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Encyclopedia > Judaism and Islam
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Judaism
Judaism
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Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The Rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Jewish messianism and eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate, soul-searching, and analysis, with the subsequent related literature, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in this human world and the dark events of the European Holocaust that occurred during... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code, composed by Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... Mishnah Berurah (Hebrew: Clarified Teaching) is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, better known as The Chofetz Chaim (Poland, 1838 - 1933). ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... Note: Tanya Rabbati, a 16th century Italian code of Jewish law, is an unrelated work with a similar name. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) is the wife of Isaac. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: ‎ Bee, Standard Hebrew DÉ™vora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Hillel (הלל) was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of King Herod and Augustus;(year????) he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (1013 - 1103) - also Isaac Hakohen, Alfasi or the Rif (ריף) - was a Talmudist and posek (decisor in matters of halakha - Jewish law). ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Yosef Caro (sometimes Joseph Caro) (1488 - March 24, 1575) was one of the most significant leaders in Rabbinic Judaism and the author of the Shulchan Arukh, an authoritative work on Halakhah (Jewish law). ... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as... Shneur Zalman of Liadi (‎) (September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S.), was an Orthodox Rabbi, and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi, Imperial Russia. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), Jewish scholar, was born at Detmold in 1794, and died in Berlin in 1886. ... Israel Jacobson (October 17, 1768, Halberstadt - September 14, 1828, Berlin) was a German philanthropist and reformer. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Haredi rabbi in modern Israel. ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish... In Judaism, Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: בר מצוה, one (m. ... Shidduch (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה) is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer to separation from ritual impurity[1]; Ibn Ezra argues that it is related to the term menaddekem, meaning cast you out[2]. The term niddah appears in the biblical description of the... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי (Rabbi). ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a... A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the needs are met, for example the Jewish prayer services run smoothly, or an assistant to a rabbi (particularly the secretary or personal assistant to a Hassidic Rebbe). ... Dovber of Mezeritch (died 1772) was the primary disciple of Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism (now a form of Orthodox Judaism. ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are two boxes containing Biblical verses and the leather straps attached to them which are used in traditional Jewish prayer. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Tzitzit or tzitzis (Ashkenazi) (Hebrew: Biblical ×¦×™×¦×ª Modern ×¦×™×¦×™×ª) are fringes or tassels worn by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... This article is about the Jewish prayer. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Ma Tovu (Hebrew for O How Good or How Goodly) is a prayer in Judaism, expressing reverence and awe for synagogues and other places of worship. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and holidays, and ushers in beginning of the new week. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... This article on Mormonism and Judaism describes the views of Latter-day Saints, commonly known as Mormons, with respect to Jews and Judaism, and includes comparisons of the Mormon and Jewish faiths. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Criticism of Judaism has existed since Judaisms formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Philo-Semitism, Philosemitism, or Semitism is an interest in, respect for the Jewish people, as well as the love of everything Jewish, and the historical significance of Jewish culture and positive impact of Judaism in the history of the world. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the One and Only God, known as Allah (الله) in Arabic. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This box:      Islamophobia is a criticized[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. For the history of the Jewish communities in Muslim lands, see History of the Jews under Muslim rule.

The historical interaction of Judaism and Islam started in the 7th century CE with the origin and spread of Islam in the Arabian peninsula. Because Judaism and Islam share a common origin in the Middle East through Abraham, both are considered Abrahamic religions. There are many shared aspects between Judaism and Islam: Islam is similar to Judaism in its fundamental religious outlook, structure, jurisprudence and practice.[1] Because of this, as well as through the influence of Muslim culture and philosophy on practitioners of Judaism within the Islamic world, there has been considerable and continued physical, theological, and political overlap between the two faiths in the subsequent 1,400 years. Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabia redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...

Contents

Religious figures

The Cave of the Patriarchs, burial place of Abraham.

Ancient Hebrew and Arab people are generally classified as Semitic peoples, a concept derived from Biblical accounts of the origins of the cultures known to the ancient Hebrews. Those closest to them in culture and language were generally deemed to be descended from their forefather Shem, one of the sons of Noah. Enemies were often said to be descendants of his cursed brother Ham. Modern historians confirm the affinity of ancient Hebrews and Arabs based on characteristics that are usually transmitted from parent to child such as physical characteristics, mental characteristics, habits. The most well studied criterion is that of language. Similarities between Semitic languages (including Hebrew and Arabic) and their differences with those spoken by other adjacent races confirm the common origin of Hebrews and Arabs and other Semitic nations. [2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 976 KB) Summary Tomb of Abraham, cenotaph above the cave traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham and Sarah in the Cave of the Patriarchs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 976 KB) Summary Tomb of Abraham, cenotaph above the cave traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham and Sarah in the Cave of the Patriarchs. ... The Enclosure of the Cave of the Patriarchs The Cave of the Patriarchs is a religious compound located in the ancient city of Hebron (which lies in the southwest part of the West Bank, in the heart of ancient Judea), and is generally considered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims, to... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2659, 688 KB) Description: Title: de: Moses mit den Gesetzestafeln Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 168,5 × 136,5 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Gemäldegalerie Other notes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2659, 688 KB) Description: Title: de: Moses mit den Gesetzestafeln Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 168,5 × 136,5 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Gemäldegalerie Other notes... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about a list of ten religious commandments. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Around the 16th century BC, Judaism developed as the first major monotheistic religion. According to Jewish tradition, the history of Judaism begins with the Covenant between God and Abraham, who is considered the first Hebrew. The Hebrew Bible occasionally refers to Arvi peoples (or variants thereof), translated as "Arab" or "Arabian". The Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula are considered descendants of Ismael, the first son of Abraham. While the commonly-held view among most Westerners and some lay Muslims is that Islam originated in Arabia with Muhammad's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century CE, the Qur'an itself asserts that it was Abraham who is the first Muslim (in the sense of believing in God and surrendering to God and God's commands). Islam also shares many traits with Judaism (as well as with Christianity), like the belief in and reverence for common prophets, such as Moses and Abraham[3] , who are recognized in both faiths. The Lion Gate at Mycenae, the center of Mycenean Greece 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Ishmael or Yishmael (יִשְׁמָעֵאל God hears or obeys, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic إسماعيل) is Abrahams eldest son, born by his servant Hagar. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ...

Further information: History of the Levant

This article deals with the general history of the Levant, which is an antiquated geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the north, and Mesopotamia to the east. ...

Abraham

Main article: Abraham

Judaism, Christianity and Islam are known as "Abrahamic religions".[4] The first Abrahamic religion was Judaism as practiced in ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah prior to the Babylonian Exile, at the beginning of the 1st millennium CE. The firstborn son of Abraham, Ishmael, Muslims consider Father of the Arabs. Abraham's second son Isaac is called Father of the Hebrews. In the Jewish tradition Abraham is called Avraham Avinu or "Abraham, our Father". Jews consider Abraham, a prophet since Genesis 20 explictly calls him a prophet and because the Bible records his prophecies. For Muslims, he is also is a prophet of Islam (Ibrahim) and the ancestor of Muhammad through Ishmael. For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ...


Moses

Main article: Moses

Islam affirms that Moses (Musa) was given a revelation, the Torah, which Muslims call Tawrat in Arabic, and believed to be the word of God (Allah). However, they also believe that this original revelation was modified over time by Jewish (and Christian) scribes and preachers. According to Islamic belief, the present Jewish scriptures were no longer the original divine revelations given to Moses. Muslims believe the Qur'an is the final revelation from God and a completion of the previous revelations. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Muhammad

The earliest surviving image of Muhammad from Rashid al-Din's Jami' al-Tawarikh (14th century) depicting the episode of the Black Stone.
The earliest surviving image of Muhammad from Rashid al-Din's Jami' al-Tawarikh (14th century) depicting the episode of the Black Stone.[5]
Main article: Muhammad and the Jews

In the course of Muhammad's proselytizing in Mecca, he viewed Christians and Jews (both of whom he referred to as "People of the Book") as natural allies, sharing the core principles of his teachings, and anticipated their acceptance and support. Muslims, like Jews, were at that time praying towards Jerusalem.[6] Muhammad was very excited to move to Medina, where the Jewish community there had long worshiped the one God.[7] Image File history File links Mohammed_kaaba_1315. ... Image File history File links Mohammed_kaaba_1315. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... The Jami al-tawarikh (Compendium of Chronicles) or Universal History is an Iranian work of literature and history written by Rashid al-Din at the start of the 14th century. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ... There are many written accounts of Muhammad having had contact with many Jews from tribes living in and arround Medina. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ...


Many Medinans converted to the faith of the Meccan immigrants, but the Jewish tribes did not. Much to Muhammad's disappointment, they rejected his status as a prophet.[6] Their opposition "may well have been for political as well as religious reasons". [8] According to Watt, "Jews would normally be unwilling to admit that a non-Jew could be a prophet."[9] Mark Cohen adds that Muhammad was appearing "centuries after the cessation of biblical prophecy" and "couched his message in a verbiage foreign to Judaism both in its format and rhetoric." [10] The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... For information on the fictional character Mark Cohen, see RENT Mark R. Cohen is a Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. ...


Other Prophets

Both agree on many people as being prophets with a few exceptions. Both unlike Christianity teach Eber, Job, and Joseph were prophets.[11][12][13][14][15][16].However according to one of the Amoraim in the Talmud the whole story was a fable and Job never existed.[17] Rashi, a Jewish commentator on the Hebrew Scriptures quotes a text dating to 160CE, which is also quoted in the Talmud on his commentary on Genesis 10 to show that Eber was a prophet. For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Amora, plural Amoraim, (from the Hebrew root amar to say or tell over), were renowned Jewish scholars who said or told over the teachings of the Oral law, from about 200 to 500 CE in Babylonia and Palestine. ...


Historical interaction

Image of a cantor reading the Passover story in Al-Andalus, from the 14th century Haggadah of Barcelona.
A 12th century Qur'an manuscript from Al-Andalus.
A 12th century Qur'an manuscript from Al-Andalus.

Jews have often lived in predominantly Islamic nations. Since many national borders have changed over the fourteen centuries of Islamic history, a single community, such as the Jewish community in Cairo, may have been contained in a number of different nations over different periods. Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... Image File history File links Full-page miniature from Haggadah, Spain 14th century. ... Image File history File links Full-page miniature from Haggadah, Spain 14th century. ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Haggadah for Passover, 14th century Haggadah in Hebrew means Telling. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Download high resolution version (576x672, 265 KB)12th century Quran page, from http://faculty. ... Download high resolution version (576x672, 265 KB)12th century Quran page, from http://faculty. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


As the Islamic state expanded out of the Arabian peninsula, large numbers of Jews came under Muslim rule. There was general improvement in the conditions of Jews as Islamic law commands that Jews should be judged by Jewish laws, and that synagogues are to be protected; others point to the second-class status of Jews and Christians in Muslim controlled countries. Arabia redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...


Middle Ages

In the Iberian Peninsula, under Muslim rule, Jews were able to make great advances in mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, chemistry and philology.[18] This era is sometimes referred to as the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula.[19] Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, also known as the Golden Age of Arab or Moorish Rule in Iberia, refers to a period of history during the Muslim rule of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman and Visigothic Hispania) in which Jews were generally accepted in society...


Traditionally Jews living in Muslim lands, known as dhimmis, were allowed to practice their religion and to administor their internal affairs but subject to certain conditions.[20] They had to pay the jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-muslim males) to Muslims.[21] Dhimmis had an inferior status under Islamic rule. They had several social and legal disabilities such as prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving Muslims.[22] Many of the disabilities were highly symbolic. The most degrading one was the requirement of distinctive clothing, not found in the Qur'an or hadith but invented in early medieval Baghdad; its enforcement was highly erratic.[23] Jews rarely faced martyrdom or exile, or forced compulsion to change their religion, and they were mostly free in their choice of residence and profession.[24] The notable examples of massacre of Jews include the killing or forcibly conversion of them by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in Al-Andalus in the 12th century. [25] Notable examples of the cases where the choice of residence was taken away from them includes confining Jews to walled quarters (mellahs) in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and especially since the early 19th century. [26] Most conversions were voluntary and happened for various reasons. However, there were some forced conversions in the 12th century under the Almohad dynasty of North Africa and al-Andalus as well as in Persia.[27] A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


Present Day

Iran contains the most number of Jews among Muslim countries and Uzbekistan and Turkey have the next ranks. Iran's Jewish community is officially recognized as a religious minority group by the government, and, like the Zoroastrians, they were allocated one seat in the Iranian Parliament. In 2000 it was estimated that at that time there were still 30–35,000 Jews in Iran, other sources put the figure as low as 20–25,000.[28] Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ...


In present times, the Arab-Israeli conflict is a defining event in the relationship between muslims and Jews. The State of Israel was proclaimed on May 14, 1948, one day before the expiry of the British Mandate of Palestine.[29] Not long after, five Arab countries – Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq – attacked Israel, launching the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[29] After almost a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line, were instituted. Jordan annexed what became known as the West Bank and Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations on May 11, 1949.[30] During the course of the hostilities, 711,000 Arabs, according to UN estimates, fled from Israel.[31] Arab persecution of Jewish communities precipitated a similar Jewish exodus from Arab lands.[32] In 2006 Khaleel Mohammed said that 95% of contemporary Muslims are exposed to antisemitic teachings, beginning between the ages of 5 and 8.[33] Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Palestinian annual commemorative day, see Nakba Day. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... Khaleel Mohammed is a professor of Religion at San Diego State University, and a core faculty member of the universitys Center for Islamic and Arabic Studies. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ...

Further information: Jewish population and Arab citizens of Israel

It has been suggested that Jewish population by cities and cityareas be merged into this article or section. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ...

Common aspects

A Sefer Torah opened for liturgical use in a synagogue service
A Sefer Torah opened for liturgical use in a synagogue service
A modern copy of the Qur'an.
A modern copy of the Qur'an.

There are many common aspects between Islam and Judaism. As Islam developed it gradually became the major religion closest to Judaism. As opposed to Christianity, which originated from interaction between ancient Greek and Hebrew cultures, Judaism is similar to Islam in its fundamental religious outlook, structure, jurisprudence and practice.[34] There are many traditions within Islam originating from traditions within the Hebrew Bible or from postbiblical Jewish traditions. These practices are known collectively as the Isra'iliyat.[35] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1064 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Torah and jad - exhibits in Big Synagogue Museum, Wlodawa - Poland. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1064 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Torah and jad - exhibits in Big Synagogue Museum, Wlodawa - Poland. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Opened_Qur'an. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Opened_Qur'an. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Israiliyat is a term in the Science of hadith who referes to material that origin from Judeo-Christian traditions, rather than from the Islamic prophet Muhammad [1]. Muslims classify them in three categories [1]: Those known to be true because the revelation to the Prophet Muhammad confirms them. ...


Holy scripture

Islam and Judaism share the idea of a revealed Scripture. Even though they differ over the precise text and its interpretations, the Hebrew Torah and the Muslim Qur'an share a lot of narrative as well as injunctions. From this, they share many other fundamental religious concepts such as the belief in a day of Divine Judgment. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Divine Judgment means the judgment of God, notably in the Judeo-Christian tradition. ...


Muslims commonly refer to Jews (and Christians) as fellow "People of the Book": people who follow the same general teachings in relation to the worship of the one God worshipped by Abraham. The Qur'an distinguishes between "People of the Book" (Jews and Christians), who should be tolerated even if they hold to their faiths, and idolators (polytheists) who are not given that same degree of tolerance (See Al-Baqara, 256). Some restrictions for Muslims are relaxed, such as Muslim males being allowed to marry a woman from the "People of the Book" (Qur'an, 5:5), or Muslims being allowed to eat Kosher meat[36]. The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Verse 256 of Al-Baqara is one of the most quoted verses in the Quran This verse notes that there is no compulsion in religion. ...

Further information: People of the Book and Biblical narratives and the Qur'an

The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to over fifty people also found in the Bible, typically in the same or similar narratives. ...

Religious law

Judaism and Islam are unique in having systems of religious law based on oral tradition that can override the written laws and that does not distinguish between holy and secular spheres[37]. In Islam the laws are called Sharia, In Judaism they are known as Halakha. Both Judaism and Islam consider the study of religious law to be a form of worship and an end in itself. This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ...


Rules of conduct

The most obvious common practice is the statement of the absolute unity of God, which Muslims observe in their five times daily prayers (Salah), and Jews state at least twice (Shema Yisrael). The two Faiths also share the central practices of fasting and almsgiving, as well as dietary laws and other aspects of ritual purity. Salat redirects here. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws, with lawful food being called Kosher in Judaism and Halal in Islam. Both religions prohibit the consumption of pork. Halal restrictions can be seen as a subset of the Kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God (Arabic:Allah). The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Both Judaism and Islam have a generally negative stance on homosexuality and on human sexuality outside of marriage. Both prescribe circumcision for males as a symbol of dedication to the religion. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about male circumcision. ...

Further information: Jewish observances and Five Pillars of Islam

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ...

Other similarities

Islam and Judaism both consider the Christian doctrine of the trinity and the belief of Jesus being God as explicitly against the tenets of Monotheism. Idolatry, worshiping graven images, is likewise forbidden in both religions. Both believe in angels and demons (jinn in Islam) and many angels possess similar names and roles in both religions[citation needed]. Both do not believe in original sin. Many narrative similarities between the Midrash and the Qu'ran (and also the Hadith) have been noted. Both state Potiphar's wife was named Zuleika.[38] Both teach King Solomon knew the language of the birds and had control over demons (djinn) and several other similarities. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Potiphar (or Potifar) (Hebrew: פּוֹטִיפַר / פּוֹטִיפָר, Standard  Tiberian  /  ; Egyptian origin:  ; the one whom Ra gave. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ...


Interplay between Jewish and Islamic thought

Manuscript page in Arabic written in Hebrew letters by Maimonides (12th century CE).
Maimonides (12th century CE), one of the great Jewish scholars of Al-Andalus.
Maimonides (12th century CE), one of the great Jewish scholars of Al-Andalus.
Main article: Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800 - 1400)
See also: Jewish philosophy and Early Muslim philosophy

There was a great deal of intellectual cultural diffusion between Muslim and Jewish rationalist philosophers of the medieval era, especially in Muslim Spain. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x792, 111 KB)Source: Jewish Encyclopedia ([1]) From the Cairo genizah This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x792, 111 KB)Source: Jewish Encyclopedia ([1]) From the Cairo genizah This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Arabic redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Image File history File links Maimonides-2. ... Image File history File links Maimonides-2. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Early Muslim philosophy can be starkly divided into four clear sets of influences: First, the life of Muhammad or sira which generated both the Quran (revelation) and hadith (his daily utterances and discourses on social and legal matters), during which philosophy was defined by acceptance or rejection of his... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diffusionism. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


Saadia Gaon

One of the most important early Jewish philosophers influenced by Islamic philosophy is Rav Saadia Gaon (892–942). His most important work is Emunoth ve-Deoth (Book of Beliefs and Opinions). In this work Saadia treats of the questions that interested the Mutakallimun so deeply — such as the creation of matter, the unity of God, the divine attributes, the soul, etc. — and he criticizes the philosophers severely. Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Emunoth ve-Deoth (אמונות ודעות; Hebrew: Beliefs and Opinions) written by Rabbi Saadia Gaon - originally Kitab al-Amanat wal-ltikadat (Book of the Articles of Faith and Doctrines of Dogma) - was the first systematic presentation and philosophic foundation of the dogmas of Judaism. ... Kalam (علم الكلم) in Arabic means speech or discourse, and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


The 12th century saw the apotheosis of pure philosophy. This supreme exaltation of philosophy was due, in great measure, to Ghazali (1058–1111) among the Arabs, and to Judah ha-Levi (1140) among the Jews. Like Ghazali, Judah ha-Levi took upon himself to free religion from the shackles of speculative philosophy, and to this end wrote the Kuzari, in which he sought to discredit all schools of philosophy alike. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... Judah Ha-Levi, also Yehudah Halevi, was a Jewish Spanish philosopher and poet. ... Continental philosophy is a general term for several related philosophical traditions that (notionally) originated in continental Europe, in contrast with Anglo-American analytic philosophy. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ...


Maimonides

Main article: Maimonides

Maimonides endeavored to harmonize the philosophy of Aristotle with Judaism; and to this end he composed his immortal work, Dalalat al-Ḥairin (Guide for the Perplexed) — known better under its Hebrew title Moreh Nevuchim — which served for many centuries as the subject of discussion and comment by Jewish thinkers. In this work, Maimonides considers Creation, the unity of God, the attributes of God, the soul, etc., and treats them in accordance with the theories of Aristotle to the extent in which these latter do not conflict with religion. For example, while accepting the teachings of Aristotle upon matter and form, he pronounces against the eternity of matter. Nor does he accept Aristotle's theory that God can have a knowledge of universals only, and not of particulars. If He had no knowledge of particulars, He would be subject to constant change. Maimonides argues: "God perceives future events before they happen, and this perception never fails Him. Therefore there are no new ideas to present themselves to Him. He knows that such and such an individual does not yet exist, but that he will be born at such a time, exist for such a period, and then return into non-existence. When then this individual comes into being, God does not learn any new fact; nothing has happened that He knew not of, for He knew this individual, such as he is now, before his birth" (Moreh, i.20). While seeking thus to avoid the troublesome consequences certain Aristotelian theories would entail upon religion, Maimonides could not altogether escape those involved in Aristotle's idea of the unity of souls; and herein he laid himself open to the attacks of the orthodox. Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The Guide for the Perplexed (Hebrew:מורה נבוכים, translit. ... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ...


Ibn Roshd (Averroes), the contemporary and tutor of Maimonides, closes the philosophical era of the Arabs. The boldness of this great commentator of Aristotle aroused the full fury of the orthodox, who, in their zeal, attacked all philosophers indiscriminately, and had all philosophical writings committed to the flames. Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...


Driven from the Arabian schools, Arabic philosophy found a refuge with the Jews, to whom belongs the honor of having transmitted it to the Christian world. A series of eminent men — such as the Tibbons, Narboni, and Gersonides — joined in translating the Arabic philosophical works into Hebrew and commenting upon them. The works of Ibn Roshd especially became the subject of their study, due in great measure to Maimonides, who, in a letter addressed to his pupil Joseph ben Judah, spoke in the highest terms of Ibn Roshd's commentary. Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Not to be confused with Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin, born c. ...


In a responsa, Maimonides discusses the relationship between Judaism and Islam: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

The Ishmaelites are not at all idolaters; [idolatry] has long been severed from their mouths and hearts; and they attribute to God a proper unity, a unity concerning which there is no doubt. And because they lie about us, and falsely attribute to us the statement that God has a son, is no reason for us to lie about them and say that they are idolaters . . . And should anyone say that the house that they honor [the Kaaba] is a house of idolatry and an idol is hidden within it, which their ancestors used to worship, then what of it? The hearts of those who bow down toward it today are [directed] only toward Heaven . . . [Regarding] the Ishmaelites today - idolatry has been severed from the mouths of all of them [including] women and children. Their error and foolishness is in other things which cannot be put into writing because of the renegades and wicked among Israel [i.e., apostates]. But as regards the unity of God they have no error at all.[2]

Influence on exegesis

Saadia Gaon's commentary on the Bible bears the stamp of the Mutazilites; and its author, while not admitting any positive attributes of God, except these of essence, endeavors to interpret Biblical passages in such a way as to rid them of anthropomorphism. The Jewish commentator, Abraham ibn Ezra, explains the Biblical account of Creation and other Scriptural passages in a philosophical sense. Nahmanides (Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman), too, and other commentators, show the influence of the philosophical ideas current in their respective epochs. This salutary inspiration, which lasted for five consecutive centuries, yielded to that other influence alone that came from the neglected depths of Jewish and of Neoplatonic mysticism, and which took the name of Kabbalah. Islamic commentary on the Qur'an, or tafsir, also draws heavily on Jewish sources. This is called Isra'iliyat. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ... An anthropomorphic character; a cat ascribed human characteristics. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Israiliyat is a term in the Science of hadith who referes to material that origin from Judeo-Christian traditions, rather than from the Islamic prophet Muhammad [1]. Muslims classify them in three categories [1]: Those known to be true because the revelation to the Prophet Muhammad confirms them. ...


See also

Religion Portal
Islam Portal
Judaism Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Arab Jews (Arabic: يهود العرب, Hebrew: יהודים ערבים) refers to Jews of Arab ancestry or those who speak Arabic. ... Languages Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Arabic philosophy dates from the appearance of dissenting sects in Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, also known as the Golden Age of Arab or Moorish Rule in Iberia, refers to a period of history during the Muslim rule of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman and Visigothic Hispania) in which Jews were generally accepted in society... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Palestinian refugees in 1948 The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jewish-Muslim Relations, Past & Present, Rabbi David Rosen
  2. ^ The religion of Semites, ch 1
  3. ^ Genesis 20
  4. ^ Sources for the following are:
    • J.Z.Smith 98, p.276
    • Anidjar 2001, p.3
  5. ^ Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999, p. 3
  6. ^ a b Esposito, John. 1998. Islam: the Straight Path, extended edition. Oxford university press, p.17
  7. ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, Second Edition, Lindsay Jones, Muhammad article, ISBN 0-02-865742-X
  8. ^ Gerhard Endress, Islam, Columbia University Press, p.29
  9. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam, pp. 43-44
  10. ^ Mark R. Cohen, Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages, p. 23, Princeton University Press
  11. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article.htm/aid/8174/showrashi/true/jewish/Chapter-10.html
  12. ^ says Joseph is extolled by the Rabbis for being well versed in the Torah, for being a prophet, and for supporting his brothers
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ http://anwary-islam.com/prophet-story/hud.htm
  15. ^ http://anwary-islam.com/prophet-story/yusuf1.htm
  16. ^ http://www.islamtutor.com/islam/prophets-of-islam-list.php
  17. ^ http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=330&letter=J&search=Job#1
  18. ^ Cowling (2005), p. 265
  19. ^ Poliakov (1974), pg.91-6
  20. ^ Lewis (1984), pp.10,20
  21. ^ Lewis (1984), pp.10,20
  22. ^ Lewis (1987), p. 9, 27
  23. ^ Lewis (1999), p.131
  24. ^ Lewis (1999), p.131; (1984), pp.8,62
  25. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 52; Stillman (1979), p.77
  26. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 28
  27. ^ Lewis (1984), pp.17,18,94,95; Stillman (1979), p.27
  28. ^ Report, Reuters, February 16 2000, cited from Bahá'í Library Online. The Encyclopaedia Judaica estimated the number of Jews in Iran at 25,000 in 1996.
  29. ^ a b Part 3: Partition, War and Independence. The Mideast: A Century of Conflict. National Public Radio (2002-10-02). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  30. ^ (1949-05-11). "Two Hundred and Seventh Plenary Meeting". The United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  31. ^ (1950-10-23). "General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, Covering the Period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950". The United Nations Conciliation Commission. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. (U.N. General Assembly Official Records, Fifth Session, Supplement No. 18, Document A/1367/Rev. 1)
  32. ^ Dekmejian 1975, p. 247. "And most [Oriental-Sephardic Jews] came... because of Arab persecution resulting from the very attempt to establish a Jewish state in Palestine."
  33. ^ Glazov, Jamie, "Symposium: The Koran and Anti-Semitism", FrontPageMag.com, June 25, 2004. (retrieved May 3, 2006) "and we know that things learned at this stage of life become ingrained, almost to the point of being in one's DNA."
  34. ^ Jewish-Muslim Relations, Past & Present, Rabbi David Rosen
  35. ^ Islam and Judaism, Rabbi Justin Jaron Lewis
  36. ^ Machine-slaughtered Meat, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari, eat-halal.com, retrieved March 23, 2006
  37. ^ Islam and Judiasm - Influences Contrasts and Parallels, www.houseofdavid.ca
  38. ^ http://www.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/Shokel/960102_Joseph.html

Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jamie Glazov (born 1966, in Moscow, Russia) is the managing editor of Frontpage Magazine[1], the online publication founded by David Horowitz. ... FrontPageMag. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...

References

  • Zia Abbas (2007) 'Israel: The History and how Jews, Christians and Muslims Can Achieve Peace' ISBN 0595426190
  • Lewis, Bernard (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-31839-7
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8
  • Lewis, Bernard , Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery, US: Oxford University Press (1995)
  • Cowling, Geoffrey (2005). Introduction to World Religions. Singapore: First Fortress Press. ISBN 0-8006-3714-3. 
  • This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Poliakov, Leon (1974). The History of Anti-semitism. New York: The Vanguard Press.
  • Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0
  • Stillman, N.A. (2006). "Yahud". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Eds.: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill. Brill Online

For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Léon Poliakov (Russian: ; 1910-1997) was a historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ...

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