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Encyclopedia > Julio Cortázar

Julio Cortázar (August 26, 1914 - February 12, 1984) was an Argentine intellectual and author of several experimental novels and many short stories. August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... The word author has several meanings: The author of a book, story, article or the like, is the person who has written it (or is writing it). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... This article is in need of attention. ...



Julio Cortázar was born in Brussels, Belgium, in 1914, to Argentine parents. When he was four years old, his family returned to Buenos Aires to a section of town called Banfield. After completing his studies at the University of Buenos Aires, he became a professor of French literature at the University of Cuyo, Mendoza, in the middle 1940s. Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium and is considered by many to be the de facto capital of the European Union, as two of its three main institutions have their headquarters... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Buenos Aires (Good Air in Spanish, originally meaning Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in South America. ... Banfield, English last name Banfield (village), Argentina Club Atlético Banfield This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... French literature is literature written in the French language; and especially, literature written in French by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written in other languages of France. ... Park of General San Martín in Mendoza. ...

In 1951, in opposition to the Perón regime, Cortázar emigrated to France, where he lived until his death. From 1952 he worked for UNESCO as a translator. His translation projects included Spanish renderings of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and the stories of Edgar Allan Poe, and it is commonly noted that Poe's influence is recognizable in his work. 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine military officer and the President of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language—the source text—and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language—called the target text, or the translation. ... Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published in 1719 and sometimes regarded as the first novel in English. ... This daguerreotype of Poe was taken less than a year before his death at the age of 40. ...

In his later years he underwent a political transformation, becoming actively engaged with leftist causes in Latin America, and openly supporting the Cuban Revolution and the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Pre-Columbian Cuba Cuba was first visited by Europeans when explorer Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Cuba for the first time on October 28, 1492. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ...

He was married three times, to Aurora Bernardez (in 1953), Ugné Karvelis and Carol Dunlop. 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...

Cortázar died of leukemia in Paris in 1984. It has recently been suggested, however, that AIDS (contracted through a blood transfusion before this disease was identified and given a name) may have been the real cause of his death. Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a group of blood diseases characterized by malignancies (cancer) of the blood-forming tissues. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by weakening of the bodys immune system and capacity to fight infection and certain cancers. ...

Notable works

Although Cortázar is best known as a masterly writer of short stories within the so-called fantastic genre, with Bestiario (1951) and Final de Juego (1956) (published as 'End of Game and Other Stories' in English) amongst the best, he also published several novels such as: The Winners (1965), Hopscotch (1966, English edition) and A Manual for Manuel (1978). Hopscotch (original title Rayuela) is the most famous novel by Argentine writer Julio Cortázar. ...

Cortázar's masterpiece, Hopscotch, is a dazzling literary experiment that ranks amongst the best novels written in Spanish in the past century, widely admired by contemporary Latin American writers such as Gabriel García Márquez, Mario Vargas Llosa or José Lezama Lima. The novel, which loosely recounts the story of Argentine intellectual Horacio Oliveira's exile in Paris and that of his return to Buenos Aires, has an open-ended structure that invites the reader to choose between a linear reading or a non-linear one (alternating chapters from two different sections). Cortázar's use of the interior monologue, punning, slang, and his use of different languages is redolent of Modernist writers like Joyce, although his main influences were Surrealism and the French New Novel. Gabriel Garcia Marquez Gabriel García Márquez (born March 6, 1928) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, publisher, and political activist. ... Mario Vargas Llosa The Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936) is one of Latin Americas leading novelists and essayists. ... José Lezama Lima (December 19, 1910-1976) was a Cuban writer and poet who is considered one of the most influential figures in Latin American literature. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, 1929-30: The modern style is noted for its rigorous geometrical forms, and became adopted internationally, though not without continuing controversy Modernism in the cultural historical sense is generally defined as the new artistic and literary styles that emerged in the decades before 1914 as... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (February 2, 1882 – January 13, 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, and is widely considered one of the most significant writers of the 20th century. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the unconscious. ... Nouveau roman refers to certain 1950s French novels that diverged from classical literary genres. ...

Cortázar's strengths as an author reside in his delightful and irreverent sense of humour, his impressive technical skills, his poetical and innovative use of language, and his carefully balanced deployment of the uncanny in his short fiction.

Although his poetic and dramatic production is considered to be of inferior quality compared to his prose he also published poetry, drama, and various works of non-fiction .

Michelangelo Antonioni's film Blow-Up is based on a short story by Cortázar, entitled Las Babas del Diablo and translated as Blow-Up in English, this story is to be found in Blow-Up and Other Stories. Michelangelo Antonioni (born September 29, 1912 in Ferrara, Italy) is an Italian film director, writer and painter. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1966 films | British films | Italian films ... This article is in need of attention. ...


  • Los Reyes (1949)
  • Bestiario (1951)
  • Final de Juego (1956)
  • Las armas secretas
  • Los premios (The Winners)
  • Historias de cronopios y de famas
  • Rayuela (Hopscotch) (1963)
  • Todos los fuegos el fuego(1966)
  • La vuelta al día en ochenta mundos (1967)
  • 62, modelo para armar (1968)
  • Último round (1969)
  • La prosa del Observatorio (1972)
  • Libro de Manuel (1973)
  • Octaedro (1974)
  • Alguien anda por ahí (1977)
  • Territorios (1978)
  • Un tal Lucas (1979)
  • Lucas, sus pudores
  • Queremos tanto a Glenda (1980)
  • Deshoras (1982)
  • Nicaragua tan violentamente dulce (1983)
  • Divertimento (1986)
  • El Examen (1986)
  • Diario de Andrés Fava (1995)
  • Adiós Robinson(1995)

Hopscotch (original title Rayuela) is the most famous novel by Argentine writer Julio Cortázar. ... A hopscotch game with a traditional magpie rhyme in Morecambe, England Hopscotch originated in Britain during the early Roman Empire. ...

External link

  • El perseguidor (spanish) (http://www.geocities.com/juliocortazar_arg/)
  • Rayuel-o-matic (spanish) (http://espanol.geocities.com/rayuel_o_matic/)
  • París en Rayuela (spanish) (http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Parthenon/9529/)
  • Sitio en Clubcultura (spanish) (http://www.clubcultura.com/clubliteratura/clubescritores/cortazar/)
  • El sitio de Bruno Szister(spanish) (http://www.juliocortazar.com.ar/)
  • Cortazar textual (spanish) (http://www.cortazartextual.com.ar/)
  • La página de los enlaces a Julio Cortazar (spanish) (http://www.iespana.es/pereweb/julio.htm)



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