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Encyclopedia > Julio Argentino Roca
Julio A. Roca

Julio Argentino Roca Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Julio Argentino Roca ...

Terms of Office: October 12, 1880
October 12, 1886 and October 12, 1898
October 12, 1904
Predecessors: Nicolás Avellaneda and José E. Uriburu
Successors: Miguel Juárez Celman and Manuel Quintana
Vice-presidents: Francisco Madero and Roberto Quirno Costa
Date of Birth: July 17, 1843
Place of Birth: San Miguel de Tucumán
Date of Death: October 19, 1914
Place of Death: Buenos Aires
Profession: Military
Political Party: National Autonomist Party

Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz (July 17, 1843 - October 19, 1914) was an army general who served as President of Argentina from 12 October 1880 to 12 October 1886 and again from 12 October 1898 to 12 October 1904. October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva (1837-1885) was an Argentine politician and journalist, and president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. ... José Evaristo de Uriburu y Álvarez de Arenales (1831 - 1914) was President of Argentina from 23 January 1895 to 12 October 1898. ... Miguel Juárez Celman (1844 - 1909) was President of Argentina from 12 October 1886 to 6 August 1890. ... Manuel A. Quintana y Sáenz de Gaona (1835 - 1906) was the President of Argentina from 12 October 1904 to 12 March 1906. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... San Miguel de Tucumán (usually referred to as simply Tucumán) is the largest city in northwestern Argentina. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Buenos Aires (English: Fair Winds, originally Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires, City of the Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as... This article lists political parties in Argentina. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents


Upbringing and early career

Julio Roca was born in the northwestern city of San Miguel de Tucumán in 1843 into a prominent local family. He graduated from the National College in Concepción del Uruguay, Entre Ríos. Before he was 15, Roca joined the army of the Argentinean Confederation, on 19 March 1858. While still an adolescent, he went to fight as a junior officer in the struggle between Buenos Aires and the interior provinces, first on the side of the provinces and later on behalf of the capital. He also fought in the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay between 1864 and 1870. Roca rose to the rank of colonel serving in the war to suppress the revolt of López Jordán in Entre Ríos. San Miguel de Tucumán (usually referred to as simply Tucumán) is the largest city in northwestern Argentina. ... Concepcion del Uruguay, is a city located in the Argentinian province of Entre Rios. ... Map of Argentina highlighting the province Entre Ríos is a province of Argentina, it lays and borders north of Buenos Aires Province, south of Corrientes Province, east of Santa Fe Province, and west of Uruguay. ... Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Brasil Commanders Francisco Solano López Bartolomé Mitre, Duke of Caxias Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ...


He participated in various battles and wars, including the war of the Tripartite Alliance against Paraguay. President Nicolás Avellaneda later promoted him to General after his victory over José M. Arredondo. Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva (1837-1885) was an Argentine politician and journalist, and president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. ...


Political beginnings

In 1877, during Avellaneda's presidency, he became Minister of War and it was his task to prepare a campaign that would bring and end to the "frontier problem" after the failure of Adolfo Alsina's (his predecessor) plan. Roca's approach to dealing with the indian communities of the Pampas, however, was completely different from Alsina's, who had ordered the construction of a ditch and a defensive line of small fortresses across the Province of Buenos Aires. Roca saw no way to end native attacks ("malones") but by putting under effective government control all land up to the Río negro in a campaign that would extinguish, subdue or expel the indians who inhabited there. This land conquest would also strengthen Argentina's strategical position against Chile. 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva (1837-1885) was an Argentine politician and journalist, and president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. ... The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a controversial campaign by the Argentine government, executed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, to wrest Patagonia from the control of the regions aboriginal tribes at the end of the 19th century. ... Adolfo Alsina Adolfo Alsina (born January 4, 1829 in Buenos Aires - died December 29, 1877) was an Argentine lawyer and Unitarian politician, and one of the founders of the Partido Autonomista and the Partido Autonomista Nacional. ... Categories: Argentine provinces | Buenos Aires province | Argentina geography stubs ... // Negro River (Spanish: Río Negro) is the most important river of the Argentine province of Río Negro. ...


He deviced a "tentacle" move, with waves of 6000 men cavalry units stemming coordinately from Mendoza, Córdoba, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires on July 1878 and April 1879 respectively, with an official toll of nearly 1,250 Native Americans killed and 3,000 taken as prisoners. Mendoza is a city in the west of Argentina, and the capital of the Mendoza Province. ... Downtown Córdoba. ... Santa Fe is the capital city of the Santa Fe Province of Argentina. ... Buenos Aires (English: Fair Winds, originally Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires, City of the Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as... A Hupa man, 1923 The term indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European explorers in the 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. ...


Due to his military successes and the massive territorial gains linked with them, Roca was put forward as a successor to President Avellaneda. In October 1879 he gave up his military career to get ready for the election campaign. When Carlos Tejedor instigated a revolution in 1880 Roca was one of the key figures in the federalisation of the country and the naming of Buenos Aires as the capital of Argentina, settling the question of central rule. Federalism is the idea of a group or body of members that are bound together (latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ...


First presidency

Julio A. Roca monument in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Enlarge
Julio A. Roca monument in Buenos Aires, Argentina

After triumphing over Tejedor, Roca took over the presidency on 12 October 1880. Under his mandate the so called "laicist laws" (Leyes Laicas) were passed, which nationalized a series of functions that previously were under the control of the Church. He also created the so called Registro Civil, an index of all births, deaths and marriages. President Roca also made primary education free of charge by nationalizing education institutions run by the Church. This led to a break in relations with the Vatican. Under Roca's rule the economy became state controlled and he presided over an era of rapid economic development fueled by large scale European immigration, railway construction, and agricultural exports. However, financial speculation and government corruption marred his administration. In May 1886 Roca was the subject of a failed assassination attempt. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1636x2060, 886 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Argentina Politics of Argentina Julio Argentino Roca Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1636x2060, 886 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Argentina Politics of Argentina Julio Argentino Roca Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or...


Continuing political involvement

Roca did not directly participate in the 1890 revolution, which was instigated by Leandro N. Alem and Bartolomé Mitre (Unión Civica, later Unión Civica Radical). However, he was pleased in the resulting weakness of Miguel Juárez Celman. Roca himself had put forward Juárez Celman as his successor. However, Celman distanced himself from Roca and reprivatised large sectors of the economy in a corrupt fashion. Miguel Juárez Celman (1844 - 1909) was President of Argentina from 12 October 1886 to 6 August 1890. ...


After his first presidency Roca became a senator and Minister of the Interior under Carlos Pellegrini. After President Luis Sáenz Peña resigned in January 1895, José Evaristo Uriburu took over the presidency, during which Roca was President of the Senate. Because of this, Roca again assumed the duties of President between 28 October 1895 and 8 February 1896, when Uriburu was ill.


Second presidency

In the middle of 1897 the Partido Autonomista Nacional party put forward Roca as a presidential candidate once more. Unopposed, he was able to begin a second regular time in office on 12 October 1898. During his second presidency, the so called Ley de Residencia law was passed, which made it possible to expel Argentina's trade union leaders. During this presidency military service was introduced in 1901 and a border dispute with Chile was settled in 1902. Luis Drago, Roca’s foreign minister, articulated the Drago Doctrine of 1902 asserting that foreign powers could not collect public debts from sovereign American states by armed force or occupation of territory. Roca's second term ended in 1904. The Drago Doctrine was announced in 1902 by the Foreign Minister of Argentina. ...


Later years

Roca's portrait appears on the 100 Argentine Peso banknote
Roca's portrait appears on the 100 Argentine Peso banknote

In 1912 Roca was appointed as Special Ambassador of Argentina to Brazil by President Roque Sáenz Peña. Roca returned to Argentina in 1914 and died in Buenos Aires on October 19, 1914. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Argentine peso (originally established as the nuevo peso argentino or peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina. ...


Reference

This article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the German-language wikipedia.


Books

  • General Julio A. Roca and his campaigns in the Pampa, 1878-1879, by Robert Carter Burns (1960).
  • Carlos Pellegrini and the Crisis of the Argentine Elites, 1880-1916, by Douglas W. Richmond (1989).

See also

  • History of Argentina

This article is about the history of Argentina. ...

External links

  • Biography of Julio A. Roca in Spanish
  • Another biography of Julio A. Roca in Spanish
Preceded by:
Nicolás Avellaneda
President of Argentina
18801886
Succeeded by:
Miguel Juárez Celman
Preceded by:
José Evaristo Uriburu
President of Argentina
18981904
Succeeded by:
Manuel Quintana

  Results from FactBites:
 
Julio Argentino Roca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (947 words)
Julio Roca was born in the northwestern city of San Miguel de Tucumán in 1843 into a prominent local family.
Roca rose to the rank of colonel serving in the war to suppress the revolt of López Jordán in Entre Ríos.
Roca's approach to dealing with the indian communities of the Pampas, however, was completely different from Alsina's, who had ordered the construction of a ditch and a defensive line of small fortresses across the Province of Buenos Aires.
Julio Argentino Roca Biography / Biography of Julio Argentino Roca Biography (676 words)
Julio Argentino Roca (1843-1914) was an Argentine general and the leader of the oligarchy that held political control of Argentina from 1880 to 1916.
Julio Roca was born of a prominent and wealthy Argentine family in Tucumán on July 17, 1843.
Roca's second administration is notable for the resumption of diplomatic relations with the Vatican, the settlement of the boundary dispute with Chile, and the pronouncement of the Drago Doctrine, an Argentine protest against intervention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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