BC Caesar crossed the Rubicon (the frontier boundary of Italy) with only one legion and ignited civil war. Upon crossing the Rubicon, Caesar is reported to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander, saying alea iacta est. This is normally rendered as "The die is cast (ie the dice have been thrown)", however, this is something of a misinterpretation. Caesar, a lifelong gambler, was rather saying "the die must be thrown", as in, in order to start the game you have to roll the dice.[citation needed] Combatants Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction, Roman senate, the Optimates faction, Commanders Julius Caesar Pompey†, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius† Sextus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman... Gaius Julius Caesar This work is copyrighted. ... Gaius Julius Caesar This work is copyrighted. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... Sestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. ... Combatants Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction, Roman senate, the Optimates faction, Commanders Julius Caesar Pompey†, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius† Sextus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ... Alea iacta est (also seen as alea jacta est) is Latin for The die has been cast. Actually quoted by Suetonius as iacta alea est [ˈjakta ˈaːlɛa ɛst], it is what Julius Caesar is reported to have said on January 10, 49 BC as he led his army...


The Optimates, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger, fled to the south, having little confidence in the newly raised troops especially since so many cities in northern Italy had voluntarily capitulated. An attempted stand by a consulate legion in Samarium resulted in the consul being handed over by the defenders and the legion surrendering without significant fighting. Despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, Pompey had no intention to fight. Caesar pursued Pompey to Brindisium, hoping to capture Pompey before the trapped Senate and their legions could escape. Pompey managed to elude him, sailing out of the harbor before Caesar could break the barricades. Sestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ...


Lacking a naval force since Pompey had already scoured the coasts of all ships for evacuation of his forces, Caesar decided to head for Hispania saying "I set forth to fight an army without a leader, so as later to fight a leader without an army." Leaving Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as prefect of Rome, and the rest of Italy under Mark Antony as tribune, Caesar made an astonishing 27-day route-march to Hispania, rejoining two of his Gallic legions, where he defeated Pompey's lieutenants. He then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Greece where on July 10, 48 BC at Dyrrhachium Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat when the line of fortification was broken. He decisively defeated Pompey, despite Pompey's numerical advantage (nearly twice the number of infantry and considerably more cavalry), at Pharsalus in an exceedingly short engagement in 48 BC. The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Optimates Populares Commanders Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Gaius Julius Caesar Strength 45,000 15,000 Casualties Unknown 1,000 The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was one of a series of contests between Gaius Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus that ended with Pompeys... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Strength Approximately 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800 Approximately 60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000 Casualties 1,200 6,000 The...


In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse; Caesar resigned this dictatorate after 11 days and was elected to a second term as consul with Publius Servilius Vatia as his colleague. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


He pursued Pompey to Alexandria, where Pompey was murdered by a former Roman officer serving in the court of King Ptolemy XIII. Caesar then became involved with the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, the Pharaoh Cleopatra VII. Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain Pothinus as a gift. In any event, Caesar defeated the Ptolemaic forces in 47 BC in the Battle of the Nile and installed Cleopatra as ruler, with whom he is suspected to have fathered a son, Caesarion. Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory of the Alexandrine civil war through a triumphant procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 B.C. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, introducing Caesar to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharoahs. This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (lived 62 BCE/61 BCE–January 13, 47 BCE?, reigned from 51 BCE) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... The Battle of the Nile ”Victory is not a name strong enough for such a scene” – Nelson, surveying the floating carnage the day after the battle. ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV[1] Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra...


Caesar and Cleopatra never married: they could not do so under Roman Law. The institution of marriage was only recognised between two Roman citizens; Cleopatra was Queen of Egypt. In Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery, and Caesar is believed to have continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage, which lasted 14 years and produced no children. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the Tiber. Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs...


After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to the Middle East, where he annihilated King Pharnaces II of Pontus in the Battle of Zela; his victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey's previous victories over such poor enemies. Thence, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey's senatorial supporters. He quickly gained a significant victory at Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio (who died in the battle) and Cato the Younger (who committed suicide). Nevertheless, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Hispania. Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC. During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC (with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC (without colleague). A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Pharnaces II of Pontus (63 BC - 47 BC), was the king of Pontus and son of the great Mithridates VI. Pompey had defeated Mithridates VI in 64 BC and gained control of much of Asia Minor, but Pharnaces II attempted to take advantage of the Roman civil war to retake... The Battle of Zela (47 BC) was a decisive battle in Julius Caesars civil war. ... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders G. Julius Caesar Metellus Scipio †, Cato the younger † Strength Unknown (at least 10 legions) Unknown (at least 10 legions), 2,500 cavalry Jubas allied troops with 60 elephants Casualties 1,000 30,000 The Battle of Thapsus took place on February 6, 46 BC near... Gnaeus Pompeius (c. ... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... Titus Labienus (ca. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus †, Gnaeus Pompeius; Strength 8 legions, 8,000 cavalry total: circa 40,000 men 13 legions, cavalry and auxiliaries total: circa 70,000 men Casualties 1,000 30,000 The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ...


Aftermath of the civil war

While he was still campaigning in Hispania, the Senate began bestowing honours on Caesar in absentia. Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


Great games and celebrations were held on April 21 to honour Caesar’s victory at Munda.

Caesar was the first living man to appear on a Roman Republican coin.
Caesar was the first living man to appear on a Roman Republican coin.

On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grand-nephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian) as the heir to everything, including his title. Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Marcus Junius Brutus would be the next heir in succession. Image File history File links RSC_0022. ... Image File history File links RSC_0022. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ...


Caesar tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidised grain, and forbade those who could afford privately supplied grain from purchasing from the grain dole. He made plans for the distribution of land to his veterans, and for the establishment of veteran colonies throughout the Roman world.


In 63 BC Caesar had been elected Pontifex Maximus, and one of his roles as such was settling the calendar. A complete overhaul of the old Roman calendar proved to be one of his most long lasting and influential reforms. In 46 BC, Caesar established a 365-day year with a leap year every fourth year (this Julian Calendar was subsequently modified by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 into the modern Gregorian calendar). As a result of this reform, a certain Roman year (mostly equivalent to 46 BC in the modern Calendar) was made 445 days long, to bring the calendar into line with the seasons. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...


The Forum of Caesar, with its Temple of Venus Genetrix, was built among many other public works. The forum of Caesar and the Temple of Venus Genetrix. ... Venus Genitrix temple in Forum of Caesar, Rome. ...


All of the pomp, circumstance, and public taxpayers' money being spent incensed certain members of the Roman Senate. One of these was Caesar's closest friend, Marcus Junius Brutus. Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ...


Assassination plot

Morte de Césare (Death of Caesar) by Vincenzo Camuccini

Ancient biographers describe the tension between Caesar and the Senate, and his possible claims to the title of king. These events would be the principal motive for Caesar's assassination by his political opponents in the Senate. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1250x696, 203 KB) Summary From: http://ugo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1250x696, 203 KB) Summary From: http://ugo. ... Vincenzo Camuccini (1773 - 1844), Italian historical painter, was born at Rome. ...


Plutarch records that at one point, Caesar informed the Senate that his honours were more in need of reduction than augmentation, but withdrew this position so as not to appear ungrateful. He was given the title Pater Patriae ("Father of the Fatherland"). He was appointed dictator a third time, and then nominated for nine consecutive one-year terms as dictator, effectually making him dictator for ten years. He was also given censorial authority as praefectus morum (prefect of morals) for three years. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Senate named Caesar Dictator Perpetuus, "dictator for life" or "perpetual dictator". Roman mints printed a denarius coin with this title and his profile on one side, and with an image of the goddess Ceres and Caesar's title of Augur Pontifex Maximus on the reverse. While printing the title of dictator was significant, Caesar's image was not, as it was customary to print consuls and other public officials on coins during the Republic. First row : c. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ...


According to Cassius Dio, a senatorial delegation went to inform Caesar of new honours they had bestowed upon him in 44 BC. Caesar received them while sitting in the Temple of Venus Genetrix, rather than rising to meet them. According to Dio, this was a chief excuse for the offended senators to plot his assassination. He wrote that a few of Caesar's supporters blamed his failure to rise on a sudden attack of diarrhoea, but his enemies discounted this in observing that he had walked home unaided. Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Venus Genitrix temple in Forum of Caesar, Rome. ...


Suetonius wrote that Caesar failed to rise in the temple either because he was restrained by Cornelius Balbus or that he balked at the suggestion he should rise. Suetonius also gave the account of a crowd assembled to greet Caesar upon his return to Rome. A member of the crowd placed a laurel wreath on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. The tribunes, Gaius Epidius Marcellus and Lucius Caesetius Flavius ordered that the wreath be removed as it was a symbol of Jupiter and royalty. Caesar had the tribunes censored from office through his official powers. According to Suetonius, he was unable to disassociate himself with the title of monarch from this point forward. His biographer also gives the story that a crowd shouted to him "rex", the Latin word for king. Caesar replied, "I am Caesar, not Rex", a pun on the Roman name coming from the title. Also, at the festival of the Lupercalia, while he gave a speech from the Rostra, Mark Antony, who had been elected co-consul with Caesar, attempted to place a crown on his head several times. Caesar put it aside to be used as a sacrifice to Jupiter Opitimus Maximus. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... The Rostra can be seen in the middle left of the photo. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... The fear of Caesar becoming autocrat, thus ending the Roman Republic, grew stronger when someone placed a diadem on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. ... The fear of Caesar becoming autocrat, thus ending the Roman Republic, grew stronger when someone placed a diadem on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... The Lupercalia was an annual very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, held on February 15 to honour Faunus, god of fertility and forests. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ...


Plutarch and Suetonius are similar in their depiction of these events, but Dio combines the stories writing that the tribunes arrested the citizens who placed diadems or wreaths on statues of Caesar. He then places the crowd shouting "rex" on the Alban Hill with the tribunes arresting a member of this crowd as well. The plebeian protested that he was unable to speak his mind freely. Caesar then brought the tribunes before the senate and put the matter to a vote, thereafter removing them from office and erasing their names from the records.


Suetonius adds that Lucius Cotta proposed to the Senate that Caesar should be granted the title of "king" for it was prophesied that only a king would conquer Parthia. Caesar intended to invade Parthia, a task which would later give considerable trouble to Mark Antony during the second triumvirate. Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf...


Brutus began to conspire against Caesar with his friend and brother-in-law Cassius and other men, calling themselves the Liberatores ("Liberators"). Many plans were discussed by the group, as documented by Nicolaus of Damascus: Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Liberatores is the Latin name that the murderers of Caius Julius Caesar gave themselves. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ...

The conspirators never met openly, but they assembled a few at a time in each other's homes. There were many discussions and proposals, as might be expected, while they investigated how and where to execute their design. Some suggested that they should make the attempt as he was going along the Sacred Way, which was one of his favorite walks. Another idea was for it to be done at the elections during which he had to cross a bridge to appoint the magistrates in the Campus Martius; they should draw lots for some to push him from the bridge and for others to run up and kill him. A third plan was to wait for a coming gladiatorial show. The advantage of that would be that, because of the show, no suspicion would be aroused if arms were seen prepared for the attempt. But the majority opinion favoured killing him while he sat in the Senate, where he would be by himself since only Senators would be admitted, and where the many conspirators could hide their daggers beneath their togas. This plan won the day.

Two days before the assassination of Caesar, Cassius met with the conspirators and told them that, should anyone discover the plan, the conspirators were to turn their knives on themselves. The Via Sacra (Latin: Sacred Road) is the main street of ancient Rome, leading from the top of the Capitoline Hill, through some of the most important religious sites of the Forum (where it is the widest street), to the Colosseum. ... The Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 km² (600 acres) in extent. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ...


Assassination

A diabase bust of Caesar.
A diabase bust of Caesar.

On the Ides of March (March 15; see Roman calendar) of 44 BC, a group of senators called Caesar to the forum for the purpose of reading a petition, written by the senators, asking him to hand power back to the Senate. However, the petition was a fake. Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off at the steps of the forum. However, the group of senators intercepted Caesar just as he was passing the Theatre of Pompey, and directed him to a room adjoining the east portico. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 411 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1289 × 1881 pixel, file size: 836 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 411 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1289 × 1881 pixel, file size: 836 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dolerite. ... Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Julius Caesar. ... Artist rendition of the front exterior of the Theatre of Pompey The Theatre of Pompey (Latin Theatrum Pompeium, Italian: Teatro di Pompeo) is an ancient building of the Roman Republic era, built around 55 BC, once the worlds largest theater. ...


As Caesar began to read the false petition, Tillius Cimber, who had handed him the petition, pulled down Caesar's tunic. While Caesar was crying to Cimber "But that is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"), the aforementioned Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm, saying in Latin "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?"[60] Casca, frightened, shouted "Help, brother" in Greek ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει!", "adelphe, boethei!"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, around sixty or more men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times.[61] According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal.[62] Lucius Tullius (or Tillius) Cimber was a Roman senator, one of the assassins of Julius Caesar and the one to give the signal for the attack on him. ... Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Julius Caesar. ... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ...


The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase Et tu, Brute? ("even you, Brutus?" or "you too, Brutus?"); this derives from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." Shakespeare's version evidently follows in the tradition of the Roman historian Suetonius, who reports that Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "καὶ σύ, τέκνον;"[63] (transliterated as "Kai su, teknon?": "You too, my child?" in English).[64] Plutarch, on the other hand, reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators.[65] Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Et tu, Brute? were, according to legend, the last words of Julius Caesar. ... The Tragedy of Julius Cæsar, more commonly known simply as Julius Caesar, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written in 1599. ... Macaronic refers to text spoken or written using a mixture of languages. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building.[66] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!". They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread.


A wax statue of Caesar was erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had amassed there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighboring buildings. In the ensuing chaos Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire. Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most...


Aftermath of assassination

Deification of Julius Caesar as represented in a 16th-century engraving.
Deification of Julius Caesar as represented in a 16th-century engraving.

The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular, and had been since Gaul and before, were enraged that a small group of high-browed aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony did not give the speech that Shakespeare penned for him more than 1600 years later ("Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears..."), but he did give a dramatic eulogy that appealed to the common people, a reflection of public opinion following Caesar's murder. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. But Caesar had named his grand nephew Gaius Octavian his sole heir, giving him the immensely powerful Caesar name as well as making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. Gaius Octavian was also, for all intents and purposes, the son of the great Caesar, and consequently also inherited the loyalty of much of the Roman populace. Octavian, only aged 19 at the time of Caesar's death, proved to be dangerous, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his position. Later Mark Antony would marry Caesar's lover Cleopatra. Image File history File links Virgil_Solis_-_Deification_Caesar. ... Image File history File links Virgil_Solis_-_Deification_Caesar. ... Look up Apotheosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... The Tragedy of Julius Cæsar, more commonly known simply as Julius Caesar, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written in 1599. ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


In order to combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an army in Greece, Antony needed both the cash from Caesar's war chests and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide any action he took against the two. A new Triumvirate was formed (the second and final one) with Octavian, Antony, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus as the third member. This Second Triumvirate deified Caesar as Divus Iulius and, seeing that Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, brought back the horror of proscription, abandoned since Sulla. It proscribed its enemies in large numbers in order to seize even more funds for the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius, whom Antony and Octavius defeated at Philippi. A third civil war then broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in Antony and Cleopatra's defeat at Actium, resulted in the ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus. In 42 BC, Caesar was formally deified as Divus Iulius, and Caesar Augustus henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a god"). ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Look up Apotheosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ...


Health

Caesar suffered from epilepsy. He had four documented episodes of what were probably complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. There is family history of epilepsy amongst his ancestors and descendants. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius who was born after Caesar's death. However, the claim of epilepsy is disputed by some historians and is countered by a claim of hypoglycemia, which sometimes causes epileptic-like fits.[67][68][69] In medicine, there are many kinds of generalized seizures. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ...


Literary works

Caesar was considered during his lifetime to be one of the best orators and authors of prose in Rome—even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style.[70] Among his most famous works were his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to blacken Cato's reputation and respond to Cicero's Cato memorial. Unfortunately, the majority of his works and speeches have been lost to history. Julia Caesaris was the paternal aunt of Julius Caesar and the wife of Gaius Marius; as a result, she is sometimes referred to as Julia Maria. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ...


Memoirs

Commentarii de Bello Gallico, an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul.
Commentarii de Bello Gallico, an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul.

Other works historically attributed to Caesar, but whose authorship is doubted, are: Image File history File links Commentarii_de_Bello_Gallico. ... Image File history File links Commentarii_de_Bello_Gallico. ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... Commentarii de Bello Civile (literally Commentaries on the Civil War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his war against Pompey the Great. ... Combatants Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction, Roman senate, the Optimates faction, Commanders Julius Caesar Pompey†, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius† Sextus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman...

These narratives, apparently simple and direct in style— to the point that Caesar's Commentarii are commonly studied by first and second year Latin students— are highly sophisticated advertisements for his political agenda, most particularly for the middle-brow readership of minor aristocrats in Rome, Italy, and the provinces. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... De Bello Africo (meaning On the African War in Latin) is a book said to be written by Julius Caesar, though its authorship is heavily disputed. ... De Bello Hispaniensis (meaning On the Hispanic War in Latin) is a book said to be written by Julius Caesar, though its authorship is heavily disputed. ...


Military career

Historians place the generalship of Caesar as one of the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever lived, along with Alexander the Great, Sun Tzu, Hannibal, Genghis Khan and Napoleon Bonaparte. Caesar suffered occasional tactical defeats, such as Battle of Gergovia during the Gallic War and the Battle of Dyrrhachium during the Civil War. However, his tactical brilliance was highlighted by such feats as his circumvallation of Alesia during the Gallic War, the rout of Pompey's numerically superior forces at Pharsalus during the Civil War, and the complete destruction of Pharnaces' army at Battle of Zela. Historians place the generalship of Julius Caesar (100 BC-44 BC) on the level of such geniuses as Alexander the Great, Scipio Africanus, Napoleon Bonaparte . ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Strength Approximately 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800 Approximately 60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000 Casualties 1,200 6,000 The...


Caesar's successful campaigning in any terrain and under all weather conditions owes much to the strict but fair discipline of his legionaries, whose admiration and devotion to him were proverbial due to his promotion of those of skill over those of nobility. Caesar's infantry and cavalry were first rate, and he made heavy use of formidable Roman artillery and his army's superlative engineering abilities. There was also the legendary speed with which he manoeuvred his troops; Caesar's army sometimes marched as many as 40 miles (64 km) a day. His army was made of 40,000 infantry and many cavaliers, with some specialised units, such as engineers. His Commentaries on the Gallic Wars describe how, during the siege of one Gallic city built on a very steep and high plateau, his engineers tunnelled through solid rock, found the source of the spring from which the town was drawing its water supply, and diverted it to the use of the army. The town, cut off from their water supply, capitulated at once.


Name

Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Caesar (i.e., without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar's name is properly rendered "GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR". The form "CAIVS" is also attested using the old Roman pronunciation of letter C as G; it is an antique form of the more common "GAIVS". It is often seen abbreviated to "C. IVLIVS CAESAR". (The letterform "Æ" is a ligature, which is often encountered in Latin inscriptions where it was used to save space, and is nothing more than the letters "ae".) In Classical Latin, it was pronounced IPA [ˈgaːius ˈjuːlius ˈkaisar].[71] In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ, reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kaiser. This German name was phonemically but not phonetically derived from the Middle Ages Ecclesiastical Latin, in which the familiar part "Caesar" is [ˈtʃeːsar], from which the modern English pronunciation (a much-softened "SEE-zer") is derived. Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) (i. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ...


His name is also remembered in Norse mythology, where he is manifested as the legendary king Kjárr.[72] Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Bust of Julius Caesar. ...


Family

Parents

Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder (135 BC – 85 BC), also called Gaius Julius Caesar III and Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, was a Roman politician, supporter and brother-in-law of Gaius Marius, and father of Julius Caesar, Dictator of Rome. ... Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (120 BC-54 BC) was the mother of Julius Caesar. ... The Aurelii (meaning the golden) were a Roman gens. ...

Sisters

Julia is the name of two daughters of Gaius Julius Caesar III and Aurelia Cotta, who were also the parents of Julius Caesar. ... Julia is the name of two daughters of Gaius Julius Caesar III and Aurelia Cotta, who were also the parents of Julius Caesar. ...

Wives

  • First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla, from 83 BC until her death in childbirth in 69 or 68 BC
  • Second marriage to Pompeia Sulla, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC
  • Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis, from 59 BC until Caesar's death

Cornelia Cinna minor (94 BC[citation needed] – 69 BC[1] or 68 BC[2]), daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, one of the great leaders of the Marian party, was married to Gaius Julius Caesar, who would become one of Romes greatest conquerors and its dictator. ... Pompeia Sulla (fl. ... Calpurnia Pisonis (1st century BC), daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar. ...

Children

Julia Caesaris (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS) was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar the dictator, by Cornelia Cinna, and his only child in marriage. ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV[1] Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra... “Cleopatra” redirects here. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...

Grandchildren

  • Grandson from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed.

Julia Caesaris (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS) was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar the dictator, by Cornelia Cinna, and his only child in marriage. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ...

Lovers

Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... Servilia Caepionis (b. ... In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... Bogud, son of King Bocchus of Mauretania (who was born about 110 B.C.), was joint king of Mauretania with his elder brother Bocchus II, with Bocchus ruling east of the Mulucha River and his brother west. ...

Notable relatives

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers. ... This article, Batavian rebellion, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Political rivals and rumours of homosexual activity

Roman society viewed the passive role during sex, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar."[74] According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius (whose account may be from firsthand knowledge), and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The tales were repeated by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate and degrade him. It is possible that the rumors were spread only as a form of character assassination. Caesar himself, according to Cassius Dio, denied the accusations under oath.[75]This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. A favorite tactic used by the opposition was to accuse a popular political rival as living a Hellenistic lifestyle based on Greek & Eastern culture, where homosexuality and a lavish lifestyle were more acceptable than the conservative traditions of the Romans. Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d. ... Gaius Memmius (incorrectly called Gemellus, The Twin), Roman orator and poet, tribune of the people (66 BC), friend of Lucretius and Catullus. ... Nicomedes IV, known as Philopator, was the king of Bithynia, from c. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers,[76] but later apologised.[77] Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... Mamurra ( 1st century BC) was a Roman military officer who served under Julius Caesar. ...


Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. The boy Octavian was to become the first Roman emperor following Caesar's death.[78] Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ...


Chronology


Honours

Julius Caesar was voted the title Divus ("god") after his death. Look up Apotheosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


During his life, he received many honours, including titles such as Pater Patriae (Father of the Fatherland), Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest), and Dictator. The many titles bestowed on him by the Senate are sometimes cited as a cause of his assassination, as it seemed inappropriate to many contemporaries for a mortal man to be awarded so many honours. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... A dictator is an absolutist or autocratic ruler who assumes sole power over the state, though the term is normally not applied to an absolute monarch. ...


As a young man he was awarded the Corona Civica (civic crown) for valour while fighting in Asia Minor. The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


Perhaps the most significant title he carried was his name from birth: Caesar. This name was awarded to every Roman emperor, and it became a signal of great power and authority far beyond the bounds of the empire. The title became the German Kaiser and Slavic Tsar/Czar. As the last tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria whose reign ended in 1946; for two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name. This title was greatly promulgated by the Bible, for its famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as Prime Minister of Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria (born June 16, 1937) was the last Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946, and was Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 until August 2005. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Note, however, that Caesar was an ordinary name of no more importance than other cognomina like Cicero and Brutus. It did not become an Imperial title until well after Julius Caesar's death. The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ...


See also

Gāius Jūlius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Oldest known sculptures of the Nine Worthies at the old city hall Cologne, Germany. ... The action of a Caesar cipher is to replace each plaintext letter with one a fixed number of places down the alphabet. ... The Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire has a family tree complicated by multiple marriages between the members of the gens Julia and the gens Claudia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Official name after 42 BC, Imperator Gaius Iulius Caesar Divus (Latin script: GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR) (in inscriptions IMP•C•IVLIVS•CAESAR•DIVVS), in English, "Imperator [and] God Gaius Julius Caesar". Also in inscriptions, Gaius Iulius Gaii Filius Gaii Nepos Caesar, in English, "Gaius Julius Caesar, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius".
  2. ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars: Julius 6; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.41; Virgil, Aeneid
  3. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.7. The misconception that Julius Caesar himself was born by Caesarian section dates back at least to the 10th century (Suda kappa 1199). However, he wasn't the first to bear the name, and in his time the procedure was only performed on dead women, while Caesar's mother, Aurelia, lived long after he was born.
  4. ^ Historia Augusta: Aelius 2.
  5. ^ Coins of Julius Caesar
  6. ^ Suetonius, Julius 1; Plutarch, Caesar 1, Marius 6; Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.54; Inscriptiones Italiae, 13.3.51-52
  7. ^ Suetonius, Lives of Eminent Grammarians 7
  8. ^ a b Plutarch, Caesar 1; Suetonius, Julius 1
  9. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 1.34-75; Plutarch, Marius 32-46, Sulla 6-10; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.15-20; Eutropius 5; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.6, 2.9
  10. ^ Suetonius, Julius 1; Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.54
  11. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.22; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.9
  12. ^ Suetonius, Julius 1; Plutarch, Caesar 1; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.41
  13. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 1.76-102; Plutarch, Sulla 24-33; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.23-28; Eutropius, Abridgement of Roman History 5; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.9
  14. ^ Suetonius, Julius 2-3; Plutarch, Caesar 2-3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.20
  15. ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities: Flamen
  16. ^ Appian. Civil Wars 1.103
  17. ^ Suetonius, Julius 77.
  18. ^ Plutarch, Sulla 36-38
  19. ^ a b Suetonius, Julius 46
  20. ^ Suetonius, Julius 3; Appian, Civil Wars 1.107
  21. ^ Suetonius, Julius 55
  22. ^ Suetonius, Julius 4. Plutarch (Caesar 3-4) reports the same events but follows a different chonology.
  23. ^ Again, according to Suetonius's chronology (Julius 4). Plutarch (Caesar 1.8-2) says this happened earlier, on his return from Nicomedes's court. Velleius Paterculus (Roman History 2:41.3-42 says merely that it happened when he was a young man.
  24. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 1-2
  25. ^ Suetonius, Julius 5-8; Plutarch, Caesar 5; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43
  26. ^ Suetonius, Julius 9-11; Plutarch, Caesar 5.6-6; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.8, 10
  27. ^ Cicero, For Gaius Rabirius; Cassius Dio, Roman History 26-28
  28. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43; Plutarch, Caesar 7; Suetonius, Julius 13
  29. ^ Sallust, Catiline War 49
  30. ^ Cicero, Against Catiline 4.7-9; Sallust, Catiline War 50-55; Plutarch, Caesar 7.5-8.3, Cicero 20-21, Cato the Younger 22-24; Suetonius, Julius 14
  31. ^ Suetonius, Julius 17
  32. ^ Suetonius, Julius 16
  33. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 1.12, 1.13, 1.14; Plutarch, Caesar 9-10; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.45
  34. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 11-12; Suetonius, Julius 18.1
  35. ^ Plutarch, Julius 13; Suetonius, Julius 18.2
  36. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 13-14; Suetonius 19
  37. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 2.1, 2.3, 2.17; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.44; Plutarch, Caesar 13-14, Pompey 47, Crassus 14; Suetonius, Julius 19.2; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.54-58
  38. ^ Suetonius, Julius 21
  39. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 44.4; Plutarch, Caesar 14, Pompey 47-48, Cato the Younger 32-33; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38.1-8
  40. ^ Suetonius, Julius 19.2
  41. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2:44.4; Plutarch, Caesar 14.10, Crassus 14.3, Pompey 48, Cato the Younger 33.3; Suetonius, Julius 22; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38:8.5
  42. ^ Suetonius, Julius 23
  43. ^ See Cicero's speeches against Verres for an example of a former provincial governor successfully prosecuted for illegally enriching himself at his province's expense.
  44. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 1.19; Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 1; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38.31-50
  45. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 2; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 4; Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.1-5
  46. ^ Cicero, Letters to his brother Quintus 2.3; Suetonius, Julius 24; Plutarch, Caesar 21, Crassus 14-15, Pompey 51
  47. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.40-46
  48. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 4; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 4; Cassius Dio, Roman History 47-53
  49. ^ Cicero, Letters to friends 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.10, 7.17; Letters to his brother Quintus 2.13, 2.15, 3.1; Letters to Atticus 4.15, 4.17, 4.18; Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 5-6; Cassius Dio, Roman History 40.1-11
  50. ^ Suetonius, Julius [1]; Plutarch, Caesar 23.5, Pompey 53-55, Crassus 16-33; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 46-47
  51. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 7; Cassius Dio, Roman History 40.33-42
  52. ^ Aulus Hirtius, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 8
  53. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 1.21
  54. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 7.65
  55. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 6.6
  56. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 2.34
  57. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 6.32 &f.
  58. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 3.11
  59. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 7.81 &f.
  60. ^ Plutarch, Life of Caesar, ch. 66: "ὁ μεν πληγείς, Ῥωμαιστί· 'Μιαρώτατε Κάσκα, τί ποιεῖς;'"
  61. ^ Woolf Greg (2006), Et Tu Brute? - The Murder of Caesar and Political Assassination, 199 pages - ISBN 1-8619-7741-7
  62. ^ Suetonius, Julius, c. 82.
  63. ^ Suetonius, Julius 82.2
  64. ^ Suetonius, Life of the Caesars, Julius trans. J C Rolfe [2]
  65. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 66.9
  66. ^ Plutarch, Caesar, 67
  67. ^ Hughes J (2004). "Dictator Perpetuus: Julius Caesar--did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology?". Epilepsy Behav 5 (5): 756-64. PMID 15380131. 
  68. ^ Gomez J, Kotler J, Long J (1995). "Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to a brain tumor?". The Journal of the Florida Medical Association 82 (3): 199-201. PMID 7738524. 
  69. ^ H. Schneble (2003-01-01). Gaius Julius Caesar. German Epilepsy Museum. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  70. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 252.
  71. ^ Note that the first name, like the second, is properly pronounced in three syllables, not two. See Latin spelling and pronunciation.
  72. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund. (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English). p. 44.PDF (308 KiB)
  73. ^ Tacitus, Histories 4.55
  74. ^ Suetonius, Julius 49
  75. ^ Suetonius, Julius 49; Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.20
  76. ^ Catullus, Carmina 29, 57
  77. ^ Suetonius, Julius 73
  78. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 68, 71

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (120 BC-54 BC) was the mother of Julius Caesar. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Appian (c. ... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman alphabet or Latin alphabet was adapted from an Etruscan alphabet, to represent the phonemes of the Latin language. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Histories (Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ...

References

Primary sources

Own writings

  • Forum Romanum Index to Caesar's works online in Latin and translation
  • Collected works of Caesar in Latin, Italian and English
  • omnia munda mundis Hypertext of Caesar's De Bello Gallico
  • Works by Julius Caesar at Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Ancient historians' writings

  • Suetonius: The Life of Julius Caesar. (Latin and English, cross-linked: the English translation by J. C. Rolfe.)
  • Suetonius: The Life of Julius Caesar (J. C. Rolfe English translation, modified)
  • Plutarch: The Life of Julius Caesar (English translation)
  • Plutarch: The Life of Mark Antony (English translation)
  • Plutarch on Antony (English translation, Dryden edition).
  • Cassius Dio, Books 37–44 (English translation)
  • Appian, Book 13 (English translation)

Secondary sources

  • Canfora, Luciano. Julius Caesar: The People's Dictator. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0748619364; paperback, ISBN 0748619372). Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 0520235029).
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian. Caesar: Life of a Colossus. New Heaven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-12048-6).
  • Jiménez, Ramon L. Caesar Against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War. Westpoint, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000 (hardcover, ISBN 0-275-96620-8).
  • Kleiner, Diana E. E. Cleopatra and Rome. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-674-01905-9).
  • Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. New York: Basic Books, 1996 (hardcover, ISBN 0-465-00894-1); 1997 (paperback, ISBN 0-465-00895-X).
  • Niel, Thomas (2005). Rome and Its Legends. New York, NY: Simon and Shuster.

External links

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  • Julius Caesar Suzanne Cross's site with in‑depth history of Caesar, plus a timeline and links.
  • C. Julius Caesar Jona Lendering's in‑depth history of Caesar (Livius. Org)
  • Julius Caesar — virgil.org An Annotated Guide to Online Resources categorised into Primary Sources, Background & Images, Modern Essays & Historical Fiction.
  • Julius Caesar, page with many links in several languages, including English
  • History of Julius Caesar
  • Julius Caesar: An alternative view of his motives
  • The Heart of Change: Julius Caesar and the End of the Roman Republic
  • Julius Caesar at BBC History
Preceded by
Lucius Afranius and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus
59 BC
Succeeded by
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Aulus Gabinius
Preceded by
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus
48 BC
Succeeded by
Quintus Fufius Calenus and Publius Vatinius
Preceded by
Quintus Fufius Calenus and Publius Vatinius
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
46 BC
Succeeded by
Gaius Julius Caesar without colleague
Preceded by
Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
Consul of the Roman Republic
without colleague
45 BC
Succeeded by
Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Antonius
Preceded by
Gaius Julius Caesar without colleague
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Marcus Antonius
44 BC
Succeeded by
Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Preceded by
Lucius Cornelius Sulla, then lapsed
Dictator of the Roman Republic
46 BC-44 BC
Succeeded by
none
Roman mythology series
Major deities
Apollo | Ceres | Diana | Divus Augustus | Fortuna | Divus Julius | Juno | Jupiter | Lares
Mars | Mercury | Minerva | Neptune | Pluto | Quirinus | Sol | Venus | Vesta | Vulcan
Persondata
NAME Caesar, Gaius Julius
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Julius Caesar
SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman dictator
DATE OF BIRTH July 12, 100 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Rome, Roman Republic
DATE OF DEATH March 15, 44 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Rome, Roman Republic

John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ... Lucius Afranius was a loyal legatus and client of Pompey the Great. ... The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d. ... Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus was a statesman of ancient Rome and the father-in-law of Gaius Julius Caesar. ... Aulus Gabinius, Roman statesman and general, and supporter of Pompey, was a prominent figure in the later days of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Cornelius Lentulus, surnamed Crus or Cruscello (for what reason is unknown), member of the anti-Caesarian party. ... Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior was a Roman consul in 49 BC. Category: ... Abbreviations: Imp. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Quintus Fufius Calenus (d. ... Publius Vatinius was a Roman consul (47BC) and poet. ... Quintus Fufius Calenus (d. ... Publius Vatinius was a Roman consul (47BC) and poet. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a common name for several successive generations of a family in ancient Rome: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (187 BC) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120-77 BC) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) (49 BC) Lepidus the Younger Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul AD 6) This is a disambiguation page — a... Abbreviations: Imp. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind, as modern depictions... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Lares (pl. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... Neptune is usually depicted with a trident, as seen here in this statue by Jean de Boulogne in Bologna, Italy. ... Pluto, lord of the underworld. ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
::Julius Caesar:: (0 words)
Julius Caesar, one of Ancient Rome's most famous individuals, was born in 100 BC - or near to that year.
Julius Caesar joined the Roman Army in 81 BC and was the first Roman army commander to invade England which he did in 55 BC and again in 54 BC.
Caesar was born into a wealthy family and he was a well educated child who was good at sport.
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Caesar was a politician and general of the late Roman republic, who greatly extended the Roman empire before seizing power and making himself dictator of Rome, paving the way for the imperial system.
Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July 100 BC into the prestigious Julian clan.
Caesar then returned to Italy, disregarding the authority of the senate and famously crossing the Rubicon river without disbanding his army.
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