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Encyclopedia > Juggler

Juggling can refer to all forms of artful or skillful object manipulation. This includes most prop-based circus skills such as diabolo, devil sticks, cigar box manipulation, fire-dancing, contact juggling, and hat manipulation. Circus Skills is a group of pursuits that were traditionally used as a form of entertainment in circus, sideshow, busking or variety/vaudeville/music hall shows. ... The diabolo (commonly misspelled as diablo, formerly also known as the devil on two sticks) is a juggling prop consisting of a spool which is whirled and tossed on a string tied to two sticks held one in each hand. ... Learning the pendulum is easy for most children. ... Cigar box is a kind of popular juggling prop which can be used for various of tricks, including high-speed box exchanging in the midair, balancing tricks, and much more. ... A firedancer with poi Firedancing (also known as fire twirling, fire spinning, or fire manipulation) is a group of circus-art disciplines that involve manipulation of objects on fire. ... Contact Juggling Contact juggling is the art of juggling without letting the balls leave contact with ones body. ... Hat manipulation is a form of juggling in which the manipulator performs feats of skill and dexterity using a brimmed hat such as a bowler hat or a top hat. ...


The most recognisable form of juggling is toss juggling. For more in-depth information on a given form of juggling, juggling history or a specific juggling prop, follow the link to the related article. Toss juggling is the form of juggling which is most recognisable as juggling. Objects, typically balls, clubs or rings, are repeatedly thrown and caught in a variety of different patterns and styles. ... This page lists many dates in which juggling has been recorded throughout history from 1947 B.C. to 1947 A.D. This Egyptian wall painting (c. ...


Jugglers refer to the objects they juggle as props, the most popular being specially made balls, beanbags, rings, clubs, or bouncing balls. Some performers also use "dangerous" objects such as chainsaws, knives and fire torches. computed tomography of a soccer ball (Video) Balls are usually hollow and spherical but can be other shapes, such as ovoid (only in a few special cases) or solid (as in billiards). ... A bean bag is a bag containing dried beans or PVC pellets, with various applications. ... This is an outline of the most popular forms of juggling as practiced by amateur, non-performing, hobby jugglers. ... A set of juggling clubs This article focuses on one aspect of toss juggling. ... A chainsaw (also spelled chain saw) is a portable mechanical, motorized saw. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Torch Juggling This article focuses on one aspect of toss juggling. ...


The word "juggling" derives from the Middle English "jogelen", to entertain by performing tricks, in turn from the French "jongleur", the Old French "jogler", the Latin "ioculari", to jest, and "iocus", a joke. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Manuel and Christoph Mitasch, world record holding club passers.
Manuel and Christoph Mitasch, world record holding club passers.

Contents

Image File history File links Juggling_Clubs_Manuel_and_Christoph_Mitasch_8_club_passing. ... Image File history File links Juggling_Clubs_Manuel_and_Christoph_Mitasch_8_club_passing. ...

Origins and History to 1947 A.D.

Main article: History of juggling
This ancient wall painting (c. 1994-1781 B.C) appears to depict jugglers. It was found in the 15th tomb of the Beni Hassan area, Egypt According to Dr. Bianchi, associate curator of the Brooklyn Museum "In tomb 15, the prince is looking on to things he enjoyed in life that he wishes to take to the next world. The fact that jugglers are represented in a tomb suggests religious significance." ... "round things were used to represent solar objects, birth and death."
This ancient wall painting (c. 1994-1781 B.C) appears to depict jugglers. It was found in the 15th tomb of the Beni Hassan area, Egypt According to Dr. Bianchi, associate curator of the Brooklyn Museum "In tomb 15, the prince is looking on to things he enjoyed in life that he wishes to take to the next world. The fact that jugglers are represented in a tomb suggests religious significance." ... "round things were used to represent solar objects, birth and death."

Juggling pre-dates any recorded history so the exact origins will never be known. The earliest known record of juggling, a panel from the 15th Beni Hassan tomb of an unknown prince, shows female dancers and acrobats throwing balls. Juggling has also been recorded in most other early civilizations including China, India, Greece, Aztec (Mexico) and Polynesia. This page lists many dates in which juggling has been recorded throughout history from 1947 B.C. to 1947 A.D. This Egyptian wall painting (c. ... Image File history File links Egypt. ... Image File history File links Egypt. ... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of Al Minya (or Minieh), on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ... The Brooklyn Museum, located at 200 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, is the second largest art museum in New York City, and one of the largest in the United States. ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 This article is about the wider region in the Pacific. ...


In Europe, juggling was an acceptable diversion until the decline of the Roman Empire, after which it fell into disgrace. Throughout the Middle Ages most histories were written by religious clerics who frowned upon the type of performers who juggled, called 'Gleemen', accusing them of base morals or even practicing witchcraft. Jugglers in this era would only perform in market places, streets, fairs or drinking houses. They would perform short, humorous and bawdy acts and pass a hat or bag among the audience for tips. Some king’s and noblemen’s bards, fools, or jesters would have been able to juggle or perform acrobatics, though their main skills would have been oral (poetry, music, comedy and story telling). Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Witchcraft, in various historical, religious and mythological contexts, is the use of certain kinds of alleged supernatural or magical powers. ... A marketplace is the space, actual or metaphorical, in which a market operates. ... A bard is a poet or singer, in religious or feudal contexts. ... A jester or fool is a specific type of clown mostly associated with the Middle Ages. ... High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Music is a form of art and entertainment or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... Comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humour with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... “Storytelling is humanity’s oldest form of literacy. ...


In 1768 Philip Astley opened the first modern circus. A few years later he employed jugglers to perform acts along with the horse and clown acts. From then until the modern day, jugglers have found work in and have commonly been associated with circuses. Philip Astley (January 8, 1742–January 27, 1814) is regarded as the father of modern circus. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the 19th century Variety and music hall theatres became more popular, and jugglers were in demand to fill time between music acts, performing in front of the curtain while sets are changed. Performers started specializing in juggling, separating it from other kinds of performance such as sword swallowing and magic. The Gentleman Juggler style was established by German jugglers such as Salerno and Kara. Rubber processing developed and jugglers started using rubber balls. Previously juggling balls were made from balls of twine, stuffed leather bags, wooden spheres or various metals. Solid or inflatable rubber balls meant that bounce juggling was possible. Inflated rubber balls made ball spinning easier and more readily accessible. Soon, in North America, Vaudeville theatres employed many jugglers, often hiring European performers. A variety show is a show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... Sword swallowing is a dangerous performance art, in which the performer inserts a sword into his mouth and down his esophagus towards his stomach. ... Magic, including the arts of prestidigitation and conjuring, is the art of entertaining an audience by performing illusions that baffle and amaze, often by giving the impression that something impossible has been achieved, almost as if the performer had magic or supernatural powers. ... There are many different ways to juggle, and almost as many ways to perform juggling skills to a live audience. ... Salerno is a town and a province capital in Campania, south-western Italy, located on the gulf of the same name on the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Kara may refer to: Kara, a city in northern Togo The Kara people of Ukerewe island in Tanzania Kara, a type of bracelet worn in South Asia, and a requirement to be worn by followers of the Sikh faith. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... Twine is modern electronic music composed by Chad Mossholder and Greg Malcolm. ... Vaudeville is a style of multi-act theatre which flourished in North America from the 1880s through the 1920s. ...


In the early to mid 20th century, variety and vaudeville shows started to decline in popularity due to competition from motion picture theatres, radio and television. The International Jugglers' Association was formed in 1947 to support professional jugglers. Their annual conventions became a focus for not only professional but amateur jugglers. Since the 1950's there has been a huge increase in the numbers of amateur jugglers compared to performing professionals leading to a very distinct juggling culture. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Jay Gilligan and Jouni Temonen, each practicing 5 club backcrosses. ...


The growth of juggling as a hobby, 1947 - present

Until the early 1950s, juggling was only practiced by performers. Since then more and more people have begun juggling as a hobby. The International Jugglers' Association began as a club for performing jugglers but soon non-performers joined up and started attending the annual conventions. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


As more amateurs around the world began to juggle as a hobby sport or pastime, they started meeting together regularly to practice and socialise in local groups. These groups formed into juggling clubs, and currently there are clubs for jugglers in almost every city and large town in the western world.


When juggling was practiced by professionals only, jugglers were secretive and possessive of their tricks and skills. Over the years the attitude has changed, and juggling has now become a major social activity for hundreds of thousands (or possibly millions) of people all over the world who are more than happy to share their skills and encourage others to join in. This more open approach, and the fact that basic juggling is not that difficult to learn, has made juggling an activity that almost anyone can participate in. There are many reasons why someone may learn to juggle. These include:

  • It is fun to learn and fun to teach
  • It looks impressive regardless of skill level demonstrated by the juggler!
  • It can help relieve stress
  • While it is initially easy to pick up, juggling is challenging and no matter how good you get there is always more to learn
  • It can help improve reflexes and hand-eye coordination
  • It can help improve math and pattern skills
  • It can be used to keep fit (often combined with jogging, which is called joggling)
  • It can be a great icebreaker at parties

The majority of hobby jugglers can be split into one of two groups. The first are those who learned to juggle at university or college juggling clubs. These people are often mathematicians, scientists, and computer programmers. They like juggling because it can be very structured and it can be analysed and modeled easily by mathematics and physics. Juggling has established itself as a very useful model for researchers studying motor skills and learning techniques. The second group are from the counter culture or alternative culture scene. They enjoy juggling because, while it can be very structured, it can also be as free as you want it to be, with a virtually infinite scope for individual personal expression. Fire juggling is a common appeal. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... During the 1960s the term underground acquired a new meaning in that it referred to members of the so-called counterculture, i. ... Alternative culture is a catch-all phrase used predominately by the media and the marketing industry to refer to a variety of separate sub-cultures – (which are either loosely related or near-totally unrelated) – and are perceived by the general public as being outside or on the edge of so...


Since the 1970s, "Juggling For the Complete Klutz", a book by John Cassidy that is sold with a set of three beanbags attached, has probably introduced juggling to more people than any other single source. Another reason for the increase of people who can juggle is that many businesses and schools have employed professional workshop leaders to teach various circus skills. Circus Skills is a group of pursuits that were traditionally used as a form of entertainment in circus, sideshow, busking or variety/vaudeville/music hall shows. ...


Juggling is a very universal skill, and varies from the circus juggler, a clown, hobbyists and enthusiasts, to the professional juggler.


People often debate if juggling is a sport or an art. You don't have to be good at either of these, or do either, to be a good juggler. We should bear in mind and respect other peoples views on this 'skill'.


Being a bigger hobby than most people assume it to be, young and old people alike enjoy sharing their ideas.


Modern Juggling Culture

Since the late 1980s a large juggling subculture has developed, almost completely unknown and unrecognised by the general public. The scene revolves around local clubs and organisations, special events, shows, magazines, websites, internet forums and, possibly most importantly, juggling conventions. In recent years there has also been a growing focus on juggling competitions. Jay Gilligan and Jouni Temonen, each practicing 5 club backcrosses. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Juggling competitions range from friendly and silly games to competitive sports. ...


Populating the scene are many "juggling celebrities". These people are notable (or notorious) for being good or creative jugglers, entertaining performers, convention organisers, experts in their field or just for having a curiously interesting personality or character. Of course, outside of the juggling world they are completely unknown.

  • Local clubs/societies/workshops - most cities and large towns have juggling clubs where anyone is welcome to learn and share skills. Many universities and colleges have juggling or circus skills societies. There are also many community circus groups that usually aim to teach young people and put on shows. The Internet Juggling Database maintains a searchable database of most juggling clubs.
  • Magazines - Kaskade is the European juggling magazine, published in both English and German. JUGGLE is the official publication of the IJA and focuses on the North American scene. Juggling Magazine is published in Italy. Newton Las Pelotas is published in Argentina for the Latin American readership.
  • World Juggling Day - is the second or third Saturday in June. The date for 2006 is June 17th. There are events organized world wide to teach people how to juggle, to promote juggling or for jugglers to get together, and celebrate.
  • Juggling Conventions/Festivals Many countries, cities or juggling clubs hold their own annual juggling convention. These are the backbone of the juggling scene, the events that regularly bring jugglers from a wide area together to socialize. The attendance of a convention can be anything from a few dozen to a few thousand people. The principal focus of most juggling conventions is the main hall, a large space for open juggling. There will also be more formal "workshops" in which expert jugglers will work with small groups on specific skills and techniques. Most juggling conventions will also include a big show (open to the general public), competitions and juggling games. The Internet Juggling Database maintains a searchable database of all conventions in the past and future.
Main article: Juggling convention
  • Sports Juggling Events - In the last few years competitive juggling has been gaining limited popularity in the juggling world. Notable examples are the World Juggling Federation Competitions that take place annually in America, which judges technical juggling routines in the same style as gymnastics or figure skating, and volleyclub tournaments that take place in Germany and other European countries.

The European Juggling Convention 2004 in Carvin, France Many countries, cities or juggling clubs hold their own annual juggling convention. ...

Popular Forms of Juggling

Main article: Forms of Juggling

The word juggling can encompass all kinds of artistic object manipulation and circus skills including diabolo, devil sticks, cigar box manipulation, fire-twirling, contact juggling, and hat manipulation. In its purer sense, it involves the repeated throwing and catching of objects using the hands. As there is no final authority in the world of juggling, the exact definition of juggling is hard to pin down. Many jugglers would say that there have to be more props being juggled than hands doing the juggling, that two hands need three balls to be considered real juggling. However, many forms of juggling break this rule and are still considered juggling by the majority of jugglers. This is an outline of the most popular forms of juggling as practiced by amateur, non-performing, hobby jugglers. ... The diabolo (commonly misspelled as diablo, formerly also known as the devil on two sticks) is a juggling prop consisting of a spool which is whirled and tossed on a string tied to two sticks held one in each hand. ... Learning the pendulum is easy for most children. ... Contact Juggling Contact juggling is the art of juggling without letting the balls leave contact with ones body. ... Hat manipulation is a form of juggling in which the manipulator performs feats of skill and dexterity using a brimmed hat such as a bowler hat or a top hat. ...


Outlined below are the more common forms of juggling, please see the Forms of Juggling for a more complete list. This is an outline of the most popular forms of juggling as practiced by amateur, non-performing, hobby jugglers. ...


Solo Juggling

Most jugglers concentrate on three main props. These are balls, clubs and rings. Many of the same tricks and skills can transfer between the props but there are unique qualities for each. A ball is a round object that is used most often in sports and games. ... Clubs (♣) is one of the four suits found in playing cards, marked with a black trefoil; the term is translated from the Spanish basto. ... A ring is usually anything resembling a circle, or a noise that cycles rapidly. ...


Balls are probably the most popular props, since everybody learns with balls first. Ball juggling can be broken down into the following styles: Contact Juggling, Numbers Juggling, Pattern Juggling, Trick Juggling, Technical Juggling, Bounce Juggling and Football Juggling. For the purposes of record keeping and ease of communication, the terms balls and beanbags are generally interchangeable in the juggling world.


Rings are less popular than balls and clubs, mainly because they can be painful to juggle, and many jugglers find them more restrictive. The most popular styles of ring juggling are Numbers Juggling and Technical Juggling.


Clubs (sometimes called "pins" because they look like Bowling pins) are very popular with solo jugglers. They spin when they are thrown and are more stable in the air than balls. The more popular styles of club juggling are Numbers Juggling, Trick Juggling, Technical Juggling and Club Swinging.


Multiple Person Juggling

Instead of juggling on their own, a juggler will often find a friend or two and throw props about as a pair or group.


When club passing, two or more jugglers share a juggling pattern between them, usually facing each other. Passing has lots of forms and is by far most popular using clubs. The most popular are numbers passing, passing and doing tricks, passing in large groups, experimenting with new and complex patterns and working on high level technical routines.


There are a few other ways two or more people can juggle together. These include Sharing/Siamese/Buddy Juggling, where two jugglers stand side by side juggling half the pattern using one hand each; Stealing, where one person juggles a regular pattern and another person takes away all the props, keeping the pattern intact, leaving the first juggler with nothing; Takeouts (sometimes also called Stealing), where single props are stolen from another juggler's pattern and returned without either juggler missing a beat.


Juggling World Records

Dave Critchfield & John Jones, The Bounce Dicks, bounce passing 18 balls. Photo by Jim Edmondson.
Dave Critchfield & John Jones, The Bounce Dicks, bounce passing 18 balls. Photo by Jim Edmondson.

Image File history File links 18balls. ... Image File history File links 18balls. ... This page lists toss juggling records for solo juggling of clubs, balls, rings and bounce juggling balls, as well as the two person passing records for each of these four props. ...

Solo World Records

Currently, some juggling world records are tracked by the Juggling Information Service Committee on Numbers Juggling (JISCON). All the records listed on the JISCON page represent the longest runs with each number and prop that has been authenticated using video evidence. As of September 2006, the top records for each prop are:

  • Rings/Plates: 13 rings for 13 catches by Albert Lucas in 2002.
  • Balls/Beanbags: 12 beanbags for 12 catches, first done by Bruce Sarafian in 1996.
  • Clubs/Sticks: 9 sticks for 9 catches, first done by Bruce Tiemann in 1996.

Each of these records are what is known as a "flash", meaning each prop is thrown and caught only ONCE. Some jugglers, and some juggling competitions, do not consider a flash to be "real juggling" and use "qualifying juggle" (a term taken from the International Jugglers' Association's Numbers Competition) to denote a pattern where each prop is thrown and caught at least TWICE. The JISCON records for qualifying runs are: This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Rings: 10 rings for 64 catches by Anthony Gatto in 2005.
  • Balls: 10 beanbags for 23 catches by Bruce Sarafian in 2001.
  • Clubs: 8 clubs for 16 catches by Anthony Gatto in 2006.

There are other jugglers who have equaled or bettered these records but have not submitted video evidence to the JISCON. These non-verified records stand at: Anthony Gatto is an American juggler who holds several juggling world records and is widely renowned as one of the most skilled technical jugglers of all time. ... Anthony Gatto is an American juggler who holds several juggling world records and is widely renowned as one of the most skilled technical jugglers of all time. ...

  • Rings: 14 rings for 14 catches by Albert Lucas.
  • Balls: 13 Beanbags for 13 catches, 12 for 13 catches and 11 for 18 catches by Peter Bone.
  • Clubs: 7 clubs for over 3 minutes by Anthony Gatto.

One other solo (non-passing) record that must be mentioned is the bounce juggling record. This is tracked by the Bounce Juggling World Record page [1], which styles itself on the JISCON page, and also only lists records with video evidence. These records are: This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Peter William Bone (born October 19, 1952) British politician and is the Conservative MP for Wellingborough. ... Anthony Gatto is an American juggler who holds several juggling world records and is widely renowned as one of the most skilled technical jugglers of all time. ...

  • Flash: 11 bounce balls for 11 catches by Tim Nolan in 1990.
  • Qualify: 10 bounce balls for 23 catches by Eden Zak in 2005.

Passing Records

When passing, only the props thrown between two separate jugglers are counted. In some patterns (ultimates or one-count) all the throws are caught by the opposite juggler but in a few patterns each juggler makes some throws to themself. If these self throws were counted, two jugglers could make a single pass to their partner and then go on to juggle solo patterns for as long as they wanted.


The JISCON page only tracks club passing records. The top records stand at:

  • Flash (each prop passed at least once but less than twice): 14 clubs for 14 passes be Peter Kaseman & Darin Marriott in 2004.
  • Qualify (each prop passed at least twice):12 clubs for 54 passes by Vova and Olga Galchenko in 2004. video on this page

Ball passing records are not officially tracked by any site. However, the top records currently stand at: Vova and Olga Galchenko Vladimir (born September 15, 1987), known as Vova, and Olga Galchenko (born July 31, 1990) are a brother and sister juggling team originally from Russia. ...

  • Flash: 18 balls for 18 catches by Ben Beever and Luke Burrage in 2002. video on this page
  • Near-Qualify: 15 balls for 27 catches Ben Beever and Luke Burrage in 2004.

The Bounce Page tracks bounce passing records. The top records stand at:

  • Flash: 18 balls for 30 catches by Dave Critchfield & John Jones in 2005. video on this page
  • Qualify: 16 balls for 74 catches by Dave Critchfield & John Jones in 2005. videos on this page

Forms of Juggling Performance

For the past hundred years, since the "Golden Age" of vaudeville, variety and circus to the present, a few methods of presenting juggling on stage have survived and remained popular with audiences. These Classic Forms include: There are many different ways to juggle, and almost as many ways to perform juggling skills to a live audience. ...

  • The Gentleman Juggler - using everyday objects such as hats, canes, plates, wine bottles and cigars.
  • Comedy Juggling - the juggling skill is secondary to the comic character and jokes of the performer.
  • Traditional Circus Style - presenting pure skill with precision, skill and panache. Also cultural extensions of this form:
    • Chinese Circus - using mainly rings and badminton rackets, fantastic costumes, concentrating on numbers juggling.
    • Russian Folk - colourful costumes and characters, unique props with acrobatics.
    • Sport themed - the performers dress in sporting attire and juggle sports equipment such as tennis rackets, footballs, or even snooker balls.

During the last quarter of the 20th century, many jugglers saw a way to use their skills as a form of artistic expression. They put aside the goals of popular entertainment for the masses, and instead sought out new ideals, something more than just juggling. Modern juggling begins again from first principles, abandoning traditional definitions and systems of creating new work. This dismissal of tradition also involves the rejection of conventional expectations, stressing freedom of expression and experimentation. The most experimental presentations of modern juggling often startles and alienates audiences unused to the bizarre and unpredictable. Even so, the avant-garde approach has been very influential to the rest of the juggling world. Many performers working in traditional venues such as variety and circuses now mix modern juggling ideas into their acts.


Modern juggling artists use their physical object manipulation (juggling) skills in combination with various performance concepts that can include patterns based on numerical sequences, character work, theatre, new props and objects, or working in new environments and staging. Some would say that Modern juggling is now so well accepted by juggling audiences that it is no longer avant-garde. In juggling convention shows in Europe, modern juggling is just as popular as the classic forms of juggling, if not more so. The European Juggling Convention 2004 in Carvin, France Many countries, cities or juggling clubs hold their own annual juggling convention. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven continents of the Earth. ...


In the past ten years a new type of juggling performer has emerged. They aren’t full-time, professional jugglers and they don’t create work for a non-juggling audience. Instead they perform exclusively at juggling conventions, to other people who share their own understanding of juggling performance and culture. This environment has produced a new style of juggling performance know as Postmodern Juggling.


Where Modern performers hoped to unearth universals or the fundamentals of art, Postmodern performers embrace diversity. They reject the rigid boundaries and favour eclecticism, the mixing of ideas and forms. Postmodern performers use references to other jugglers, other performers, other parts of juggling culture or even to their own previous performances. This could be in the form of recognizable tricks, styles, characters or ideas. A postmodern juggling act taken out of context, to an audience of non-jugglers, could not be presented as a stand-alone work of art; instead it relies on knowledgeable audience members to find the meaning behind the act for themselves. Postmodern juggling performance also blurs the line between “mass entertainment” and “high art”. The artistic expression is in the repetition and distortion of currently accepted forms of performance. While the mindset of the performers are very different, most juggling audiences make no distinction between Modern and Postmodern juggling acts, they simply see both as Modern.


Professional Performers

During the early growth of movies, radio and television, juggling, as a form of popular entertainment, suffered more than other variety acts. Music and comedy transferred very easily to radio but juggling, being mostly physical, didn’t. In the early years of TV, when variety-style programming was very popular, jugglers were often featured, but developing a new act for each new show, week after week, was impossible. Comedians and musicians can pay others to write their material but jugglers can’t get other people to learn new material for them. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as...


Venues

Juggling is often used in circus arts, such as in Jennifer Miller's Circus Amok
Juggling is often used in circus arts, such as in Jennifer Miller's Circus Amok

Circus. Wherever there are circuses, there are jugglers, though usually only one or two jugglers per circus. This means that only the best, most advanced jugglers perform in traditional and established circuses. Most circus jugglers are from Russia and other Soviet block states, products of very prestigious circus schools. Some of the greatest jugglers from the past 50 years are from Eastern Europe, including Sergei Ignatov, Evgenij Biljauer and Viktor Kee (featured in Cirque du Soleil productions). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1667x1293, 682 KB) Summary The author of this image is me, David Shankbone. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1667x1293, 682 KB) Summary The author of this image is me, David Shankbone. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... Jennifer Miller (1961-) is a US lesbian bearded woman, juggler, and fire-eater, and a professor for UCLA Department of World Arts and Cultures. ... Sergei Ignatov is a Russion juggler born in 1950 in Chemnitz. ... Cirque du Soleil (French for Circus of the Sun) is an entertainment empire based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and founded in Quebec in 1984 by two former street performers, Guy Laliberté and Daniel Gauthier. ...


Clowns would often dress up and perform this art with several objects ranging from bouncy balls to scarves.


Variety Theatres still do business in Europe, particularly Germany. In North America the closest thing to variety shows are in casinos, in places like Las Vegas, where jugglers perform alongside singers, comedians and others. As with circuses, the demand for jugglers to perform in variety theatres and casinos is far lower than jugglers seeking work, meaning only the best, most dynamic performers find regular work in the top venues. Germany and the USA have also produced some of the greatest jugglers from the past 50 years, most notably Francis Brunn from Germany and Anthony Gatto from America. Mirage Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas. ... Francis Brunn (1923-2004) was a notable German-American juggler. ... Anthony Gatto is an American juggler who holds several juggling world records and is widely renowned as one of the most skilled technical jugglers of all time. ...


Rennaisance and Medieval Fairs in North America and in Europe can also offer short-term performance venues for professional jugglers. With the increasing popularity of such venues (and with the continued success of Medieval/Rennaisance themed restaurants) the ancient art of juggling finds a home since it is certainly ancient but can still be quite entertaining.


Street Performance Especially in tourist destinations (Spain, Cyprus, London) you can find entertainers on the street busking. Street performers often include juggling and comedy in their shows. The most famous locations for this kind of street performance include Covent Garden in London, and Faneuil Hall in Boston. Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ...


Juggling Notation Systems

Main article: Juggling Notation

Juggling tricks and patterns can become very complex. While these look great when performed, they can be very difficult to communicate using plain English or other languages. To get around this problem, various numeric or diagram based notation systems have been developed for communication between jugglers, as well as for investigating and discovering new patterns. It has often been said, of many juggling patterns, that it is easier done than said, while it might be easy to learn a given maneuver and demonstrate it for others, it is often much harder to communicate the idea accurately using speech or plain text. ...


Diagram based notations are the clearest way to show juggling patterns on paper, but as they are based on images, their use is limited in text based communication (email and the internet). Ladder Diagrams track the path of all the props through time, where the less complicated Causal Diagrams only track the props that are in the air, and assumes that a juggle has a prop in each hand. Mills Mess State Transition Diagrams track the position of the hands during the pattern, but not the pattern of the props.


Numeric based notation systems are more popular and standardised than diagram based notations. They are used extensively in both a written form, and for those "fluent" in juggle-speak, in normal conversation.


Siteswap is by far the most common juggling notation. In its most basic form, Vanilla Siteswap, it is very easy to use, as each pattern is reduced to a simple sequence of numbers, such as "3", "97531" or "744". However, vanilla siteswap can only notate the most basic alternating two-handed patterns, with no deviations from a very strict set of rules. If one of these rules is broken, say an extra hand is added, the same string of numbers will result in a wildly different pattern than first conceived. For slightly more complicated patterns, extra rules and syntax are added to create Synchronous Siteswap, to notate patterns where both hands throw at the same time, and Multiplex Siteswap, to notate patterns where one hand holds or throws two balls on the same beat. Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ... Siteswap (also called Cambridge notation in the United Kingdom) is a notation used to describe juggling patterns. ...


Vanilla, synchronous and multiplex siteswap are the "standard" forms of siteswap, not only understood by many jugglers, but also many computer programs capable of animating juggling patterns. Other extensions to siteswap have been developed for specific purposes, though these are far less common than the "standard" forms of siteswap, understood by far fewer jugglers and only specialized software. These extensions include Passing Siteswap, Multi-Hand Notation (MHN) and General Siteswap (GS).


Beatmap is a relatively new numeric notation. It notates every "hand" on every beat during a pattern, unlike all forms of siteswap, which only notates each hand on every other beat. This means that beatmap can notate any number of hands or juggling prop and in any rhythm with no added complexity. Beatmap doesn't only notate throws, but also the time and place of each catch. By including a simple indication of crossing and uncrossing arms, beatmap can notate Mills Mess style patterns. Within beatmap it is also possible and easy to notate not only the balls in a pattern, but also the hands or arms of the juggler, as well as the position, location or orientation of the body of a juggler. Luke Burrage, the inventor of beatmap, claims that beatmap can more accurately describe more patterns than all ladder diagrams, causal diagrams, mills mess state transition diagrams, vanilla siteswap, synch siteswap, passing siteswap and multi-hand notation combined. So far use of beatmap is very limited, as most jugglers and all juggling software understand only variations of siteswap. An illustration of the 3-ball Mills mess. ...


See also

Contact Juggling Contact juggling is the art of juggling without letting the balls leave contact with ones body. ... Equilibristics refers to a number of circus arts and juggling skills in which the main prop is rotated around its own center of gravity. ... Joggling is a mixture of juggling and jogging, and is a portmanteau word. ... Learning the pendulum is easy for most children. ... Toss juggling is the form of juggling which is most recognisable as juggling. Objects, typically balls, clubs or rings, are repeatedly thrown and caught in a variety of different patterns and styles. ...

External links

Organizations

Resources

  • The Internet Juggling Database - very current; very exhaustive; active wiki community.
  • Juggling Information Service - dated but has a huge amount of information.
  • Learn the Cascade - detailed instructions and videos which will teach you how to juggle 3 balls.
  • The Passing Database - including many videos
  • The Juggling Trick Database - details and instructions for a large number of juggling tricks.
  • rec.juggling - juggling newsgroup; very active community

  Results from FactBites:
 
Juggler - definition of Juggler in Encyclopedia (1103 words)
One of the most basic three-ball tricks, and considered the first trick a juggler should learn is the three-ball cascade.
Instead it only shows the "problems", the incoming prop, and what the juggler should do to make space in his or her hand's to catch that incoming prop.
Within beatmap it is also possible and easy to notate not only the balls in a pattern, but also the hands or arms of the juggler, as well as the possition, location or orientation of the body of a juggler.
VR Juggler - Base/Main/About (425 words)
The VR Juggler project was started in 1997 by Dr.
VR Juggler is released under the GNU LGPL and will always be available for anyone and everyone to use free of charge.
VR Juggler is a collection of technologies which provide the tools necessary for VR application development.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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