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Encyclopedia > Judo
Judo
(柔道)

Execution of a judo throw
Focus Grappling
Country of origin Flag of Japan Japan
Creator Kano Jigoro
Parenthood Various jujutsu schools including Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū, Kito-ryū, and Fusen-ryū
Famous practitioners Mitsuo Maeda, Kyuzo Mifune, Masahiko Kimura, Gene LeBell, Anton Geesink, Yasuhiro Yamashita, Neil Adams, Karo Parisyan, Hidehiko Yoshida, Kosei Inoue
Olympic Sport Since 1964[1] (men) and 1992[2][3] (women)

Judo (柔道 jūdō?), meaning "gentle way", is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō) and combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an opponent to submit by joint locking the elbow or by applying a choke. Strikes and thrusts (by hands and feet) - as well as weapons defenses - are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori). JUDO is a Java-based integrated development environment designed for children and beginning computer programmers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (750x984, 69 KB) Summary A throw in Judo. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Kano Jigoro (嘉納 治五郎 Kanō Jigorō, 28 October 1860–4 May 1938) was the founder of judo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tenjin Shinyo-ryu can be classified as a koryu (traditional) form of jujutsu. ... The Kito-ryÅ« school of jujutsu is a koryu martial art whose syllabus comprises atemi-waza (striking techniques), nage-waza (throwing techniques), kansetsu-waza (joint locking techniques) and shime-waza (choking techniques). ... Japanese Judoka and prizefighter often referred to as Count Combat (or Count Koma in Portuguese) was the teacher of the Gracie brothers and taught the foundation for Gracie Jiu Jitsu. ... Kyuzo Mifune Kyuzo Mifune (三船久蔵 Mifune Kyuzo April 21, 1883 – January 27, 1965) has been categorized as one of the greatest exponents of the art of judo after the founder, Jigoro Kano. ... Masahiko Kimura redirects here. ... Gene LeBell (born October 9, 1932 in Los Angeles, California) is a former American judo champion, instructor, stuntman, and professional wrestler. ... Antonius Johannes Anton Geesink (born April 6, 1934) is a Dutch 10th dan judoka. ... Yasuhiro Yamashita (born June 1, 1957) is a Japanese Judoka, famous for a 7-year reign as undefeated in competitive tournament Judo, including 7 All-Japan championships[citation needed] and a Gold Medal at the 1984 Summer Olympic Games. ... Neil Adams, MBE (born September 27, 1958) is a British-born judoka who won numerous Olympic and Judo World Championship medals in judo. ... Karapet Karo Parisyan (born August 28, 1982 in Yerevan, Armenia) is an Armenian-American mixed martial arts fighter. ... Hidehiko Yoshida (吉田秀彦, September 3, 1969-) is a Japanese gold-medalist judoka and MMA fighter. ... Kosei Inoue (井上康生, Inoue Kosei) is a world-class Judo athlete from Japan. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ... Gendai budō (現代 武道) is a Japanese expression that is used to define the modern Japanese martial arts. ... A combat sport is a competitive sport involving the use of punch, kick, throw, joint locks, and/or a weapon for attack and defence. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Kata (åž‹ or å½¢) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ... Randori (乱取り) is a term used in Japanese martial arts to describe free-style practice or sparring, sometimes with multiple attackers. ...


Ultimately, the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for almost all modern Japanese martial arts that developed from "traditional" schools (koryū). KoryÅ« (古流) is a Japanese word that is used in association with the ancient Japanese martial arts. ...


Practitioners of judo are called jūdōka.

History and philosophy

Kano Jigoro.
Kano Jigoro.

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Early life of the founder

The early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Kano Jigoro (嘉納 治五郎 Jigorō Kanō", 1860–1938). Kano was born into a well-to-do Japanese family. His grandfather was a self-made man: a sake brewer from Shiga prefecture in central Japan. However, Kano's father was not the eldest son and therefore did not inherit the business. Instead, he became a Shinto priest and government official, with enough influence for his son to enter the second incoming class of Tokyo Imperial University. Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... Kano Jigoro (嘉納 治五郎 Kanō Jigorō, 28 October 1860–4 May 1938) was the founder of judo. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... Shiga Prefecture from outer space. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... The Yasuda Auditorium on the University of Tokyos Hongo Campus. ...


Founder pursues jujutsu

Kano was a small, frail boy, who, even in his twenties, did not weigh more than a hundred pounds (45kg), and was often picked on by bullies. He first started pursuing jujutsu, at that time a dying[4] art, at the age of 17, but met with little success. This was in part due to difficulties finding a teacher who would take him on as a student. When he went to university to study literature at the age of 18, he continued his martial arts studies, eventually gaining a referral to Fukuda Hachinosuke (c.1828–c.1880), a master of the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū and grandfather of Keiko Fukuda (born 1913), who is Kano's only surviving student, and the highest-ranking female jūdōka in the world. Fukuda Hachinosuke is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis of free practice (randori) in judo. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tenjin Shinyo-ryu can be classified as a koryu (traditional) form of jujutsu. ... Keiko Fukuda (born 1913) is currently, as of 2005, the highest-ranking female practitioner of judo in the world. ... Randori (乱取り) is a term used in Japanese martial arts to describe free-style practice or sparring, sometimes with multiple attackers. ...


A little more than a year after Kano joined Fukuda's school, Fukuda became ill and died. Kano then became a student in another Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū school, that of Iso Masatomo (c.1820–c.1881), who put more emphasis on the practice of pre-arranged forms (kata) than Fukuda had. Through dedication, Kano quickly earned the title of master instructor (shihan) and became assistant instructor to Iso at the age of 21. Unfortunately, Iso soon took ill, and Kano, feeling that he still had much to learn, took up another style, becoming a student of Iikubo Tsunetoshi (1835–1889) of Kitō-ryū. Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on free practice. On the other hand, Kitō-ryū emphasized throwing techniques to a much greater degree than Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū. Kata (åž‹ or å½¢) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed patterns of defense-and-attack movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ... Shihan is a Japanese title, often used in budo. ... The Kito-ryÅ« school of jujutsu is a koryu martial art whose syllabus comprises atemi-waza (striking techniques), nage-waza (throwing techniques), kansetsu-waza (joint locking techniques) and shime-waza (choking techniques). ...


Founding

By this time, Kano was devising new techniques, such as the "shoulder wheel" (kata-guruma, known as a fireman's carry to Western wrestlers who use a slightly different form of this technique) and the "floating hip" (uki goshi) throw. However, he was already thinking about doing far more than just expanding the canons of Kitō-ryū and Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū. Full of new ideas, Kano had in mind a major reformation of jujutsu, with techniques based on sound scientific principles, and with focus on development of the body, mind and character of young men in addition to development of martial prowess. At the age of 22, when he was just about to finish his degree at the University, Kano took nine students from Iikubo's school to study jujutsu under him at the Eisho-ji, a Buddhist temple in Kamakura, and Iikubo came to the temple three days a week to help teach. Although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name "Kodokan", or "place for teaching the way", and Kano had not yet been accorded the title of "master" in the Kitō-ryū, this is now regarded as the Kodokan's founding. Kamakuras location in Japan Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... The Kodokan Institute is the headquarters of the Judo World. ...


Judo[5] was originally known as Kano Jiu-Jitsu or Kano Jiu-Do, and later as Kodokan Jiu-Do or simply 'Jiu-Do' or 'Judo'. In the early days, it was also still referred to generically simply as 'Jiu-Jitsu'.[6]


Meaning of "judo"

Formalism and strict conduct are typical of traditional judo.
Formalism and strict conduct are typical of traditional judo.

The word "judo" shares the same root ideogram as "jujutsu": "" (?), which may mean "gentleness", "softness", "suppleness", and even "easy", depending on its context. Such attempts to translate are deceptive, however. The use of in each of these words is an explicit reference to the martial arts principle of the "soft method" (柔法 jūhō?). The soft method is characterized by the indirect application of force to defeat an opponent. More specifically, it is the principle of using one's opponent's strength against him and adapting well to changing circumstances. For example, if the attacker was to push against his opponent he would find his opponent stepping to the side and allowing his momentum (often with the aid of a foot to trip him up) to throw him forwards (the inverse being true for pulling.) Kano saw jujutsu as a disconnected bag of tricks, and sought to unify it according to a principle, which he found in the notion of "maximum efficiency". Jujutsu techniques that relied solely on superior strength were discarded or adapted in favour of those that involved redirecting the opponent's force, off-balancing the opponent, or making use of superior leverage. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1720x1160, 80 KB) Summary Judo formalism. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1720x1160, 80 KB) Summary Judo formalism. ... A Chinese character. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... Leverage is related to torque; leverage is a factor by which lever multiplies a force. ...


The second characters of judo and jujutsu differ. Where jujutsu (柔術 jūjutsu?) means the "art" or "science" of softness, judo (柔道 jūdō?) means the "way" of softness. The use of "" (?), meaning way, road or path (and is the same character as the Chinese word "tao"), has spiritual or philosophical overtones. Use of this word is a deliberate departure from ancient martial arts, whose sole purpose was for killing. Kano saw judo as a means for governing and improving oneself physically, mentally, emotionally and morally. He even extended the physical principle of maximum efficiency into daily life, evolving it into "mutual prosperity". In this respect, judo is seen as a holistic approach to life extending well beyond the confines of the dojo. This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ...


Combat phases

Tachi-waza ends and ne-waza begins once the jūdōka go to the ground. The throw pictured is ōuchi-gari.
Tachi-waza ends and ne-waza begins once the jūdōka go to the ground. The throw pictured is ōuchi-gari.

In judo, there are two main phases of combat: the standing (tachi-waza) and the ground (ne-waza) phase. Each phase requires its own (mostly separate) techniques, strategies, randori, conditioning and so on. Special training is also devoted to "transitional" techniques to bridge the gap. Jūdōka may become quite skilled in one phase and be rather weak in the other, depending on where their interests most lie, although most are balanced between the two. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1989x2634, 493 KB) Summary Going down. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1989x2634, 493 KB) Summary Going down. ... Ouchi Gari is one of the original 40 throws of Judo as developed by Jigoro Kano. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Conditioning is a psychological term for what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditional behavior. ...


Sparring

Judo emphasizes a free-style sparring, called randori, as one of its main forms of training. Part of the combat time is spent sparring standing up, called tachi-waza, and the other part on the ground, called ne-waza. Sparring, even subject to safety rules, is much more practically effective than only practicing techniques on their own, which is what jujutsuka were used to doing. Using full strength develops the muscles and cardio-vascular system on the physical side of things, and it develops strategy and reaction time on the mental side of things, and helps the practitioner learn to use techniques against a resisting opponent. A common saying among judoka is "The best training for judo is judo." Sparring in wushu (sport) using a dao (sword) and gun (staff) Sparring is a form of training common to many martial arts. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... A circulatory system (sometimes cardiovascular system) is an organ system that moves substances to and from cells; it can also help stabilize body temperature and pH (part of homeostasis). ...


There are several types of sparring exercises, such as ju renshu (both judoka attack in a very gentle way where no resistance is applied); and kakari geiko (only one judoka attacks while the other one relies solely on defensive and evasive techniques, but without the use of sheer strength.)


Balanced approach

Judo's balance between both the standing and ground phases of combat gives judoka the ability to take down opponents who are standing up and then pin and submit them on the ground. This balanced theory of combat has made judo a popular choice of martial art or combat sport. Two wrestlers clinching. ... A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a tap out or tapping out) is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. ...


Standing

In the standing phase, which has primacy according to the contest rules, the opponents attempt to throw each other. Although standing joint-lock and choke/strangulation submission techniques are legal in the standing phase,[7] they are quite rare due to the fact that they are much harder to apply standing than throws are. Some jūdōka, however, are very skilled in combining takedowns with submissions, where a submission technique is begun standing and finished on the ground. The juji-gatame armbar is one of the most versatile and effective joint locks. ... The lateral vascular neck restraint is a very potent chokehold. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ...


Strikes (i.e. punches, kicks, etc...) are not allowed due to their certainty of injury, but an athlete is supposed to "take them into consideration" while training by, for example, not fighting in a bent-over position for long, since this position is vulnerable to knee-strikes and other striking attacks. In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ... For other uses, see Kick (disambiguation). ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... A knee (technically referred to as a knee strike) is a martial arts and combatives term for a strike with the knee. ...


The main purpose of the throwing techniques (nage waza) is to take an opponent who is standing on his feet, mobile and dangerous, down onto his back where he cannot move as effectively. Thus, the main reason for throwing the opponent is to control the opponent and to put oneself in a dominant position. In this way the practitioner has more potential to render a decisive outcome. Another reason to throw the opponent is to shock his body through smashing him forcefully onto the ground. If an opponent executes a powerful yet fully controlled throw, he can win a match outright (by ippon) on the basis that he has displayed sufficient superiority. A lower score is given for lesser throws. A score for a throw is only given when executed starting from a standing position. Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... A grappling position refers the relative positioning and holds of two combatants engaged in grappling. ...


In keeping with Kano's emphasis on scientific analysis and reasoning, the standard Kodokan judo pedagogy dictates that any throwing technique is theoretically a four phased event: off-balancing (kuzushi); body positioning (作り tsukuri?); execution (掛け kake?); and finally the finish or coup de grâce (極め kime?). Each phase follows the previous one with great rapidity - ideally they happen almost simultaneously. Kuzushi ) is a Japanese term for unbalancing an opponent in the martial arts. ... Look up coup de grâce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ground

When practicing ne-waza, the practitioners may start from their knees.
When practicing ne-waza, the practitioners may start from their knees.

After a non-ippon throw occurs (whether or not it scores anything), combat continues on the ground. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x612, 162 KB) Summary When trained separately, Judo newaza starts from the knees. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x612, 162 KB) Summary When trained separately, Judo newaza starts from the knees. ...


On the ground the opponents try to execute a hold down, or to get the opponent to submit either by using armlocks (locks on joints other than the elbow are not allowed due to safety regulations) or by chokes and strangulations. Two wrestlers clinching. ... The juji-gatame armbar (see below) is one of the most effective and versatile joint locks. ...


Hold downs

Hold downs (押さえ込み osaekomi?) are important since in a real fight the person who has control of his opponent can hit him with punches, knees, headbutts, and other strikes. If osaekomi is maintained for twenty-five seconds, the person doing the holding down wins the match. An osaekomi involves holding an opponent principally on their back, and free of their legs. The top combatant can attack with headbutts while being held in the bottom combatants guard. ...


According to the rules as they stood in 1905, it was only necessary to hold down an opponent, on his shoulders, for two seconds - said to reflect the time necessary for a samurai to reach his knife or sword and dispatch his held opponent. The newer longer requirements reflect the combat reality that a fighter must immobilize his opponent for a substantial amount of time in order to strike effectively.


The score for a hold down is determined by how long the hold down is held. A hold down may sometimes result in a submission if the opponent cannot endure the pressure from the hold down.


The 'guard' and 'body scissors'

If the person being held down has wrapped his legs around any part of his opponent's lower body or trunk, he is pinning his opponent as much as he is being pinned, because his opponent cannot get up and flee unless the person on the bottom lets go. While his legs are wrapped around his opponent, the person on the bottom can employ various attacking techniques, including strangles, armlocks and "body scissors" (do-jime), while controlling the opponent so that he cannot effectively strike from above. In this position, often referred to as the "guard" in English, the person on top does not have enough control over his adversary for the position to be considered osaekomi. (Note that while the guard is commonly used, do-jime is no longer legal in competition judo.) The person on top can try to pass his opponent's legs and in turn hold down or submit him, or he may try to break out of his opponent's guard and stand up. The person on the bottom can try to submit his opponent from his guard or roll his opponent over to get on top of him. Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... A type of guard, as shown in a USMC manual combatives manual. ...


Joint locks

Joint locks (kansetsu-waza) are effective combat techniques because they enable a jūdōka to control his opponent through pain-compliance, or if necessary, to cause breakage of the locked joint. Joint locks on the elbow are considered safe enough to perform at nearly full-force in competition to force submission from one's opponent. Judo has, in the past, allowed leglocks, wristlocks, spinal locks and various other techniques that have since been disallowed in competition to protect athletes' safety. It was decided that attacking those other joints would result in many injuries to the athletes and would cause a gradual deterioration of these joints. Even so, some jūdōka still enjoy learning and fighting each other informally using these techniques that are banned from formal competitions, and many of these techniques are still actively used in other arts such as sambo, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, and jujutsu. A joint lock (in Japanese, 関節技 kansetsu-waza) is the general term for martial arts techniques involving painful manipulation of the joints. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... A pronating wristlock used to hold a mans head down on a curb. ... A spinal lock is a multiple joint lock applied to the spinal column, which is performed by forcing the spine beyond its normal ranges of motion. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... A sportsperson (British and American English) or athlete (principally American English) is any person who participates regularly in a sport. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chokes and strangulations

Chokes and strangulations (締め技 shime-waza?) enable the one applying the choke to force the adversary into unconsciousness and even death. Strangulation cuts off the blood supply to the brain via compression on the sides of the neck, while a choke blocks the airway from the front of the neck. The terms are frequently interchangeable in common usage, and a formal differentiation is not made by most jūdōka. In competition, the jūdōka wins if the opponent submits or becomes unconscious. A strangle, once properly locked in, can render an opponent unconscious in only a few seconds, but normally causes no injury. For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The airways are those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, to get from the external environment to the alveoli. ...


Judoka

See also: List of judoka

A practitioner of judo is traditionally known as a judoka. The suffix -ka, when added to a noun, means a person with expertise or special knowledge on that subject.[8] The term judoka refers to any practitioner of a judo; no level of expertise is necessarily implied. This is a list of famous and well-known judo practitioners (judoka) sorted by area of primary residence. ...


Uniform

The jūdōgi is of a heavy weave in order to withstand the stresses of throwing and grappling.
The jūdōgi is of a heavy weave in order to withstand the stresses of throwing and grappling.

Judo practitioners traditionally wear white uniforms called jūdōgi, which simply means "judo uniform", for practising judo. Sometimes the word is seen shortened simply to "gi" (uniform). The jūdōgi was created by Kano in 1907, and similar uniforms were later adopted by many other martial arts.[citation needed] The modern jūdōgi consists of white or blue cotton drawstring pants and a matching white or blue quilted cotton jacket, fastened by a belt (obi). The belt is usually coloured to indicate rank. The jacket is intended to withstand the stresses of grappling, and as a result, is much thicker than that of a karate uniform (karategi). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1152x864, 387 KB) Summary This is me Brusselsshrek, wearing my orange judo belt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1152x864, 387 KB) Summary This is me Brusselsshrek, wearing my orange judo belt. ... These two judo practitioners are wearing judogi Judogi (柔道着 or 柔道衣) is the formal Japanese name for the traditional uniform used for Judo practice and competition. ... Keikogi (稽古着 or 稽古衣) is a Japanese word which means uniform for training (keiko means practice, gi means dress or clothes), another posibility is to use the word Dogi which means the uniform you wear on the path that you have been chosen, if you put the name of the sport itself... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... A jacket is a lightweight, sleeved thigh- or waist-length coat that may be worn by anyone, as jackets are now made for children, adults, the elderly, and even infants. ... Obi (帯, おび) is a Japanese word referring to several different types of sashes worn with kimono and martial arts uniforms by both men and women. ... Karategi (空手着 or 空手衣) is the Japan name for the Karate training dress. ...


The modern use of the blue judogi was first suggested by Anton Geesink at the 1986 Maastricht IJF DC Meeting.[9] For competition, a blue jūdōgi is worn by one of the two competitors for ease of distinction by judges, referees, and spectators. In Japan, both judoka still use a white judogi and the traditional red sash (based on the flag's colours) is affixed to the belt of one competitor. In Europe and North America, a coloured sash is typically used for convenience in local competitions, while a blue jūdōgi is worn by one competitor at the regional, national, or Olympic levels where the visibility, particularly for television cameras, is more important than tradition or convenience. Japanese practitioners and purists tend to look down on the use of blue jūdōgi.[9] Antonius Johannes Anton Geesink (born April 6, 1934) is a Dutch 10th dan judoka. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Techniques

For images, videos, and descriptions of Judo techniques see http://judoinfo.com/techjudo.htm. For a list of Judo techniques, see Judo techniques.
See also: List of Kodokan Judo techniques

While judo includes a variety of rolls, falls, throws, pins, chokes, joint-locks, and strikes, the primary focus is on throwing (投げ技 nage-waza?), and groundwork (ne-waza). Throws are divided in two groups of techniques, standing techniques (tachi-waza), and sacrifice techniques (捨身技 sutemi-waza?). Standing techniques are further divided into hand techniques (手技 te-waza?), hip techniques (腰技 koshi-waza?), and foot and leg techniques (足技 ashi-waza?). Sacrifice techniques are divided into those in which the thrower falls directly backwards (真捨身技 ma-sutemi-waza?), and those in which he falls onto his side (橫捨身技 yoko-sutemi-waza?). There are a variety of techniques recognized by Kodokan(講道館) judo (柔道) and other budo (武道). Below is a partial list, organized by technique type and alphabetically within type. ... Like many other martial arts, Kodokan Judo provides lists of techniques students must learn to earn rank. ... Breakfalls are the specialised landing abilities of the practitioners of martial arts. ...


The ground fighting techniques are divided into attacks against the joints or joint locks (関節技 kansetsu-waza?), strangleholds or chokeholds (絞技 shime-waza?), and holding or pinning techniques (押込技 osaekomi-waza?). Ground fighting taking place in a mixed martial arts bout. ...


A kind of sparring is practised in judo, known as randori (乱取り?), meaning "free practice". In randori, two adversaries may attack each other with any judo throw or grappling technique. Striking techniques (atemi-waza) such as kicking and punching, along with knife and sword techniques are retained in the kata. This form of pedagogy is usually reserved for higher ranking practitioners (for instance, in the kime-no-kata), but are forbidden in contest, and usually prohibited in randori for reasons of safety. Also for reasons of safety, chokeholds, joint locking, and the sacrifice techniques are subject to age or rank restrictions. For example, in the United States one must be 13 or older to use chokeholds, and 16 or older to use armlocks. Kime no kata is a self-defense oriented series of katas in judo. ...


In randori and tournament (shiai) practice, when an opponent successfully executes a chokehold or joint lock, one submits, or "taps out", by tapping the mat or one's opponent at least twice in a manner that clearly indicates the submission. When this occurs the match is over, the tapping player has lost, and the chokehold or joint lock ceases.


Forms (kata)

Forms (kata) are pre-arranged patterns of attack and defence, which in judo are practiced with a partner for the purpose of perfecting judo techniques. More specifically, their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based, allowing for the practice of techniques that are not allowed in competition, and to preserve ancient techniques that are historically important but are no longer used in contemporary judo.


Knowledge of various kata is a requirement for the attainment of a higher rank.


There are seven kata that are recognised by the Kodokan today:

There are also other kata that are not officially recognised by the Kodokan but that continue to be practiced. The most prominent example of these is the Go no sen no kata, a kata that focuses on counter-attacks to attempted throws. Nage-no-kata is a throwing kata in judo. ... Katame no Kata (Grappling Forms) is a kata (a set of prearranged techniques) in judo. ... Kime no kata is a self-defense oriented series of katas in judo. ... Kodokan Goshin Jutsu is a set of prearranged self-defence forms in Judo. ... Ju no Kata is a set of prearranged forms in Judo. ... Itsutsu no Kata is a set of prearranged techniques in Judo. ... Koshiki no Kata ) is a kata (a set of prearranged techniques) in Judo. ... Seiryoku Zenyo Kokumin Taiiku no Kata (Maximum-Efficiency National Physical Education Kata) is a set of phisical exercises that are part of judo. ... The Go no sen no kata is a judo kata that focusses on counter-attacks to throwing techniques. ...


Styles

Kano Jigoro's Kodokan Judo is the most popular and well-known style of judo, but is not the only one. The terms judo and jujutsu were quite interchangeable in the early years, so some of these forms of judo are still known as jujutsu or jiu-jitsu either for that reason, or simply to differentiate them from mainstream judo. From Kano's original style of judo, the following essentially similar forms have evolved:

  • Olympic Judo: This is the predominant form of Kodokan judo.
  • Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: Mitsuyo Maeda introduced judo to Brazil in 1914. Maeda taught judo to Carlos Gracie (1902–1994) and others in Brazil. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu did not follow later changes in international judo rules that were added to emphasise the standing phase of the fight, nor those rules that were introduced to ban the more dangerous techniques.
  • Judo-do: In Austria, Julius Fleck and others developed a system of throwing intended to extend judo that they called Judo-do.
  • Kawaishi-ryū jujutsu: Teaching in France, Mikonosuke Kawaishi developed Kawaishi-ryū jujutsu as an alternative approach to instruction that continued to teach many techniques banned in modern competition.
  • Kosen Judo (高專柔道?): As a sub-style of Kodokan Judo that became popularised in early 20th century Japanese inter-scholastic competition, Kosen style has the same range of techniques but greater latitude is permitted for ground technique. This is the only style of judo that dates back to the early 1900s essentially unchanged.
  • Russian Judo: This distinctive style of judo was influenced by Sambo and is exemplified by well-known coaches such as Alexander Retuinskih and Igor Yakimov, and represented by mixed martial arts fighters such as Igor Zinoviev, Fedor Emelianenko and Karo Parisyan. In turn, Russian judo has influenced mainstream judo, with techniques such as the flying armbar being accepted into sport judo.
  • Sambo (especially Sport Sambo): Vasili Oshchepkov was the first European judo black belt under Kano. Oshchepkov went on to create Sambo from judo's influence, integrating other combative techniques into his new system. Oshchepkov died during the political purges of 1937 for refusing to deny his education in Japanese judo under Kano.

Olympic Judo is the most widely practiced form of judo, followed by Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mitsuyo Maeda was a Japanese judoka, catch wrestler and prize-fighter often referred to as Count Combat (or Conde Koma in Brazil, although he actually earned the nickname in Spain by 1908). ... Carlos Gracie (1901-1994) is the founder of the Brazilian martial art of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) along with his younger brother Hélio Gracie. ... Judo-do is a system of throws, intended to extend Judo, that was developed by Professor Julius Fleck (1894-1967) and others in Austria. ... Kosen judo (高專柔道) is the name given to the Kodokan Judo practiced at competitions by theKoutou Senmon Gakko (高等専門学校), special 5-year universities in Japan at the turn of the 20th century. ... Kosen judo (高專柔道) is the name given to the Kodokan Judo practiced at competitions by theKoutou Senmon Gakko (高等専門学校), special 5-year universities in Japan at the turn of the 20th century. ... Russian General Alexander Retuinskih is the President of the International and All-Russian Federation of Russian Martial Art, who serves as Special Advisor to Russian President Vladimir Putin. ... Igor Yakimov is a world Judo champion, as well a world sport sambo champion and a medallist at the Combat Sambo world championships. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Igor Zinoviev Igor has a mma record of 4-1-2 career ending Igors career ended 3/13/1998 from a slam from former ufc champion frank shamrock at ufc 16 he never recoverd from the loss that was one of the most watched ko ever 21 seconds last days... Fedor Emelianenko (IPA: , Russian: Фёдор Емельяненко, sometimes romanized as Fyodor Yemelyanenko[8]), born September 28, 1976, is a Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist and the current PRIDE heavyweight champion. ... Karapet Karo Parisyan (born August 28, 1982 in Yerevan, Armenia) is an Armenian-American mixed martial arts fighter. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ...


Judo as a sport

Although a fully featured martial art, judo has also developed as a sport. Judo became an Olympic sport for men in 1964. With the persistence of an American woman by the name of Rusty Kanokogi and many others, judo became an Olympic sport for women as well in 1988. Popular legend has it that the men's judo event in 1964 was a demonstration event, but according to Michel Brousse, official researcher and historian for the International Judo Federation, Judo was in fact an official sport in the 1964 games. Thanks to Dutchman Anton Geesink who won the gold medal in the All Categories division defeating Aiko Kaminaga, Japan, judo lost the image of being "Japanese only" and became an international sport, and the second most widely practiced sport in the world. The women's event was a demonstration event in 1988, and became an official medal event 4 years later. Men and women compete separately, although they often train together. Image File history File links Olympic_pictogram_Judo. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Judo Federation was founded in July 1951. ...


Judo has been a Paralympic sport (for the visually impaired) since 1988. Judo is also one of the sports at the Special Olympics. Silver 2004 The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical, mental and sensorial disabilities. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Special Olympics. ...


Collegiate competition in the United States, especially between UC Berkeley and San Jose State, contributed towards refining judo into the sport seen at the Olympic Games and World Championships. In the 1940s Henry Stone and Yosh Uchida, the head coaches at Cal and SJSU, developed a weight class system for use in the frequent competitions between the schools. In 1953, Stone and Uchida successfully petitioned the Amateur Athletic Union to accept judo as a sport, with their weight class system as an official component. In 1961, Uchida represented the United States at the International Judo Federation meetings in Paris, where the IJF adopted weight classes for all future championships. The IJF was created largely based on the earlier European Judo Union, where weight classes had also been used for many years. A college (Latin collegium) can be the name of any group of colleagues; originally it meant a group of people living together under a common set of rules (con-, together + leg-, law). As a consequence members of colleges were originally styled fellow and still are in some places. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... San José State University, commonly shortened to San Jose State and SJSU, is the oldest university in what became the California State University system. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Yosh Uchida (b 1920) is a Japanese American known for his activities in the martial art of judo. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... - The Amateur Athletic Union, widely known as the AAU, was formed in United States. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Weight divisions

Main article: Judo weight divisions

There are currently seven weight divisions, subject to change by governing bodies, and may be modified based on the age of the competitors: As described at http://www. ...

Men
Under 60 kg 60~66 kg 66~73 kg 73~81 kg 81~90 kg 90~100 kg Over 100 kg
Women
Under 48 kg 48~52 kg 52~57 kg 57~63 kg 63~70 kg 70~78 kg Over 78 kg

Rules

Main article: Judo rules

Penalties may be given for being inactive during the match, or for using illegal techniques. Fighting must be stopped if a participant is outside the designated area on the mat (tatami). If the referee and judges need to discuss something during groundwork, the referee will call sonomama (which means "do not move") and both fighters must stop in the position they are in. When they are done, the referee says yoshi and the match continues. // Punching, kicking, and other strikes are not allowed. ...


All scores and penalties are given by the referee. The judges can make a decision that changes the score or penalty given by the referee.


There are slight differences to IJF rules to accommodate blind judo. Judo in the Paralympic Games is only very slightly different form normal Judo. ...


Competition scoring

The object in a judo match is to either throw the opponent to the ground on his back; to pin him to the ground principally on his back; or to force him to submit to a choke or an armlock. Any of these score ippon (一本), immediately winning the match.


Judo has four grades of score: ippon, waza-ari, yuko, and koka. An ippon literally means "one point" and wins the match. An ippon is awarded for (a) a throw that lands the opponent largely on their back in a controlled manner with speed and force; (b) for a mat hold of sufficient duration (thirty seconds); or (c) for opponent submission. A waza-ari is awarded for a throw that does not quite have enough power or control to be considered ippon; or for a hold of twenty seconds. A waza-ari is a half-point, and, if two are scored, they constitute the full point needed for a win.


Yuko and koka are lower grades of score, and only count as tie-breakers - they are not cumulative with one another. Scoring is lexicographic; a waza-ari beats any number of yuko, but a waza-ari and a yuko beat a waza-ari with no yuko. It is not uncommon for a match to be decided based on koka. The pursuit of lexicography is divided into two related disciplines: Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. ...


A fifteen-second pin scores yuko and a ten-second pin scores koka. If the person who secured the pin already has a waza-ari, they only need to hold the pin for twenty seconds to score ippon by way of two waza-ari. Throws further lacking the requirements of an ippon or a waza-ari might score a yuko or a koka. So-called "skillful takedowns" are also permitted (e.g. the flying arm-bar) but do not score.


On the electronic scoreboard, a waza-ari is represented as "100"; a yuko is represented as "010"; and a koka as "001". An ippon is not represented on the scoreboard, because upon award of an ippon, the match is immediately terminated. In print, the scores are often represented like this: 1W2Y2K vs. 1W2Y1K - meaning that the first player scored one waza-ari, two yukos, and two kokas, beating his opponent who scored one fewer kokas.


If the scores are identical at the end of the match, the contest is resolved by the Golden Score rule. Golden Score is a sudden death situation where the clock is reset to match-time, and the first contestant to achieve any score wins. If there is no score during this period, then the winner is decided by the majority opinion of the referee and the two corner judges.


Mixed martial arts

Using their knowledge in ne-waza/grappling and tachi-waza/standing-grappling, various accomplished judo practitioners have also competed in mixed martial arts matches. Fedor Emelianenko, PRIDE Fighting Championships's current heavyweight champion and consistently ranked the world's best heavyweight mixed martial arts fighter, has a background in judo and sambo.[10] Karo Parisyan is a top contender for the UFC's welterweight championship, and Rameau Thierry Sokoudjou and Hidehiko Yoshida, an Olympic gold medalist in 1992 and World Judo Champion in 1999, are also top fighters in PRIDE FC. Other Olympic gold medalist and world champion judokas such as Pawel Nastula and Yoon Dong Sik also fight in PRIDE. Undefeated middleweight championship contender and WEC champion Paulo Filho has credited judo and jiu-jitsu for his success.[citation needed] Ne-waza refers to mat techniques of judo. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... 立ち技 (tachi-waza) literally means standing technique but actually means that which goes on in a fight while the fighters are on their feet. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Fedor Emelianenko (IPA: , Russian: Фёдор Емельяненко, sometimes romanized as Fyodor Yemelyanenko[8]), born September 28, 1976, is a Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist and the current PRIDE heavyweight champion. ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Karapet Karo Parisyan (born August 28, 1982 in Yerevan, Armenia) is an Armenian-American mixed martial arts fighter. ... UFC is a TLA that can stand for Ultimate Fighting Championship Umeå FC This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rameau Thierry Sokoudjou (April 18, 1984) is a Cameroonian mixed martial artist and Judo practitioner, most recently competing in Japans PRIDE Fighting Championships. ... Hidehiko Yoshida (吉田秀彦, September 3, 1969-) is a Japanese gold-medalist judoka and MMA fighter. ... Pride logo PRIDE or PRIDE Fighting Championships is a mixed martial arts organization based in Japan. ... Pawel Nastula (born June 26, 1970) is a heavyweight fighter in mixed martial arts, currently competing in the PRIDE Fighting Championships, a Japanese MMA organization. ... Paulo Souzo Filho (born May 24, 1978) is a Brazilian mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter as well as a Brazilian jiu-jitsu and judo practitioner, fighting out of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ...


Judo for self-defence

Though the literal meaning of judo is "the gentle way", judo is very demanding sport.


Because competition judo does not contain the kicking and punching that is common to other martial arts, judo is often portrayed as friendlier than many other martial arts. Proponents believe that this contributes to judo being underrated as a method of self-defence. In addition, while throws executed with proper break falls on soft mats may seem relatively light and graceful, their more practical application on a hard surface can be very dangerous (especially with greater intent to harm.) For other uses, see Kick (disambiguation). ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Self-defense usually refers to the use of violence to protect oneself and is a possible justification for this otherwise illegal act. ...


Furthermore, ground grappling had been proven to be an effective form of self-defence (against a single attacker.) That fact was demonstrated by the success of the Fusen-ryū jujutsuka against early Kodokan judoka in a challenge match held in 1900, and again nearly 100 years later when Royler Gracie beat all-comers in the first UFC tournament (in 1991) with Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Royler Gracie (pronounced Hoy-lur) (December 6, 1965-) is a Brazilian mixed martial arts fighter. ... The Ultimate Fighting Championship (later renamed UFC 1: The Beginning) was the first mixed martial arts (MMA) event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), occurring at the McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado on November 12, 1993. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


While judo's effectiveness as a form of self-defence is far better than generally appreciated, it does lack training in defence against strikes. In 1902, Barton-Wright wrote: "Judo and jujitsu were not designed as primary means of attack and defence against a boxer or a man who kicks you, but were only to be used after coming to close quarters, and in order to get to close quarters it was absolutely necessary to understand boxing and the use of the foot."[11] A montage of techniques from Bartitsu. ...


While many schools focus on Olympic judo, others also include practical self-defence in their instruction.


Safety

Research shows that judo is a particularly safe sport for youths, though adult competitive judo has a relatively higher incidence of injuries compared to non-collision or non-contact ball-sports for example, but similar to other competitive contact sports.[12]


Chokes

Although chokes are potentially lethal techniques, a properly-applied chokehold, if released soon enough after submission or unconsciousness, causes no injury.[13][14]


There is ample data demonstrating the safety of applying chokeholds,[15][16][17] and training includes emergeny care and resuscitation.[18]


Judo organizations

The international organization of competition sports judo is the International Judo Federation (IJF). This is a list of Judo Organisations. ...


In the USA, there are three national organizations, all of which are recognised by the IJF. One is United States Judo, Incorporated (USJI) - also known as USA Judo. USJI has state organizations that host state tournaments and other judo-related activities. As a member of the United States Olympic Committee, USJI is the national governing body for judo in the USA. The other national organizations are the United States Judo Federation (USJF) and the United States Judo Association (USJA). Each national organization in the USA has its own promotion requirements. USJF and USJA are founding members of USA Judo, and members often having dual membership.


In Great Britain, the British Judo Association (BJA) is the largest judo association, and the only one affiliated with the IJF. Judo clubs can also be administered by the British Judo Council (BJC), which is popular in the north of England. Other judo administrations exist, including the British Judo Council - Martial Arts Circle (BJC-MAC) and the All England Judo Federation (AEJF). The British Judo Association (BJA) is the National Governing Body for the Olympic Sport of Judo in Great Britain. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In Australia, the Judo Federation of Australia (JFA) is the largest judo association, and the only one affiliated with the IJF.


Although it has no official standing in judo, the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA) defines judo as one of the four main forms of amateur competitive wrestling practised internationally (the other three being Greco-Roman wrestling, Freestyle wrestling and sambo). The International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles, also known in French as Fédération Internationale des Luttes Associées (FILA), is an international wrestling federation that holds events around the world. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... This article is about Greco-Roman wrestling. ... This article is about freestyle wrestling. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ...


Rank and grading

Judo rank is generally not of primary importance among jūdōka who participate in tournaments. Modern judo is primarily practised as a sport, so there tends to be more emphasis on tournament records than on rank. Since rank does not determine competitive performance, and since tournaments are not structured by rank (except at the lowest novice levels), it is not uncommon to see lower-ranked competitors defeat higher-ranked opponents. An active competitor may not pursue high ranks, preferring to focus on preparation for competition; for example, a silver medal was won by an ikkyu (brown belt) female competitor, Lorena Pierce, in the -70 kg category at the 2004 Paralympics. Apart from knowledge and ability, rank requirements typically include a minimum age.[19] Therefore, it is not uncommon to find teenage competitors at national-level competition who have been practicing judo for 10 years who can beat adult practitioners, but who are only purple or brown belts due to being too young to qualify for a dan rank. Once an individual attains the level of a dan rank, further promotions can be granted for a variety of reasons including skill level, competition performance and/or contributions to judo such as teaching and volunteering time.[20] Therefore, a higher dan rank does not necessarily mean that the holder is a better fighter (although often it does.) Judo in the 2004 Summer Paralympics was competed by blind or vision-impaired judokas. ... (Redirected from 2004 Paralympics) See also: 2004 Summer Olympics The 2004 Summer Paralympics were held in Athens, Greece, from September 17 to September 28. ...


Jūdōka are ranked according to skill and knowledge of judo, and their rank is reflected by their belt colour. There are two divisions of rank, below black-belt "grades" (kyū), and black belt "degrees" (dan). This ranking system was introduced into the martial arts by Kano and has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts.[citation needed] As initially designed, there were six student grades, which were ranked in descending numerical order, with 1st kyū being the last before promotion to first degree black belt (shodan). There are ordinarily 10 dan ranks, which are ranked in ascending numerical order. For dan ranks, the first five are coloured black, 6th, 7th, and 8th dan have alternating red and white panels, and for 9th and 10th dan the belts are solid red. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... KyÅ« (ç´š:きゅう) is a Japanese term used in martial arts, chadō, ikebana, go, shogi and in other similar activities to designate various degrees or levels of proficiency or experience. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the rank in martial arts and Go, see Shodan. ...


The tenth degree black belt (jūdan) and those above it have no formal requirements. The president of the Kodokan, currently Kano Jigoro's grandson Yukimitsu Kano (Kano Yukimitsu), decides on individuals for promotion. Only fifteen individuals have been promoted to this rank by the Kodokan. On January 6, 2006, three individuals were promoted to 10th dan simultaneously: Toshiro Daigo, Ichiro Abe, and Yoshimi Osawa. This is the most ever at the same time, and the first in 22 years. No one has ever been promoted to a rank higher than 10th dan, but:

Theoretically the Judo rank system is not limited to 10 degrees of black belt. The original English language copy (1955) of Illustrated Kodokan Judo, by Jigoro Kano, says: "There is no limit...on the grade one can receive. Therefore if one does reach a stage above 10th dan... there is no reason why he should not be promoted to 11th dan." However, since there has never been any promotion to a rank above 10th dan, the Kodokan Judo promotion system effectively has only 10 dans. There have only been 15 10th dans awarded by the Kodokan in the history of Judo.[21]

Although dan ranks tend to be consistent between national organisations there is more variation in the kyū grades, with some countries having more kyū grades. Although initially kyū grade belt colours were uniformly white, today a variety of colours are used.


Belt colours

In Japan, the use of belt colours is related to the age of the student. Some clubs will only have black and white, others will include a brown belt for advanced kyū grades and at the elementary school level it is common to see a green belt for intermediate levels.


Some countries also use coloured tips on belts, to indicate junior age groups, and historically, women's belts had a white stripe along the centre.


Examination requirements vary depending on country, age group and of course the grade being attempted. The examination itself may include competition and kata. The kyū ranks are normally awarded by local instructors (sensei), but dan ranks are usually awarded only after an exam supervised by independent judges from a national judo association. For a rank to be recognised it must be registered with the national judo organisation or the Kodokan. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Judo belt colors in Brazil
White
Blue
Yellow
Orange
Green
Purple
Brown
Black
Judo belt colors in Australia, Europe, Canada(Seniors only)
White
Yellow
Orange
Green
Blue
Brown
Black

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 30 KB) Ceinture blanche. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 29 KB) Ceinture bleue. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 30 KB) Ceinture jaune. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 32 KB) Ceinture orange. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 23 KB) Ceinture verte. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 29 KB) Ceinture marron. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 28 KB) Ceinture noire. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 30 KB) Ceinture blanche. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 30 KB) Ceinture jaune. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 32 KB) Ceinture orange. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 23 KB) Ceinture verte. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 29 KB) Ceinture bleue. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 29 KB) Ceinture marron. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 28 KB) Ceinture noire. ...

Australia and Europe

For Australia and most of Europe, the belt colours in ascending order are white, yellow, orange, green, blue, brown and finally black. In Australia, competitors are usually organised into two categories depending on grading; the first is from orange to brown, and the second is black. Some European countries additionally use a red belt to signify a complete beginner, whereas other European countries such as the UK use a red belt as the belt one grade above a beginner to show that the person is a full member of a club. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Brazil

Brazilian belt rankings are normally white, blue, yellow, orange, green, purple, brown and black. Additionally, a grey belt may be given to very young judoka (under 11 or 13 years old) just before the blue. Competitors are organised into two categories depending on grading; the first is from white to green, and the second is purple through black.


Canada

In Canada belt rankings for Seniors are, in ascending order: white, yellow, orange, green, blue, brown and finally black. Belt rankings for Juniors use white, white-yellow, yellow, yellow-orange, orange, orange-green, green, green-blue, blue, blue-brown, and brown.[19]


United States

Judo kyū belt colors in the United States
Japanese
kyū names
USJF
Senior
USJF
Junior
USJA
Senior
USJA
Junior
USJA Junior
level names
Jūnikyū
Yellow
Junior 1st Degree
Jūichikyū
White

Yellow
Junior 2nd Degree
Jūkyū
White-
yellow

Orange
Junior 3rd Degree
Kūkyū
Yellow

Orange
Junior 4th Degree
Hachikyū
Yellow-
orange

Green
Junior 5th Degree
Nanakyū
Orange

Green
Junior 6th Degree
Rokkyū
White

Orange-
green

Yellow

Blue
Junior 7th Degree
Gokyū
Green

Green

Orange

Blue
Junior 8th Degree
Yonkyū
Blue

Green-
blue

Green

Purple
Junior 9th Degree
Sankyū
Brown

Blue

Brown

Purple
Junior 10th Degree
Nikyū
Brown

Blue-
purple

Brown

Brown
Junior 11th Degree
Ikkyū
Brown

Purple

Brown

Brown
Junior 12th Degree

In the US only senior players (adults, usually those age 16 and over) are allowed to earn dan levels, signified by wearing a black belt. Advanced kyū levels can be earned by both seniors and juniors (children under the age of about 16) and are signified by wearing belts of various colors other than black. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Seniors

For senior players, both the United States Judo Federation (USJF)[22] and The United States Judo Association (USJA)[23] specify four belt colors for the six kyū, as listed in the table. The USJA also specifies wearing a patch specifying the practitioner's level. This is true for both kyū and dan levels. The United States Judo Federation is a non-profit corporation dedicated to promoting judo in the United States. ...


Juniors

The USJF Juniors ranking system specifies ranks to 11th kyū (jūichikyū). The USJA Juniors ranking system specifies twelve levels of kyū rank, beginning with "Junior 1st Degree" (equivalent to jūnikyū, or 12th kyū) and ending with "Junior 12th Degree" (equivalent to ikkyū). As with the senior practitioners, the USJA specifies that juniors wear a patch specifying their rank.


Belt pattern choice

Individual dojo (clubs) usually follow the belt pattern of the organization with which they are most closely associated in the USA. The sensei chooses the belt order for their dojo.


Advancement in rank

While the rank requirements are specified by each judo association in the USA,[22][23] the sensei ultimately determines all kyū rank advancement.


Dan advancement is strictly controlled by each judo association (the USJF or the USJA). A nominee for dan grade advancement must demonstrate competence in specific techniques and, usually, elements of kata. These requirements vary between the different judo associations. Nevertheless, the associations mutually recognize each other's dan grades; thus, for example, a USJF sandan will be recognized by the USJA as a sandan and vice versa.

See also

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Footnotes

  1. ^ Introduction of men's judo to the Olympics.
  2. ^ Introduction of women's judo to the Olympics.
  3. ^ The first Olympic competition to award medals to women judoka was in 1992; in 1988, women competed as a demonstration sport.
  4. ^ "Jujitsu fell into disuse with the abolition of the feudal system (1860-1865) and became almost extinct" - 2000 YEARS: Jujitsu and Kodokan Judo by Dennis Helm
  5. ^ Prior to Kano's use of the term, there was Jikishin-ryū Judo, which is an older school dating from 1724, rarely seen outside of Japan.
  6. ^ For example, Tsunejiro Tomita himself co-authored a book called Judo: The Modern School of Jiu-Jitsu in around 1906 (by Gregory, O.H. and Tomita, Tsunejiro. Published in Chicago by O.H. Gregory.)
  7. ^ Shiai rules
  8. ^ Japanese Grammar, 2nd edition by Nobuo Akiyama and Carol Akiyama.
  9. ^ a b Introduction of the Blue Judogi. International Judo Federation.
  10. ^ Rousseau, Robert (2006). Fedor Emelianenko Bio / Training / Fighting Techniques. ExtremeProSports.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  11. ^ Barton-Wright, E.W. "Ju-jitsu and judo." Transactions of the Japan Society, 1902, v. 5, p. 261.
  12. ^ Sports Medicine Issues in the Young Judo Athlete - by Robert S. Nishime, M.D., USA Judo Sports Medicine Subcommittee (usjudo.org)
  13. ^ Principles of Judo Choking Techniques - by Neil Ohlenkamp (judoinfo.com)
  14. ^ Judo Choking Techniques (judoinfo.com)
  15. ^ How Safe is Choking in Judo? by E. K. Koiwai, M.D. (judoinfo.com)
  16. ^ The Safety of Judo Chokes by Leonard I. Lapinsohm M.D. (judoinfo.com)
  17. ^ Deaths Allegedly Caused by the Use of "Choke Holds" (Shime-Waza) by E. K. Koiwai, M.D. (judoinfo.com)
  18. ^ Emergency Care for Choke Holds by John Boulay (judoinfo.com)
  19. ^ a b Canadian National Kyu Grading Syllabus
  20. ^ Canadian National (Dan) Grading Syllabus
  21. ^ Ohlenkamp, Neil. The Judo Rank System.
  22. ^ a b United States Judo Federation Rank Requirements.
  23. ^ a b United States Judo Association Rank Requirements.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

External links

Videos of judo


  Results from FactBites:
 
JUDO - Java IDE for Children and Beginning Programmers (467 words)
JUDO is also an educational tool used to teach programming concepts and to spark excitement and interest in programming.
JUDO is released under the GNU General Public License.
JUDO has been translated into Spanish thanks to the help of Gabriel Reyes.
Judo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4511 words)
Judo was the successor of Jujutsu and was founded by Dr. Jigoro Kano in 1882.
Judo's balance between both the standing and ground phases of combat gives judoka the ability to take down opponents who are standing up and then pin and submit them on the ground.
Judo, uniquely among combat sports, puts equal emphasis on the initial throwing and the final pinning and submitting phases of combat, ideally enabling practitioners to dominate grappling-fights from the get-go.
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