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Encyclopedia > Judiciary Act of 1869
It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. (Discuss)
This page is about Judiciary Acts in the United States of America. For the law in Australia, see Judiciary Act 1903.

Contents

Image File history File links Derived from public domain images featured at: http://commons. ... The Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth. ...


Judiciary Act of 1789

Main article: Judiciary Act of 1789 Judiciary Act of 1789 The Judiciary Act of 1789 (1 Stat 73) established the entire federal judiciary, which initially consisted of a Supreme Court of six judges, 3 circuit courts, and 13 district courts. ...


The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the U.S. federal judiciary, which initially consisted of a Supreme Court of six justices, 3 judicial circuits, and 13 district courts. It also created the offices of Attorney General, associate justice, marshal, deputy marshal, district attorney, and clerk of court. In addition, it established the Supreme Court as the mediator of all disputes between states and the federal government concerning conflicting state and federal laws. Seal of the Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court in the United States of America. ... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Alberto Gonzales, current Attorney General of the United States The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... The United States Marshals Service, part of the United States Department of Justice, is the United States oldest federal law enforcement agency. ... United States Attorneys represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court. ...


Judiciary Act of 1801

Main article: Judiciary Act of 1801 ...


The Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed on February 13, 1801 by a lame duck Federalist U.S. Congress and President John Adams in an attempt to prolong Federalist control of the judiciary in the face of an incoming Republican Congress and Jefferson administration. Most significantly, it created sixteen new circuit judgeships, which Adams promptly filled with Federalists. It reduced the number of seats on the Supreme Court from six to five, effective upon the next vacancy in the Court. The new judges were known as the Midnight Judges because Adams was said to be signing their appointments at midnight prior to Jefferson's inauguration. February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A lame duck is an elected official currently in office whose replacement has been chosen, but not yet formally sworn in. ... The term federalist can refer to different ideologies, depending on the locale. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was the first (1789–1797) Vice President of the United States, and the second (1797–1801) President of the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third (1801–1809) President of the United States, second (1797)–1801) Vice President of the United States, and an American statesman, ambassador to France, political philosopher, revolutionary, agriculturalist, horticulturist, land owner, architect, archaeologist, slaveowner, author, inventor, and founder of the...


This Act was ineffective in prolonging Federalist control: the Republican Congress repealed it on March 8, 1802, and the Federalist judges in the newly created courts found themselves out of work, their positions abolished. March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... 1802 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Judiciary Act of 1802

The Judiciary Act of 1802 (2 Stat. 156) was passed on April 29, 1802. It restored some elements of the Judiciary Act of 1801. The circuit courts were again reorganized, again doubling their count from three to six, although Kentucky, Tennessee, and Maine were excluded from the circuits this time. It again subdivided the former U.S. District Court for the District of North Carolina into the districts of Albemarle, Cape Fear, and Pamptico. It again subdivided the former U.S. District Court for the District of Tennessee into the Eastern and Western Districts of Tennessee. April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1802 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Other U.S. States Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher (R) Official languages English Area 104,749 km² (37th)  - Land 102,989 km²  - Water 1,760 km² (1. ... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Official languages English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci (D) Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... The United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the following counties: Benton, Carroll, Chester, Crockett, Decatur, Dyer, Fayette, Gibson, Hardeman, Hardin, Haywood, Henderson, Henry, Lake, Lauderdale, Madison, McNairy, Obion, Perry, Shelby, Tipton, and Weakley. ...


It also created the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. The United States District Court for the District of Columbia is the United States District Court that hears cases originating in the District of Columbia under Federal law. ...


Judiciary Act of 1866

The Judiciary Act of 1866 has been used to refer to two different laws. The first, (14 Stat. 209), is more commonly called the Judicial Circuits Act. The second, (14 Stat. 306), provided for the removal of certain cases from state courts to the federal courts. The Judicial Circuits Act of 1866 reorganized the United States federal judicial circuit courts and provided for the gradual elimination of several seats on the Supreme Court of the United States. ...


Judiciary Act of 1869

The Judiciary Act of 1869 (16 Stat. 44), also called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, made two important reforms of the federal judiciary. First, judgeships were created for the circuit courts; in this case, one circuit judgeship was created for each of the nine circuits. Up until this time, circuit courts were normally only staffed by district judges and Supreme Court justices "riding circuit". This was actually the third time that Congress had created circuit judgeships, but the first time was the rapidly repealed Judiciary Act of 1801, and the second was a single circuit judgeship in the frontier state of California which only lasted from 1855 to 1863. State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Second, for the first time, federal judges (and justices) were given the option to retire with a pension. The pension was set at the salary of the judge at the time of retirement, and a judge had to be at least seventy years old and have ten years of service on the federal bench before being allowed to retire.


This Act also set the Supreme Court at its current size of nine justices. (It had been set to seven to prevent Andrew Johnson from naming any Supreme Court justices.) Order: 17th President Vice President: none Term of office: April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869 Preceded by: Abraham Lincoln Succeeded by: Ulysses S. Grant Date of birth: December 29, 1808 Place of birth: Raleigh, North Carolina Date of death: July 31, 1875 Place of death: near Elizabethton, Tennessee First Lady...


Judiciary Act of 1891

The Judiciary Act of 1891, also known as the Evarts Act after Senator William M. Evarts, created the United States Courts of Appeals, and reassigned the jurisdiction of most routine appeals from the district and circuit courts from the Supreme Court to these appellate courts. Because of this, it is sometimes called the 1891 Circuit Courts of Appeals Act. Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ...


References

  • "Barnett v. Mayes". Wyoming State Law Library. URL accessed on June 2, 2005.
    • gives an example of a legal document referring to 14 Stat. 306 as the Judiciary Act of 1866
  • "The Civil War Era as a Crucible for Nationalizing the Lower Federal Courts". Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration. URL accessed on June 2, 2005.
    • footnote 23 refers to 14 Stat. 209 as the Judiciary Act of 1866

2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...

External links

  • Federal Judiciary Center: Creating the Federal Judicial System (PDF)
  • Federal Judiciary Center: History of the Courts of the Federal Judiciary
  • Statutes at Large

  Results from FactBites:
 
Judiciary Act of 1869 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (318 words)
This was actually the third time that Congress had created circuit judgeships, but the first time was the soon-repealed Judiciary Act of 1801, and the second was a single circuit judgeship in the frontier state of California which only lasted from 1855 to 1863.
Circuit riding would later be abolished with the Judiciary Act of 1891.
The Judicial Circuits Act of 1866 had reduced the Court from ten to seven justices, although the reduction was to occur only as seats became vacant.
Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 221, JUDICIARY: Library of Economics and Liberty (4233 words)
It was not until the report of the committee of eleven, Sept. 4, that the judiciary took its present form: the appointment of the judges was given to the president with the confirmation of the senate; and the power of trying impeachments was taken from it and given to the senate.
The 25th section of the act of 1789 had given a right of appeal to the supreme court from a final judgment of a state court in what are now often called "federal questions." that is, in questions whose decision invalidates any law or treaty of the United States.
The act of congress of Feb. 26, 1845, gave such jurisdiction, in cases of tort and contract, in the case of vessels of more than twenty tons engaged in commerce on lakes and navigable waters between different states or with a foreign nation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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