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Encyclopedia > Julian the Apostate
Flavius Claudius Iulianus
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Flavius Claudius Iulianus, also known as Julian the Apostate, was the last pagan Roman Emperor.
Reign 3 November 361 -
June 26, 363
Born 331
Constantinople
Died June 26, 363
Maranga, Mesopotamia
Predecessor Constantius II, cousin
Successor Jovian, general present at the time of his death
Wife/wives Helena (355)
Issue None known
Dynasty Constantinian dynasty
Father Julius Constantius
Mother Basilina

Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. He was the last pagan Roman Emperor, and tried to reform the traditional worship as a measure to stop the decay of his world. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Image File history File links JulianusII-antioch(360-363)-CNG.jpg Description: Portret van Julianus Apostata op bronzen munt van Antiochië, 360-363. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator withdraws from the world; his death occurs sometime in the next couple of years. ... Map of Constantinople. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ... Category: ... Flavius Julius Constantius (d. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


His philosophical studies earned him the attribute the Philosopher during the period of his life and of those of his successors. Christian sources commonly refer to him as Julian the Apostate, because of his rejection of Christianity and conversion to Theurgy, a late form of Neoplatonism.[1] He is also sometimes referred to as Julian II, to distinguish him from Didius Julianus. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Didius Julianus Marcus Severus Didius Julianus (133–193) was emperor of the Roman Empire from 28 March until 1 June 193. ...

Contents

Life

The early years

Julian solidus, c. 361. The reverse bears a reference to the military strength of the Roman Empire
Julian solidus, c. 361. The reverse bears a reference to the military strength of the Roman Empire

Julian, born in 331 in Constantinople, was the son of Julius Constantius, half brother of Emperor Constantine I, and his second wife, Basilina. His paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. His maternal grandfather was Caeionius Iulianus Camenius. Julian. ... Julian. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Flavia Maximiana Theodora. ...


In the turmoil after the death of Constantine in 337, in order to establish himself as sole emperor, Julian's zealous Arian Christian cousin Constantius II led a massacre of Julian's family. Constantius ordered the murdering of many descendants from the second marriage of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving only Constantius and his brothers Constantine II and Constans, and their cousins Julian and Gallus, Julian's half brother, as surviving males related to Emperor Constantine. Constantius II, Constans, and Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors, each ruling a portion of Roman territory. Constantius II then saw to a strict Arian Christian education of the surviving Julian and his brother Gallus. September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. ... Constantius Gallus (? - 354 AD) was a cousin of Roman Emperor Constantius II and became Caesar in 351 A.D. .Gallus set residence in Antioch. ...


In traditional accounts of his life, considerable weight is given to Julian’s early psychological development and education. Initially growing up in Bithynia, raised by his maternal grandmother, at the age of seven he was tutored by Eusebius, the Arian Christian Bishop of Nicomedia, and Mardonius, a Gothic eunuch. However, in 342, both Julian and his half-brother Gallus were exiled to the imperial estate of Macellum in Cappadocia. Here he met the Christian bishop George. At the age of 18, the exile was lifted and he dwelt briefly in Constantinople and Nicomedia. Eusebius of Nicomedia and Constantinople, (d. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... Events Invasion of Goguryeo by Murong Huang of the Xianbei. ... In ancient geography, Cappadocia or Capadocia, Turkish Kapadokya (from Persian: Katpatuka meaning the land of beautiful horses, Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of the extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ...


In 351, Julian returned to Asia Minor to study Neoplatonism under Aedesius, and later to study the Iamblichan Neoplatonism from Maximus of Ephesus. During his studies in Athens, Julian met Gregory Nazianzus and Basil of Caesarea, two Christian saints. Events March 15 - Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, or assistant emperor, and is put in charge of the Western Roman Empire. ... Aedesius (died 355), Neoplatonist philosopher, was born of a noble Cappadocian family. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... An icon of Saint Gregory Nazianzen the theologian holding a Gospel Book Saint Gregory Nazianzen (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Basil (ca. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ...


The later emperor’s study of Iamblichus of Chalcis and theurgy are a source of criticism from his primary chronicler, Ammianus Marcellinus. Iamblichus, also known as Iamblichus Chalcidensis, (ca. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ...


Rise to power

Julian in military dress. Despite having received no military education, Julian proved to be a good military commander, obtaining an important victory in Gaul and leading a Roman army under the walls of the Sassanid Empire capital
Julian in military dress. Despite having received no military education, Julian proved to be a good military commander, obtaining an important victory in Gaul and leading a Roman army under the walls of the Sassanid Empire capital

Constantine II died in 340 when he attacked his brother Constans. Constans in turn fell in 350 in the war against the usurper Magnentius. This left Constantius II as the sole remaining emperor. In need of support, he made Julian's brother, Constantius Gallus, Caesar of the East in 351, while Constantius II himself turned his attention westward to Magnentius, whom he defeated decisively in 351. Shortly afterwards Gallus, who had imposed a rule of terror during his brief reign, was executed (354), and Julian himself briefly imprisoned. However Constantius still had to deal with the Sassanid threat in the East, and so he turned to his last remaining male relative, Julian. He was summoned to the emperor in Mediolanum (Milan) and, on 6 November 355, made Caesar of the West and married to Constantius' sister Helena. Image File history File links 153_Julianus_II.jpg Description: Ae des Julianus II Apostata Source: see license File links The following pages link to this file: Julian the Apostate ... Image File history File links 153_Julianus_II.jpg Description: Ae des Julianus II Apostata Source: see license File links The following pages link to this file: Julian the Apostate ... Combatants Roman Empire Alamanni Commanders Julian Chnodomar Strength 10,000 infantry 2200 cavalry 32,000 infantry 2000-3000 cavalry Casualties 247 dead 1000-2000 wounded 6000 dead The Battle of Strasbourg, also known as the Battle of Argentoratum, was fought in 357 between the forces of the Roman Emperor Julian... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Usurpers were a common feature of the late Roman Empire, especially from the so-called crisis of the third century onwards, when political instability became the rule. ... Magnentius (303–August 11, 353) was a Roman usurper (January 18, 350 – August 11, 353). ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Arcadius solidus, from Mediolanum mint, 400s. ... Coordinates: , Sovereign state Italy Region Lombardy Province Province of Milan Insubric settlement c. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events November 6 - Julian is promoted to Caesar. ...


In the years afterwards Julian fought the Germanic tribes that tried to intrude upon the Roman Empire. He won back Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) in 356, during his first campaign in Gaul. The following summer he defeated the Alamanni at the Battle of Strasbourg, a major Roman victory. In 358, Julian gained victories over the Salian Franks on the Lower Rhine, settling them in Toxandria, near the city of Xanten, and over the Chamavi. During his residence in Gaul, Julian also attended to non-military matters. He prevented a tax increase by the Gallic praetorian prefect Florentius and personally administered the province of Belgica Secunda. The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, land that is today part of Germany. ... Combatants Roman Empire Alamanni Commanders Julian Chnodomar Strength 10,000 infantry 2200 cavalry 32,000 infantry 2000-3000 cavalry Casualties 247 dead 1000-2000 wounded 6000 dead The Battle of Strasbourg, also known as the Battle of Argentoratum, was fought in 357 between the forces of the Roman Emperor Julian... i hate erin saunders ... Toxandria is the very old name for a region between the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers in France and Belgium. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ...


In the fourth year of his campaign in Gaul, the Sassanid Emperor Shapur II invaded Mesopotamia and took the city of Amida after a 73 day siege. In February 360, Constantius ordered Julian to send Gallic troops to his eastern army. This provoked an insurrection by troops of the Petulantes, who proclaimed Julian emperor in Paris, and led to a very swift military campaign to secure or win the allegiance of others. From June to August of that year, Julian led a successful campaign against the Attuarian Franks. Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Persian; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ամիդ Amid) is a major city in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... Shield of the Petulantes seniores, an auxilia palatina unit under the command of the magister peditum. ...


That same June, forces loyal to Constantius II captured the city of Aquileia on the north Adriatic coast, and was subsequently besieged by forces loyal to Julian. Civil war was avoided only by the death of Constantius II, who, in his last will, recognized Julian as his rightful successor. Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ...


Among his first actions, Julian reduced the expenses of the imperial court, removing all the eunuchs from the offices. He reduced the luxury of the court established with Constantius, reducing at the same time the number of servants and of the guard. He also started the Chalcedon tribunal where some followers of Constantius were tortured and killed under supervision of magister militum Arbitio. A eunuch is a castrated human male. ... Shortly after the death of Roman emperor Constantius II, his successor Julian the Apostate held a tribunal at the city Chalcedon, which was then a suburb of Constantinopel. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Arbitio was a Frank that lived in the middle of the 4th century. ...


Julian and religion

Julian is called by Christians "the Apostate" because he converted from Christianity to Theurgy. As attested in private letters between him and the rhetorician Libanius, Julian had Christianity forced on him as a child by his cousin Constantius II, who was a zealous Arian Christian and would have not tolerated a pagan relative.[citation needed] "Reacting violently against the Christian teaching that he had received in a lonely and miserable childhood," A.H.M. Jones observes, "he had developed a passionate interest in the art, literature and mythology of Greece and had grown to detest the new religion which condemned all he loved as pernicious vanity. He was of a strongly religious temperament, and found solace in the pantheistic mysticism which contemporary Neoplatonist philosophers taught."[2] After his conversion to Hellenism he devoted his life to protecting and restoring the fame and security of this tradition. Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Libanius (Greek Libanios) (ca 314 AD - ca 394) was a Greek-speaking teacher of rhetoric of the later Roman Empire, an educated pagan of the Sophist school in an Empire that was turning aggressively Christian and publicly burned its own heritage and closed the academies. ... Arnold Hugh Martin (A.H.M.) Jones (1904-1970) was a prominent 20th century historian of classical antiquity, particularly of the later Roman Empire. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Hellenic Polytheism is an umbrella term for a wide variety of polytheistic religious movements which are ideologically related by their reverence for the ancient Greek pantheon and/or their adoption of ancient Greek religious practices. ...


After gaining the purple, Julian started a religious reformation of the state, which was intended to restore the lost strength of the Roman State. He also forced the Christian church to return the riches, or fines equalling them, looted from the pagan temples[citation needed] after the Christian religion was made legitimate by Constantine. He supported the restoration of the old Roman faith, based on polytheism.


Julian reduced the influence of Christian bishops in public offices. The lands taken by the Church were to be returned to their original owners, and the bishops lost the privilege to travel for free, at expenses of the State.

Julian the Apostate presiding at a conference of sectarians, by Edward Armitage, 1875
Julian the Apostate presiding at a conference of sectarians, by Edward Armitage, 1875

On 4 February 362, Julian promulgated an edict to guarantee freedom of religion. This edict proclaimed that all the religions were equal in front of the Law, and that the Roman Empire had to return to its original religious eclecticism, according to which the Roman State did not impose any religion on its provinces. Image File history File links Edward_Armitage_-_Julian_the_Apostate_presiding_at_a_conference_of_sectarian_-_1875. ... Image File history File links Edward_Armitage_-_Julian_the_Apostate_presiding_at_a_conference_of_sectarian_-_1875. ... Edward Armitage (b 20 May 1817 in London; d 24 May 1896 in Tunbridge Wells) was an English painter whose work focussed on historical, classical and biblical subject-matter. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 21 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. ...


During his earlier years, while studying at Athens, Julian became acquainted with two men who later became both bishops and saints: Gregory Nazianzus and Basil the Great; in the same period, Julian was also initiated to the Eleusinian Mysteries, which he would later try to restore. Constantine and his immediate successors had forbidden the upkeep of pagan temples, and many temples were destroyed and pagan worshippers of the old religions killed during the reign of Constantine and his successors.[citation needed] The extent to which the emperors approved or commanded these destructions and killings is disputed, but it is certain they did not prevent them.[citation needed] Basil (ca. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiation ceremonies held every five years for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...

Coptic icon showing Saint Mercurius killing Julian. According to a tradition, Saint Basil (an old school-mate of Julian) had been imprisoned at the start of Julian's Sassanid campaign. Basil prayed to Mercurius to help him, and the saint appeared in a vision to Basil, claiming to have speared Julian to death.
Coptic icon showing Saint Mercurius killing Julian. According to a tradition, Saint Basil (an old school-mate of Julian) had been imprisoned at the start of Julian's Sassanid campaign. Basil prayed to Mercurius to help him, and the saint appeared in a vision to Basil, claiming to have speared Julian to death.

Julian's religious status is a matter of considerable dispute. He did not practice normative civic Roman cult of the earlier empire, but a kind of esoteric approach to classical philosophy sometimes identified as theurgy and also neoplatonism. According to Christian historian Socrates Scholasticus (iii, 21), Julian believed himself to be Alexander the Great in another body via transmigration of souls, as taught by Plato and Pythagoras. Image File history File links Saint_Mercurius_killing_Iulian. ... Image File history File links Saint_Mercurius_killing_Iulian. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coptic icon portraying a vision of Saint Basil, with Saint Mercurius killing the Pagan Roman Emperor Julian. ... Basil (ca. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Socrates Scholasticus was a Greek Christian church historian; born at Constantinople c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...


Since the persecution of Christians by past Roman Emperors had seemingly only strengthened Christianity, many of Julian's actions were designed to harass and undermine the ability of Christians to organize in resistance to the re-establishment of pagan acceptance in the empire.[3] Julian's preference for a non-Christian and non-philosophical view of Iamblichus' theurgy seems to have convinced him that it was right to outlaw the practise of the Christian view of theurgy and demand that suppression of the Christian set of Mysteries.[4] The Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches retell a story concerning two of his bodyguards who were Christian. When Julian came to Antioch, he prohibited the veneration of the relics. The two bodyguards opposed the edict, and were executed at Julian's command. The Orthodox Church remembers them as saints Juventinus and Maximos. Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Saint Juventinus (d. ...


In his School Edict Julian forbids Christian teachers from using the pagan scripts (such as the Iliad) that formed the core of Roman education: "If they want to learn literature, they have Luke and Mark: Let them go back to their churches and expound on them", the edict says.[5] This was an attempt to remove some of the power of Christian schools which at that time and later have used at large ancient Greek literature in their teachings in their effort to present Christian religion superior to the previous. The edict was also a severe financial blow, as it deprived Christian scholars, tutors and teachers of many students. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ...


In his Tolerance Edict of 362, Julian decreed the reopening of pagan temples, the restitution of alienated temple properties, and called back Christian bishops that were exiled by church edicts. The latter was an instance of tolerance of different religious views, but may also have been seen as an attempt by Julian to widen a schism between different Christian sects, further weakening the Christian movement as a whole.[6]


Because Christian charities were beneficial to all, including pagans, it put this aspect of the Roman citizens' life out of the control of the imperial authority and under that of the church.[7] Thus Julian envisioned the institution of a Roman philanthropic system, and cared for the behaviour and the morality of the pagan priests, in the hope that it would mitigate the reliance of pagans on Christian charity: A charitable organization (also known as a charity) is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ...

Julian's Column in Ankara, built in occasion of the emperor's visit to the city in 362
Julian's Column in Ankara, built in occasion of the emperor's visit to the city in 362

"These impious Galileans not only feed their own poor, but ours also; welcoming them into their agapae, they attract them, as children are attracted, with cakes.[8]
"Whilst the pagan priests neglect the poor, the hated Galileans devote themselves to works of charity, and by a display of false compassion have established and given effect to their pernicious errors. See their love-feasts, and their tables spread for the indigent. Such practice is common among them, and causes a contempt for our gods."[9] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1382x2592, 725 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Julian the Apostate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1382x2592, 725 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Julian the Apostate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... Agapē (IPA: or IPA: ) (Gk. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...

His care in the institution of a pagan hierarchy in opposition to the Christian one was due to his wish to create a society in which every aspect of the life of the citizens was to be connected, through layers of intermediate levels, to the consolidated figure of the Emperor - the final provider for all the needs of his people. Within this project, there was no place for a parallel institution, such as the Christian hierarchy or the Christian charity.[10]


After his arrival in Antiochia in preparation for the Persian war, the temple of Apollo burned down. Since Julian believed Christians to be responsible, their main church was closed. For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ...


Julian's Attempt to Re-Build the Jewish Temple

In 363, Julian, on his way to engage Persia, stopped at the ruins of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. In keeping with his effort to foster religions other than Christianity, Julian ordered the Temple rebuilt. A personal friend of his, Ammianus Marcellinus, wrote this about the effort: The wall by night “Wailing Wall” redirects here. ... A stone (2. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

"Julian thought to rebuild at an extravagant expense the proud Temple once at Jerusalem, and committed this task to Alypius of Antioch. Alypius set vigorously to work, and was seconded by the governor of the province; when fearful balls of fire, breaking out near the foundations, continued their attacks, till the workmen, after repeated scorchings, could approach no more: and he gave up the attempt." Alypius of Antioch was a geographer of the 4th century who was sent by the emperor Britain as first prefect. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ...

The failure to rebuild the Temple has been ascribed to an earthquake, common in the region, and to the Jews' ambivalence about the project. Sabotage is a possibility, as is an accidental fire. Divine intervention was the common view among Christian historians of the time.[11]


Death

In March 363, Julian started his campaign against the Sassanid Empire, with the goal of taking back the Roman cities conquered by the Sassanids under the rule of Constantius II which his cousin had failed to take back.


Receiving encouragement from an oracle in the old Sibylline Books posted from Rome, and moving forward from Antioch with about 90,000 men, Julian entered Sassanid territory. An army of 30,000 was sent, under the command of Procopius, to Armenia, whence, having received reinforcements from the King of Armenia, it was to attack the Sassanid capital from the north. Julian victoriously led the Roman army into enemy territory, conquering several cities and defeating the Sassanid troops. He arrived under the walls of the Sassanid capital, Ctesiphon, but even after defeating a superior Sassanid army in front of the city (Battle of Ctesiphon), he could not take the Persian capital. Also Procopius did not return with his troops, so Julian decided to lead his army back to the safety of the Roman borders. The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ... It has been suggested that first class mail be merged into this article or section. ... Procopius (326 - May 27, 366), was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Combatants Romans Persians Commanders Julian the Apostate Shapur II Strength 90,000 N/A Casualties low, but include Julian, and casualties from disease 2,500 dead The Battle of Ctesiphon took place in June 26, 363 AD between the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate and the Persian emperor Shapur II...


During this retreat, on 26 June 363, Julian died near Maranga, during a victorious battle against the Sassanid army. While pursuing the retreating enemy with few men, and not wearing armor, he received a wound from a spear that reportedly pierced the lower lobe of his liver, the peritoneum and intestines. The wound was not immediately deadly. Julian was treated by his personal physician, Oribasius of Pergamum, who seems to have made every attempt to treat the wound. This probably included the irrigation of the wound with a dark wine, and a procedure known as gastrorrhaphy, in which an attempt is made to suture the damaged intestine. is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oribasius (c. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ...


Libanius states that Julian was assassinated by a Christian who was one of his own soldiers; this charge is not corroborated by Ammianus Marcellinus or other contemporary historians. Julian was succeeded by the short-lived Emperor Jovian.[citation needed]


Libanius says in his epitaph of the deceased emperor (18.304) that "I have mentioned representations (of Julian); many cities have set him beside the images of the gods and honour him as they do the gods. Already a blessing has been besought of him in prayer, and it was not in vain. To such an extent has he literally ascended to the gods and received a share of their power from him themselves." However, no similar action was taken by the Roman central government, which would be more and more dominated by Christians in the ensuing decades.[citation needed]


Considered apocryphal is the report that his dying words were Vicisti, Galilaee ("You have won, Galilean"), supposedly expressing his recognition that, with his death, Christianity would become the Empire's state religion. The phrase introduces the 1866 poem Hymn to Proserpine, which was Algernon Swinburne's elaboration of what Julian might have felt at the triumph of Christianity. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hymn to Proserpine is a poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne, published in 1866. ... Algernon Swinburne, Portrait by Rossetti Algernon Charles Swinburne (April 5, 1837 – April 10, 1909) was a Victorian era English poet. ...


Julian as a writer

Julian wrote several works in Greek, some of which have come down to us.

  • Hymn to King Helios
  • Hymn to the Mother of the Gods
  • Two panegyrics to Constantius

The above are hard for the modern reader to digest.[citation needed] The religious works contain involved philosophical speculations, and the panegyrics to Constantius are formulaic and elaborate in style.


The following works, on the other hand, are quite accessible and readable.[citation needed]

  • Misopogon or "Beard Hater" - a light-hearted account of his clash with the inhabitants of Antioch after he was mocked for his beard and generally scruffy appearance for an emperor
  • The Caesars - a humorous tale of a contest between some of the most notable Roman emperors. This was a satiric attack upon the recent Constantine, whose worth, both as a Christian and as the leader of the Roman Empire, Julian severely questions
  • Against the Galilaeans - a critique of Christianity, only partially preserved, thanks to Cyril of Alexandria's rebuttal Against Julian

The works of Julian were edited and translated by Wilmer Cave Wright as The Works of the Emperor Julian (3 vols.). London, 1923. The Misopogon, or Beard-Hater, is a satirical essay on philosophers by the emperor Julian. ... St. ...


Julian in fiction

Julian's life inspired the play Emperor and Galilean by Henrik Ibsen. Emperor and Galilean (in Norwegian: Kejser og Galilæer) is a play written by Henrik Ibsen and published in 1873. ... Ibsen redirects here. ...


Julian's life and reign were the subject of the novel "The Death of the Gods (Julian the Apostate)" (1895) in the trilogy of historical novels entitled "Christ and Antichrist" (1895-1904) by the Russian Symbolist poet, novelist and literary theoretician Dmitrii S. Merezhkovskii. Mikhail Nesterovs painting Vision to Youth Bartholomew (1890) is often taken as a starting point of Russian Symbolism. ... Dmitry Merezhkovsky Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky Дмитрий Сергеевич Мережковский (August 14, 1865, St Petersburg-December 9, 1941, Paris) was one of the earliest and most eminent ideologues of Russian Symbolism. ...


Julian was the subject of a detailed, carefully researched novel, Julian (1964), by Gore Vidal, describing his life and times. It is notable for, among other things, its scathing critique of Christianity. Julian by Gore Vidal is a historical novel in the first person dealing with the life of the Roman emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus, known as Julian the Apostate, who reigned 360-363 CE. He was the last direct relative of Constantine the Great to assume the purple, his father being... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced , occasionally , , etc) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays. ...


Also, Julian appeared in "Gods and Legions", by Michael Curtis Ford (2002). Julian's tale was told by his closest companion, the Christian saint, Caesarius and accounts for the transition from a Christian philosophy student in Athens to a pagan Roman Augustus of the old nature. Michael Curtis Ford is an American historical novelist, writing novels about Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. ... Saint Caesarius of Nazianzus (also spelled Cæsarius) was a physician. ...


Julian's letters are an important part of the symbolism of Michel Butor's novel La Modification. Michel Butor is a French post-World War II writer. ... La Modification (1957) (English title: Second Thoughts) is a novel by Michel Butor. ...


The fantasy alternate history The Dragon Waiting by John M. Ford, while set in the time of the War of the Roses, uses the reign of Julian as its point of divergence. His reign not being cut short, he was successful in disestablishing Christianity and restoring a religiously eclectic societal order which survived the fall of Rome and into the Renaissance. Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... The Dragon Waiting: A Masque of History is a modern fantasy novel by John M. Ford, published in 1983. ... John M. Ford portrait 2000 John Milo Mike Ford (April 10, 1957 – September 25, 2006) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer, game designer, and poet. ... The War or Wars of the Roses may refer to, or have been referred to by: The historical Wars of the Roses, the civil war that took place in Mediæval Britain between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. ... In discussion of counterfactual history, a point of divergence (POD) is a historical event, with two possible postulated outcomes. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Modern Neo-Pagans (particularly reconstructionists) sometimes refer to him as "Julian the Faithful", in direct opposition to the pejorative implications of the common epithet "the Apostate".
  2. ^ Jones, A. H. M., The Later Roman Empire, 284-602: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1986, p. 120.
  3. ^ Julian, Epistulae, 52.436A ff.
  4. ^ See Theourgia-Demiourgia John P Anton.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae Libri XXXI, 22.5.4.
  7. ^ Many historians agree that prior to the advent of Christianity, there was a distinct lack of love-motivated charity in the ancient world, and indeed in the Roman Empire. That is not to say that there was no philanthropy in the history of the Empire - patricians long before Julian's time had been expected to finance the baths and public buildings, for example. However, this was "dictated much more by policy than by benevolence" (WEH Lecky); because love was rare in the pagan philanthropic environment, it was "alien to human nature", and part of the reason Julian's project failed was because of the inspiration of Christian agape in charity: Julian himself ultimately "conceded that the Christians outshone the pagans in their devotion to charitable work." (Thomas Woods). Sources:
    • Gerhard Uhlhorn, Christian Charity in the Ancient Church, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1883), 2-44
    • Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7
    • WEH Lecky, History of European Morals From Augustus to Charlemagne
  8. ^ Alvin J. Schmidt, Social Results of Early Christianity, 328
  9. ^ Baluffi, 16
  10. ^ Roberts and DiMaio.
  11. ^ See "Julian and the Jews 361-363 CE" and "Julian the Apostate and the Holy Temple".

Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Romuva Spring Jorė festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapē), is the greatest of the three theological virtues... Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... William Edward Hartpole Lecky, OM (26 March 1838–22 October 1903) was an Irish historian and publicist. ... Agapē (IPA: or IPA: ) (Gk. ... Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ...

References

Primary sources

Works by Julian

Works about Julian

Claudius Mamertinus (flourished mid-late 4th century) was an official in the Roman Empire. ... The Panegyrici Latini or Latin Panegyrics is a collection of twelve ancient Roman panegyric orations. ... Saint Gregory Nazianzus (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ...

Secondary sources

  • Roberts, Walter E., and Michael DiMaio, "Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)", De Imperatoribus Romanis (2002)
  • Athanassiadi, Polymnia. Julian. An Intellectual Biography Routledge, London, 1992, ISBN 0-415-07763-X
  • Bowersock, Glen Warren. Julian the Apostate. London, 1978
  • Lascaratos, John and Dionysios Voros. 2000 Fatal Wounding of the Byzantine Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363 A.D.): Approach to the Contribution of Ancient Surgery. World J. Surg 24: 615-619
  • Lenski, Noel Emmanuel Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century AD UC Press: London, 2003
  • Lieu, Samuel N. From Constantine to Julian: A Source History Routledge: New York, 1996
  • Murdoch, Adrian. The Last Pagan: Julian the Apostate and the Death of the Ancient World, Stroud, 2005, ISBN 0-7509-4048-4
  • Rohrbacher, David. Historians of Late Antiquity. Routledge: New York, 2002
  • Smith, Rowland. Julian's gods: religion and philosophy in the thought and action of Julian the Apostate, London, 1995, ISBN 0-415-03487-6

See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anbar is a town in Iraq, at lat. ... Saint Dorotheus, bishop of Tyre ( 255 – 362) is traditionally credited with an Acts of the Seventy Apostles, who were sent out according to the Gospel of Luke 10:1- . Dorotheus, a learned priest of Antioch, the teacher of the Church historian Eusebius of Caesarea, was appointed director without having to... John and Paul ( Giovanni e Paolo) are saints in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Julian by Gore Vidal is a historical novel in the first person dealing with the life of the Roman emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus, known as Julian the Apostate, who reigned 360-363 CE. He was the last direct relative of Constantine the Great to assume the purple, his father being... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced , occasionally , , etc) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays. ...

External links

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Julian the Apostate
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Preceded by
Constantius II
Roman Emperor
361 – 363
Succeeded by
Jovian


  Results from FactBites:
 
Julian the Apostate - OrthodoxWiki (492 words)
Julian the Apostate was the Roman emperor from 361 to 363.
Julian, who had become skeptical of Christianity due to the intrigues and murders under Constantius, restablished the persecution of Christians upon his ascent to the imperial throne.
By recalling exiled bishops, Julian encouraged dissension among the Christians, who were already fighting the heresy of Arius.
Julian the Apostate Summary (3521 words)
Julian remained in retirement, but when Gallus proved to be cruel and incompetent and was executed, Julian was summoned to the court in Milan to free himself of suspicion of treasonable involvement with his half brother.
Julian was succeeded by the short-lived Emperor Jovian.
Julian's life and reign were the subject of the novel "The Death of the Gods (Julian the Apostate)" (1895) in the trilogy of historical novels entitled "Christ and Antichrist" (1895-1904) by the Russian Symbolist poet, novelist and literary theoretician Dmitrii S. Merezhkovskii.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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