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Encyclopedia > Judge Advocate General
This article is in reference to the U.S. JAG Corps. For alternate meanings, see Judge Advocate General's Corps (disambiguation).

Judge Advocate General's Corps, also known as JAG, is the judicial arm of the United States armed forces, consisting of autonomous departments in the Air Force, Army and Navy. It is charged with the defense and prosecution of military law as provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Officers of the corps are the chief members of the court martial and court of inquiry.

  • United States Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps
  • United States Army Judge Advocate General's Corps
  • United States Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps
Contents

Military law

the Uniform Code of Military Justice, also known as UCMJ, is the primary legal code through which all internal military affairs of the United States are governed. It was created by an act of Congress in 1951 in order to establish identical systems of courts martial in all branches of the nation's armed forces. In addition to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, personnel are subject to the terms of the Constitution and individual state laws where applicable.


Court martial

The forum through which judicial cases are tried in the nation's armed forces is the court martial, the name given to a panel of military officers selected to serve similar capacities of a civilian jury. The Uniform Code of Military Justice outlines three distinct typed of courts martial.


General court martial

  • jurisdiction over crimes committed by commissioned officers, warrant officers and enlisted personnel
  • forum for most serious charges such as homicide or desertion
  • members present are defense counsel, prosecutor and judge
  • court martial comprised of 5 or more members, 1/3 may be enlisted if requested
  • maximum sentence is death by execution

Special court martial

  • jurisdiction over crimes committed by any person, including civilians, covered by military law at the time the crime was committed
  • forum for intermediate offenses such as harassment
  • members present are defense counsel, prosecutor and judge
  • court martial comprised of 3 or more members or tried by a judge alone
  • maximum sentence is 6 months confinement, forfeiture of pay, reduction in rank, bad conduct discharge

Summary court martial

  • jurisdiction over crimes committed by enlisted personnel only
  • forum for minor offenses such as petty theft
  • members present are defense counsel and prosecutor, no judge
  • court martial comprised of a single officer
  • maximum sentence is 1 month confinement, forefeiture of 2/3 pay, reduction in rank
  • can be refused, in which case matter is normally referred to a Special Court Martial

Appeals process

The Uniform Code of Military Justice provides several tiers of appeal. An initial appeal may be reviewed by the convening judge of a court martial. A second tier of appeal is the Court of Military Appeals, a five member civilian panel appointed by the President of the United States. Sentences involving dismissal, discharge or confinement of over a year is automatically sent to the Court of Military Appeals. Death sentences issued by a court martial are automatically sent to the President of the United States for appeal.


See also

External links

  • Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps (http://hqja.jag.af.mil/)
  • Army Judge Advocate General's Corps (http://www.jagcnet.army.mil/)
  • Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps (http://www.jag.navy.mil/)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Uniform Code of Military Justice - UCMJ (10065 words)
The assignment for duty of judge advocate of the Marine Corps shall be made by direction of the Commandant of the Marine Corps.
General courts-martial also have jurisdiction to try any person who by the law of war is subject to trial by a military tribunal and may adjudge any punishment permitted by the law of war.
If the record cannot be authenticated by the military judge by reason of his death, disability, or absence, it shall be authenticated by the signature of the trial counsel or by that of a member if the trial counsel is unable to authenticate it by reason of his death, disability, or absence.
Judge Advocate General's Corps - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (505 words)
Judge Advocate General's Corps, also known as JAG, is the judicial arm of the United States armed forces, consisting of autonomous departments in the Air Force, Army and Navy.
Officers of the corps are the chief members of the court martial and court of inquiry.
A second tier of appeal is the Court of Criminal Appeals, a five member civilian panel appointed by the President of the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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