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Encyclopedia > Juggling

Juggling is a form of skillful, often artful, object manipulation. The most recognizable form of juggling is toss juggling, where the juggler throws objects through the air. Jugglers often refer to the objects they juggle as props, the most popular being balls, beanbags, rings, clubs, or bouncing balls. Some performers use "dangerous" objects such as chainsaws, knives and fire torches, although when done by a trained performer are far less dangerous than they appear. Juggling also includes most prop-based circus skills such as diabolo, devil sticks, poi, cigar box manipulation, fire-dancing, contact juggling, and hat manipulation. Toss juggling is the form of juggling which is most recognisable as juggling. Objects, typically balls, clubs or rings, are repeatedly thrown and caught in a variety of different patterns and styles. ... A set of juggling balls Juggling balls, or simply balls, are a popular prop used by jugglers, either on their own—usually in sets of three or more—or in combination with other props such as clubs or rings. ... A bean bag is a bag containing dried beans or PVC pellets, with various applications. ... Juggling rings are together with balls and clubs regarded as the three basic juggling props. ... A set of juggling clubs This article focuses on one aspect of toss juggling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Torch Juggling Torches are juggling props used in many toss juggling routines. ... Circus skills are a group of pursuits that were traditionally used as a form of entertainment in circus, sideshow, busking or variety/vaudeville/music hall shows. ... The diabolo (commonly misspelled as diablo, formerly also known as the devil on two sticks) is a juggling prop consisting of a spool which is whirled and tossed on a string tied to two sticks held one in each hand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Poi dance, by Manutuke School at Hopuhopu, New Zealand, 2003 Poi is a form of juggling Impartial Art [1] (Finnigan, 1992) with balls on ropes, held in the hands and swung in various circular patterns, similar to club-twirling. ... Cigar boxes are a kind of popular juggling prop, popularised by W C Fields, which can be used for various tricks, including high-speed box exchanging midair, balancing tricks, and more. ... A fire twirler with staff A firedancer with poi A fire dancer juggling torches in a cascade pattern. ... Contact Juggling Contact juggling is the art of juggling without letting the balls leave contact with ones body. ... Hat manipulation is a form of juggling in which the manipulator performs feats of skill and dexterity using a brimmed hat such as a bowler hat or a top hat. ...


The word "juggling" derives from the Middle English jogelen to entertain by performing tricks, in turn from the French jongleur and the Old French jogler. There is also the Late Latin form joculare of Latin joculari, meaning to jest.[1] Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins and history

Main article: History of juggling

This page lists many dates in which juggling has been recorded throughout history from 1947 B.C. to 1947 A.D. This Egyptian wall painting (c. ...

Ancient to 20th century

This ancient wall painting (c. 1994-1781 B.C) appears to depict jugglers. It was found in the 15th tomb of the Beni Hassan area, Egypt According to Dr. Bianchi, associate curator of the Brooklyn Museum "In tomb 15, the prince is looking on to things he enjoyed in life that he wishes to take to the next world. The fact that jugglers are represented in a tomb suggests religious significance." ... "round things were used to represent solar objects, birth and death."
This ancient wall painting (c. 1994-1781 B.C) appears to depict jugglers. It was found in the 15th tomb of the Beni Hassan area, Egypt According to Dr. Bianchi, associate curator of the Brooklyn Museum "In tomb 15, the prince is looking on to things he enjoyed in life that he wishes to take to the next world. The fact that jugglers are represented in a tomb suggests religious significance." ... "round things were used to represent solar objects, birth and death."

The earliest record of juggling, a panel from the 15th Beni Hassan tomb of an unknown prince, shows female dancers and acrobats throwing balls. Juggling has also been recorded in most other early civilizations including Chinese, Indian, Greek, Aztec (Mexico) and Polynesian civilizations. [2] Image File history File links Egypt. ... Image File history File links Egypt. ... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of Al Minya (or Minieh), on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ... The Brooklyn Museum, located at 200 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, is the second largest art museum in New York City, and one of the largest in the United States. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ...


In Europe, juggling was an acceptable diversion until the decline of the Roman Empire, after which it fell into disgrace. Throughout the Middle Ages most histories were written by religious clerics who frowned upon the type of performers who juggled, called 'gleemen', accusing them of base morals or even practicing witchcraft. Jugglers in this era would only perform in marketplaces, streets, fairs or drinking houses. They would perform short, humorous and bawdy acts and pass a hat or bag among the audience for tips. Some kings' and noblemen’s bards, fools, or jesters would have been able to juggle or perform acrobatics, though their main skills would have been oral (poetry, music, comedy and storytelling). Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A gleeman was an itinerant performer in the Middle Ages[1]. Gleemen were distinguished from other kinds of performers by their ability to juggle[2], which was sometimes credited to their supposed knowledge of witchcraft. ... For other uses, see Witchcraft (disambiguation). ... A marketplace is the space, actual or metaphorical, in which a market operates. ... The Bard (ca. ... For other uses of Jester, see Jester (disambiguation). ... High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ... This article is about the art form. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... The word comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humor with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... For the 2001 film, see Storytelling (film) Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in words, images, and sounds. ...


In 1768 Philip Astley opened the first modern circus. A few years later he employed jugglers to perform acts along with the horse and clown acts. From then until the modern day, jugglers have been associated with circuses. Philip Astley (January 8, 1742–January 27, 1814) is regarded as the father of modern circus. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 19th century variety and music hall theatres became more popular, and jugglers were in demand to fill time between music acts, performing in front of the curtain while sets were changed. Performers started specializing in juggling, separating it from other kinds of performance such as sword swallowing and magic. The Gentleman Juggler style was established by German jugglers such as Salerno and Kara. Rubber processing developed, and jugglers started using rubber balls. Previously juggling balls were made from balls of twine, stuffed leather bags, wooden spheres or various metals. Solid or inflatable rubber balls meant that bounce juggling was possible. Inflated rubber balls made ball spinning easier and more readily accessible. Soon in North America, vaudeville theatres employed jugglers, often hiring European performers. A variety show is a show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... Sword swallowing is a dangerous performance art, in which the performer inserts a sword into his mouth and down his esophagus towards his stomach. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is an outline of the most popular forms of juggling as practiced by amateur, non-performing, hobby jugglers. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Twine is modern electronic music composed by Chad Mossholder and Greg Malcolm. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


20th Century - Birth of a hobby

In the early to mid-20th century, variety and vaudeville shows decreased in popularity due to competition from motion picture theatres, radio and television, and juggling suffered as a result. Music and comedy transferred very easily to radio but juggling, being mostly physical, didn’t. In the early years of TV, when variety-style programming was very popular, jugglers were often featured, but developing a new act for each new show, week after week, was impossible. Comedians and musicians can pay others to write their material but jugglers can’t get other people to learn new material for them. Jay Gilligan and Jouni Temonen, each practicing 5 club backcrosses. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as...


In the early 1950s, more people began juggling as a hobby. The International Jugglers' Association began as a club for performing jugglers, but soon non-performers joined and started attending the annual conventions, and in particular World Juggling Day (to teach people how to juggle, to promote juggling or for jugglers to get together and celebrate), traditionally held on a Saturday in June. The date for 2007 is June 16th. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Most cities and large towns now have juggling clubs, often based within or connected to universities and colleges. There are also community circus groups that teach young people and put on shows. The Internet Juggling Database maintains a searchable database of most juggling clubs.


Since the late 1980s a full juggling subculture has developed. The scene revolves around local clubs and organizations, special events, shows, magazines, Web sites, Internet forums and, possibly most importantly, juggling conventions. In recent years there has also been a growing focus on juggling competitions. This article needs to be wikified. ... Juggling competitions range from friendly and silly games to competitive sports. ...

Main article: Juggling convention

A juggling convention is the backbone of the juggling scene, the events that regularly bring jugglers from a wide area together to socialize. The focus of most juggling conventions is the main hall, a large space for open juggling. There will also be more formal workshops in which expert jugglers will work with small groups on specific skills and techniques. Most juggling conventions will also include a big show (open to the general public), competitions and juggling games. The Internet Juggling Database maintains a searchable database of all conventions in the past and future. The European Juggling Convention 2004 in Carvin, France Many countries, cities or juggling clubs hold their own annual juggling convention. ...


Popular forms of juggling

Main article: Forms of juggling

Juggling can be categorised by a number of factors, such as: This is an outline of the most popular forms of juggling as practiced by amateur, non-performing, hobby jugglers. ...


Objects juggled. Hence, there is ball juggling, club juggling and rings, as well as diabolo, devil sticks and cigar box manipulation. Handkerchiefs are another popular object, as are chainsaws, knives and flaming torches. Really, almost anything can be juggled and hence this category in only limited by practical concerns about size in particular. A set of juggling balls Juggling balls, or simply balls, are a popular prop used by jugglers, either on their own—usually in sets of three or more—or in combination with other props such as clubs or rings. ... A set of juggling clubs This article focuses on one aspect of toss juggling. ... Juggling rings are together with balls and clubs regarded as the three basic juggling props. ... The diabolo (commonly misspelled as diablo, formerly also known as the devil on two sticks) is a juggling prop consisting of a spool which is whirled and tossed on a string tied to two sticks held one in each hand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Method of juggling. Again this is a very open category. The classical and best known form, involving throwing and catching objects in the air without touching the ground, is toss juggling. Bounce juggling involves objects (usually balls) deliberately bounced off the ground. Contact juggling involves manipulating the object in constant contact with the body. Toss juggling is the form of juggling which is most recognisable as juggling. Objects, typically balls, clubs or rings, are repeatedly thrown and caught in a variety of different patterns and styles. ... Contact Juggling Contact juggling is the art of juggling without letting the balls leave contact with ones body. ...


Performance style. This may include the gentleman juggler - using everyday objects such as hats, canes, plates, wine bottles and cigars; comedy Juggling - the juggling skill is secondary to the comic character and jokes of the performer; sport themed - the performers dress in sporting attire and juggle sports equipment such as tennis rackets, footballs, or even snooker balls; traditional circus style - presenting pure skill with precision, skill and panache. Cultural extensions of the traditional circus style include: Chinese circus - using mainly rings and badminton rackets, fantastic costumes, concentrating on numbers juggling; Russian folk - colourful costumes and characters, unique props with acrobatics.


Number of objects juggled. There is a common distinction made in juggling between trick juggling and numbers juggling. In trick juggling, the main aim is to perform exceptionally skillful and impressive manipulations with the objects juggled. Numbers juggling, by contrast, has the single-minded goal of juggling as many objects as possible.


Number of jugglers. Juggling is most commonly performed by an individual. However, multiple-person juggling is also frequently performed by two or more people. The essence of this kind is that some method of passing between the jugglers is used - this can be through the air (as in toss juggling), bounced off the ground, simply handed over, or numerous other ways depending on the objects and the style of juggling. For example, two club jugglers may stand facing each other, each juggling a 3-club pattern themselves, but then simultaneously passing between each other at preset timings. back to back juggling is also possible, or various other combinations.


The object, method, style and number of jugglers can be quite fluid. For example, a single juggler could be juggling several different objects (say a ball, a club and an orange), could start by toss juggling them, then start bounding the ball as part of the routine, and finally start passing the objects between themselves and a second juggler.


Juggling world records

Dave Critchfield & John Jones, The Bounce Dicks, bounce passing 18 balls.

Many juggling world records are tracked by the Juggling Information Service Committee on Numbers Juggling (JISCON). All the records listed on the JISCON page represent the longest runs with each number and prop that has been authenticated using video evidence. As of September 2006, the top records for each prop are: Image File history File links 18balls. ... Image File history File links 18balls. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

  • Rings/Plates: 13 rings for 13 catches by Albert Lucas in 2002.
  • Balls/Beanbags: 12 beanbags for 12 catches, first done by Bruce Sarafian in 1996.
  • Clubs/Sticks: 9 sticks for 9 catches, first done by Bruce Tiemann in 1996.

Each of these records is what is known as a "flash", meaning each prop is thrown and caught only once. Some jugglers, and some juggling competitions, do not consider a flash to be "real juggling" and use "qualifying juggle" (a term taken from the International Jugglers' Association's Numbers Competition) to denote a pattern where each prop is thrown and caught at least twice. The JISCON records for qualifying runs are: This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Rings: 10 rings for 64 catches by Anthony Gatto in 2005.
  • Balls: 10 beanbags for 23 catches by Bruce Sarafian in 2001.
  • Clubs: 8 clubs for 16 catches by Anthony Gatto in 2006.


There are jugglers who claim to have equalled or bettered these records, but have not submitted video evidence to the JISCON. Anthony Gatto, Vova Galchenko, Jason Garfield, and Thomas Dietz are recognized as the greatest jugglers in the world, holding numerous world records and entering the most difficult kinds of juggling contests such as the famous WJF Competition. Jason Garfield had demonstrated juggling 8 clubs for 8 catches and 11 balls for 11 catches. Anthony Gatto is an American juggler who holds several juggling world records and is widely renowned as one of the most skilled technical jugglers of all time. ... Anthony Gatto is an American juggler who holds several juggling world records and is widely renowned as one of the most skilled technical jugglers of all time. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Jason Garfield (born in Connecticut on August 9th, 1974) is a juggler and entertainer, and also the founder and president of the World Juggling Federation (WJF). ... Thomas Dietz (born May 19, 1982) is a German juggler from Regensburg, Germany. ...


Venues

Juggling is often used in circus arts, such as in Jennifer Miller's Circus Amok
Juggling is often used in circus arts, such as in Jennifer Miller's Circus Amok

Circus. Wherever there are circuses, there are jugglers, though usually only one or two jugglers per circus. This means that only the best, most advanced jugglers perform in traditional and established circuses. Many circus jugglers are from Russia and other Soviet block states, products of very prestigious circus schools. Other traditions are represented, such as Chinese acrobatics schools, and traditional circus families that are often Latin American or European. Some of the greatest jugglers from the past 50 years are from Eastern Europe, including Sergei Ignatov, Evgenij Biljauer and Viktor Kee (featured in Cirque du Soleil productions). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 773 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1667 × 1293 pixel, file size: 682 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Juggling Jennifer Miller Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 773 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1667 × 1293 pixel, file size: 682 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Juggling Jennifer Miller Metadata This file... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... Jennifer Miller (1961-) is a US lesbian bearded woman, juggler, and fire-eater, and a professor for UCLA Department of World Arts and Cultures. ... Sergei Ignatov is a Russion juggler born in 1950 in Chemnitz. ... Cirque du Soleil (French for Circus of the Sun) is an entertainment empire based in Montréal, Québec Canada and founded in Baie-Saint-Paul, Québec in 1984 by two former street performers, Guy Laliberté and Daniel Gauthier. ...


Clowns would often dress up and perform this art with several objects ranging from bouncy balls to scarves.


Variety Theatres still do business in Europe, particularly Germany. In North America the closest thing to variety shows are in casinos, in places like Las Vegas, where jugglers perform alongside singers, comedians and others. As with circuses, the demand for jugglers to perform in variety theatres and casinos is far lower than jugglers seeking work, meaning only the best, most dynamic performers find regular work in the top venues. Germany and the USA have also produced some of the greatest jugglers from the past 50 years, most notably Francis Brunn from Germany and Anthony Gatto from the United States. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Francis Brunn (1923-2004) was a notable German-American juggler. ... Anthony Gatto is an American juggler who holds several juggling world records and is widely renowned as one of the most skilled technical jugglers of all time. ...


Renaissance and Medieval Fairs in North America and in Europe can also offer short-term performance venues for professional jugglers. With the increasing popularity of such venues (and with the continued success of Medieval/Renaissance themed restaurants) the ancient art of juggling finds a home.


Street Performance Especially in tourist destinations (Spain, Cyprus, London) you can find entertainers on the street busking. Street performers often include juggling and comedy in their shows. The most famous locations for this kind of street performance include Covent Garden in London, and Faneuil Hall in Boston. Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ...


Juggling notation systems

Main article: Juggling Notation

Juggling tricks and patterns can become very complex, and hence can be very difficult to communicate using everyday language. To get around this problem, various notation systems have been developed for communication of existing patterns, as well as for investigating and discovering new patterns. It has often been said, of many juggling patterns, that it is easier done than said, while it might be easy to learn a given maneuver and demonstrate it for others, it is often much harder to communicate the idea accurately using speech or plain text. ...


Diagram-based notations are the clearest way to show juggling patterns on paper, but as they are based on images, their use is limited in text based communication (email and the internet). Ladder Diagrams track the path of all the props through time, where the less complicated Causal Diagrams only track the props that are in the air, and assumes that a juggle has a prop in each hand. Numeric based notation systems are more popular and standardized than diagram-based notations. They are used extensively in both a written form, and for those "fluent" in juggle-speak, in normal conversation.

Animation of Siteswap 3, also known as a 3 ball cascade

Siteswap is by far the most common juggling notation. In its most basic form, Vanilla Siteswap, it is very easy to use, as each pattern is reduced to a simple sequence of numbers, such as "3", "97531" or "744". However, vanilla siteswap can only notate the most basic alternating two-handed patterns, with no deviations from a very strict set of rules. If one of these rules is broken, say an extra hand is added, the same string of numbers will result in a wildly different pattern than first conceived. For slightly more complicated patterns, extra rules and syntax are added to create Synchronous Siteswap, to notate patterns where both hands throw at the same time, and Multiplex Siteswap, to notate patterns where one hand holds or throws two balls on the same beat. Other extensions to siteswap have been developed for specific purposes, including Passing Siteswap, Multi-Hand Notation (MHN) and General Siteswap (GS). A moving GIF showing a basic 3 ball-cascade juggling pattern: good for juggling explanation. ... A moving GIF showing a basic 3 ball-cascade juggling pattern: good for juggling explanation. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ... An illustration of the 3_ball cascade. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ...


Beatmap is a relatively new numeric notation which can notate any number of hands or juggling prop, and in any rhythm ,with no added complexity to its basic structure. Within beatmap it is also possible and easy to notate not only the balls in a pattern, but also the hands or arms of the juggler, as well as the position, location or orientation of the body of a juggler. Luke Burrage, the inventor of beatmap, claims that beatmap can more accurately describe more patterns than all ladder diagrams, causal diagrams, mills mess state transition diagrams, vanilla siteswap, synch siteswap, passing siteswap and multi-hand notation combined. So far use of beatmap is very limited, as most jugglers and all juggling software understand only variations of siteswap.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Juggling
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Learning to juggle

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Contact Juggling Contact juggling is the art of juggling without letting the balls leave contact with ones body. ... Equilibristics refers to a number of circus arts and juggling skills in which the main prop is rotated around its own center of gravity. ... Guinness World Record-holder Owen Morse joggling during a training session at University of California, Irvine, in 1988 Joggling (a portmanteau word) describes juggling while jogging. ... Learning the pendulum is easy for most children. ... Toss juggling is the form of juggling which is most recognisable as juggling. Objects, typically balls, clubs or rings, are repeatedly thrown and caught in a variety of different patterns and styles. ... Flair bartending is the practice of bartenders entertaining guests, clientele or audiences with the manipulation or juggling of bar tools (e. ...

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, 1989: juggling entry
  2. ^ http://www.juggling.org/museum/ethnography/

External links

Organizations

  • The International Jugglers' Association (IJA) - worldwide community of jugglers united.
  • The European Jugglers' Association (EJA) - European community of jugglers united.
  • The World Juggling Federation - private company aimed at promoting competition-style juggling.

Resources

  • The Internet Juggling Database - very current; very exhaustive; active wiki community.
  • Juggling Information Service - dated but has a huge amount of information.
  • Learn the Cascade - detailed instructions and videos which will teach you how to juggle 3 balls.
  • The Passing Database - including many videos
  • The Juggling Trick Database - details and instructions for a large number of juggling tricks.
  • rec.juggling - juggling newsgroup; very active community
  • Jugglers agency - Artistic agency specialized in top quality jugglers

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Science of Juggling (3924 words)
JUGGLING THEOREM proposed by Claude E. Shannon of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is schematically represented for the three-ball cascade.
The temporal constraints on juggling are elegantly summarized by Shannon's theorem.
Bounce juggling is easier to accomplish than is toss juggling because the balls are grabbed at the top of their trajectories, when they are moving the slowest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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