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Encyclopedia > Judaism
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Judaism
Judaism

Portal | Category
Jews · Judaism · Denominations
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Jewish holidays
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Hoshanah Rabbah · Shemini Atzeret · Simchat Torah
Hanukkah · Tenth of Tevet · Tu Bishvat ·
Fast of Esther · Purim · Fast of the Firstborn
Pesach · Counting of the Omer · Lag Ba'omer
Shavuot · 17th of Tammuz · The Three Weeks
The Nine Days · Tisha B'Av · Tu B'Av
Yom HaShoah · Yom Hazikaron
Yom Ha'atzmaut · Yom Yerushalayim
Important figures
Abraham · Isaac · Jacob/Israel
The 12 Tribes of Israel · Lost Ten Tribes
Sarah · Rebekah · Rachel · Leah
Moses · Deborah · Ruth · David
Solomon · Elijah · Hillel · Shammai · Rashi
Ibn Ezra · Rif · Rambam · Ramban
Gersonides · Saadia Gaon · Alter Rebbe
Besht · Tosafists · Rashi · Vilna Gaon
Albo · Karo · Lubavitcher Rebbe · Rosh
Ovadia Yosef · Moshe Feinstein · Eliezer Schach
Jewish life cycle
Brit · B'nai mitzvah · Shidduch · Marriage
Niddah · Naming · Pidyon · Burial
Religious roles
Rabbi · Rebbe · Chazzan
Kohen/Priest · Mashgiach · Gabbai · Maggid
Mohel · Dayan · Rosh yeshiva
Religious buildings
Three Temples · Synagogue
Mikvah · Sukkah · Mishkan
Liturgy and services
Shacharit · Mincha · Ma'ariv
Musaf · Neilah · Havdalah
Religious articles
Tallit · Tefillin · Kipa · Sefer Torah
Tzitzit · Mezuzah · Menorah · Shofar
4 Species · Kittel · Gartel · Yad
Jewish prayers
Shema · Amidah · Aleinu · Kol Nidre
Kaddish · Hallel · Ma Tovu
Judaism & other religions
Christianity · "Judeo-Christian" · Islam
Catholicism · Reconciliation · Pluralism
Abrahamic faiths · Judeo-Paganism
Mormonism · Noahide laws · Others
See also
Criticism of Judaism · Anti-Judaism · Philo-Semitism
Yeshiva
v  d  e

Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. According to their sacred literature, especially the Tanakh and Talmud, the religion of ancient Israel and their descendants the Jews is based on a Covenant between God and Abraham (ca. 2000 BCE) and the renewal of the covenant with Moses (ca. 1200 BCE). It is one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. The values and history of the Jewish people are a major part of the foundation of other Abrahamic religions such as Christianity, Islam, Samaritanism and the Bahá'í Faith. Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy; sometimes abbreviated as MO or Modox) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian: , Qabbālāh, Israeli: Kabala) literally means receiving, in the sense of a received tradition, and is sometimes transliterated as Cabala, Kabbala, Qabalah, or other permutations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). In Arabic, charity is sadakah (صدقه) and an obligatory type of it, the Arabic term zakat, is considered to be one of the five pillars of Islam. ... Tora redirects here. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... Humash or Chumash (Hebrew: חומש) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... The siddur (plural siddurim) is the prayerbook used by Jews over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים, Hebrew: Four columns - on the High Priests breastplate), also abbreviated as Tur, is an important work of Jewish law, composed by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Mishnah Berurah (Hebrew: Clarified Teaching) is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, better known as The Chofetz Chaim (Poland, 1838 - 1933). ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Likkutei Amarim ( ליקוטי אמרים תניא, Hebrew, collection of statements), more commonly known as the Tanya, is an early work of Hasidic Judaism, written by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of the Chabad Lubavitch Hasidic dynasty, in 1797 CE. The name Tanya derives from the books first word, which is Aramaic... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sabbath. ... Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... The Fast of Gedalia (or Gedaliah) is a Jewish fast from dawn till dusk to commemorate the death of a Jew of that name. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ... Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ... Hanukkah (Hebrew: ‎), the Festival of Rededication (also known incorrectly as the Festival of Lights) is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of Kislev, which can occur in very late November, or throughout December. ... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ... Tu Bishvat (or Tu BiShevat) (טו בשבט) is a minor Jewish holiday (meaning there are no restrictions on working) and one of the four Rosh Hashanahs (New Years) mentioned in the Mishnah, the basis of the Talmud. ... The Fast of Esther known as Taanit Ester is a Jewish fast from dusk until dawn, commemorating the three day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of all the Jews at the time who were living under the authority of the Persian Empire, resulting from the Babylonian captivity (after Persia had conquered Babylonia), from Hamans plot... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... setting fire, one of the symbols of the holiday Lag Baomer (Ashkenazi) or Lag laomer (Sephardi) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the thirty-third day of the counting of the Omer which is on the 18th of Iyar. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... The Three Weeks are days of mourning commemorating the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem within Judaism. ... The Nine Days are the first nine days of the Jewish month of Av. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Tu BAv (Hebrew: טו באב, the fifteenth of the month Av) is a celebratory day in the Jewish calendar. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day (Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ... Yom Haatzmaut (Hebrew: ‎ yom hā-‘aá¹£mā’ūṯ), Israeli Independence Day, commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948. ... Yom Yerushalayim - Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim - Iyar 28 יום ירושלים - כח באייר Yom Yerushalayim 2004 at the Western_Wall Jerusalem was divided during the War of Independence and nineteen years later was reunited as a result of the... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (רִבְקָה Captivating, Enchantingly Beautiful, Noose or Snare, Standard Hebrew Rivqa, Tiberian Hebrew Riḇqāh) is the wife of Isaac. ... Look up Rachel, רחל in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: ‎ Bee, Standard Hebrew DÉ™vora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו Eliyahu) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... Hillel (הלל) was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of King Herod, Augustus, and probably Jesus; he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Portrait of Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1812) founder of Chabad Lubavitch and author of Tanya and Shulchan Aruch HaRav. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Rabbi Yosef (Joseph) Karo is one of the most important leaders in the history of halakha (Jewish law). ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Rabbi Shach Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Eastern European-born and educated Haredi rabbi who settled and lived in modern Israel. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant Jewish... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shidduch (or shiduch) (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew), in Judaism, is technically a state of marital separation when a woman is menstruating and seven subsequent days until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Redemption of First-born (pidyon ha-ben in Hebrew), is an important ritual in Judaism. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbÄ« is derived from a recent (18th... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי. It mostly refers to the leader of a Hasidic Jewish movement. ... A hazzan (or chazzan, Hebrew for Cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a... A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the needs are met, for example the Jewish prayer services run smoothly, or an assistant to a rabbi (particularly the secretary or personal assistant to a Hassidic Rebbe). ... Dovber of Mezeritch (died 1772) was the primary disciple of Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism (now a form of Orthodox Judaism. ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... A Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) is a religious Jewish scholar who is an expert in Jewish law. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) (or Habdalah or Havdala), is a Jewish religious ceremony that symbolically formally concludes the Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath) and many Jewish holidays. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are either of two boxes containing Biblical verses and black, leather straps attached to them which are used in orthodox Jewish prayer. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Tzitzit (Ashkenazi Hebrew: tzitzis) are fringes or tassels (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית (Mishnaic)) found on a tallit worn by observant Jews as part of practicing Judaism. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... A shofar in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Ma Tovu (Hebrew for O How Good or How Goodly) is a prayer in Judaism, expressing reverence and awe for synagogues and other places of worship. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article on Mormonism and Judaism describes the views of Latter-day Saints, commonly known as Mormons, with respect to Jews and Judaism, and includes comparisons of the Mormon and Jewish faiths. ... The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Philo-Semitism, Philosemitism, or Semitism is an interest in, respect for the Jewish people, as well as the love of everything Jewish, and the historical significance of Jewish culture and positive impact of Judaism in the history of the world. ... This article is about the Jewish educational system. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... In theology, monotheism (Greek μόνος(monos) = single and θεός(theos) = God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ...


Judaism has seldom, if ever, been monolithic in practice (although it has always been monotheistic in theology), and differs from many religions in that its central authority is not vested in any person or group but rather in its writings and traditions. Despite this, Judaism in all its variations has remained tightly bound to a number of religious principles, the most important of which is the belief that there is a single, omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent, transcendent God, who created the universe and continues to be involved in its governance. According to traditional Jewish belief, the God who created the world established a covenant with the Jewish people, and revealed his laws and commandments to them in the form of the Torah. The practice of Judaism is devoted to the study and observance of these laws and commandments, as written in the Torah and expounded in the Talmud. As of 2006, adherents of Judaism numbered around 14 million followers,[1] making it the world's eleventh-largest organized religion. Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a characters including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe etc. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Omnibenevolence is sometimes used to describe the property of being perfectly or absolutely good. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... Covenant is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Tora redirects here. ... Torah study is the study by Jews of the Torah, Tanakh, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaisms religious texts, for the purpose of the mitzvah (commandment) of Torah study itself, meaning study for religious (as opposed to academic) purposes. ... Tora redirects here. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ...

Traditional view of the development of Judaism

Scenes from the Book of Esther, part of the Ketuvim portion of the Tanakh, decorate the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
Scenes from the Book of Esther, part of the Ketuvim portion of the Tanakh, decorate the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE

The Tanakh is largely an account of the Israelites' relationship with God as reflected in their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple (c. 350 BCE). This relationship is often portrayed as contentious, as Hebrews struggle between their faith in God and their attraction for other gods, and as some Hebrews, such as Abraham (most notably and directly); Jacob, the father of all Israelites — later known as Israel; and Moses struggle with God. Image File history File links the Dura-Europos (Syria) wall paintings and artifacts. ... Image File history File links the Dura-Europos (Syria) wall paintings and artifacts. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The Synagogue in Dura Europos This Synagogue was discovered in 1932 at Dura-Europos, now in modern Syria. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A stone (2. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


According to Orthodox Judaism and most religious Jews, the Biblical patriarch Abraham was the first Hebrew. Rabbinic literature records that he was the first since the generation of Noah to publicly reject idolatry and preach monotheism. As a result, God promised him many children: "Look now toward heaven and count the stars/So shall be your progeny." (Genesis 15:5) Abraham's first child was Ishmael and his second son was Isaac, whom God said would continue Abraham's work and inherit the Land of Israel (then called Canaan), after having been exiled and redeemed. God sent the patriarch Jacob and his children to Egypt, where after many generations they became enslaved. God later commanded Moses to redeem the Israelites from slavery triggering the Exodus from Egypt, when God led the Israelites to Mount Sinai in 1313 BCE (Jewish Year 2448) and gave them the Torah, summarized in the five books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. These books, together with Nevi'im and Ketuvim are known as Torah SheB'Ksav: literally the "Written Torah", in contradistinction to the Oral Torah. Eventually, God led them to the land of Israel. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... In theology, monotheism (Greek μόνος(monos) = single and θεός(theos) = God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Expulsion of Ishmael and His Mother. ... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ḍ:The article Exodus discusses the events related in the book of the Bible and Torah by the same name. ... View from the summit of Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء), also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gebel Musa or Jabal Musa (Moses Mountain) by the Bedouins, is the name of a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula. ... Tora redirects here. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


God designated the descendants of Aaron, Moses' brother, to be a priestly class within the Israelite community. They first officiated in the tabernacle (a portable house of worship), and later their descendants were in charge of worship in the Temple in Jerusalem. Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ...


Once the Israelites had settled in the land of Israel, the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over 300 years during which time God provided great men, and occasionally women, to rally the nation against attacking enemies, some of which were sent by God as a punishment for the sins of the people. This is described in the Book of Joshua and the Book of Judges. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines to capture the tabernacle in Shiloh. Shiloh (Hebrew: ) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as a city and as denoting a person. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they had reached the point where they needed to be governed by a permanent king, as were other nations, as described in the Books of Samuel. Samuel grudgingly acceded to this request and appointed Saul, a great but very humble man, to be their King. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead. Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ...


Once King David was established, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple, and as a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son to build the temple and the throne would never depart from his children (David himself was not allowed to build the temple because he had been involved in many wars, making it inappropriate for him to build a temple representing peace). As a result, it was David's son Solomon who built the first permanent temple according to God's will, in Jerusalem, as described in the Books of Kings. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nathan (disambiguation). ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...

The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.

After Solomon's death, his Kingdom was split into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. After several hundred years, because of rampant idolatry, God allowed Assyria to conquer Israel and exile its people. The southern Kingdom of Judah, whose capital was Jerusalem, home of the Temple, remained under the rule of the House of David, however, as in the north, idolatry increased to the point that God allowed Babylonia to conquer the Kingdom, destroy the Temple which had stood for 410 years, and exile its people to Babylonia, with the promise that they would be redeemed after seventy years. These events are recorded in the Book of Isaiah and the Book of Jeremiah. Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1013 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1013 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Western Wall by night “Wailing Wall” redirects here. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... A stone (2. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Davidic line, (also House of David or Davidic Dynasty, sometimes referred to as Royal House of Israel), known in Hebrew as Malkhut Beit David (Monarchy of the House of David) refers to the tracing of royal lineage by kings and major leaders in Jewish history to the Biblical King David... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... The Book of Isaiah (Hebrew: Sefer Yshayah ספר ישעיה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Isaiah. ... Bold text The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is a book that is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ...


After seventy years the Judahites were allowed back into Judaea under the leadership of Ezra, and the Temple was rebuilt, as recorded in the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah. The Second Temple stood for 420 years, after which it was destroyed by the Roman general (later emperor) Titus. The Israelite temple is to remain in ruins until a descendant of David arises to restore the glory of Israel and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. Ezra is a personal name derived from Hebrew, written variously as עֶזְרָא ( Standard Hebrew ), ʿEzra, ( Tiberian Hebrew ), ʿEzrâ: short for עַזְרִיאֵל My help/court is God, Standard Hebrew ʿAzriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew ʿAzrîʾēl, Arabic: عزير. // Once there once an ezra who ate two pies the kill barney with jake burton Unless otherwise... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... A stone (2. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ...


Rabbinic tradition holds that the details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law, were originally an unwritten tradition based upon what God told Moses on Mount Sinai. However, as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, these oral laws were recorded by Rabbi Judah HaNasi (Rabbi Judah the Prince) in the Mishnah, redacted circa 200 CE. The Talmud was a compilation of both the Mishnah and the Gemara (Aramaic for the word Tradition), rabbinic commentaries redacted over the next three centuries. The process of "Gemara" took place in the two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud. It was compiled sometime during the fourth century in Israel. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled from discussions in the houses of study by the scholars Ravina I, Ravina II, and Rav Ashi by 500 C.E., although it continued to be edited later. An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbÄ« is derived from a recent (18th... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Gemara (גמרא - from gamar: Hebrew [to] complete; Aramaic [to] study) is a component of the Talmud, comprising the rabbinical commentaries and analysis on the Mishnah, undertaken in the Academies of Palestine and Babylon over a 300 year period to about 500. ... Ravina I was a Jewish Talmudist and rabbi who began the process of compiling the Talmud with Rav Ashi. ... Ravina II was a rabbi of the Talmud who, in 475 CE, together with his teacher Rav Ashi, collected and commented upon the Gemara of what would henceforth be known as the Babylonian Talmud. ... Ashi, known as Rav Ashi (Rabbi Ashi), (352–427) was a celebrated Jewish religious scholar, aBabylonian amora, who reestablished the academy at Sura and was first editor of the Babylonian Talmud. ...


Common editions of the Talmud today have the Mishnah followed by its associated Gemara commentary. Then, the next Mishnah, often only a few lines or short paragraph, followed by the commentary relevant to that Mishnah which may be pages long, and so on until that particular tractate of Mishnah is completed. There may be many chapters of Mishnah in any given tractate (Ma'sechta in Hebrew).


In pre-Constantinian late antiquity and even after, Judaism was extremely attractive to a substantial percentage of the Greco-Roman world. However, the numbers of Gentiles who actually undertook circumcision and the obligations of Sabbath observance were actually many fewer than those who found Judaism otherwise attractive. Without formal conversion, these Gentiles remained outside of Judaism. This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ...


Critical historical view of the development of Judaism

Although monotheism and Torah are fundamental to Rabbinic Judaism, many critical Bible scholars claim that certain verses in the Torah imply that the early Israelites accepted the existence of other gods (possibly angels), while viewing their God as the sole Creator, whose worship is obligated (a henotheistic point of view). Another way of putting this is that the Israelite, Yahwistic religion that preceded Rabbinic Judaism, as represented by the early prophets, demanded monolatry: worship of a single, "jealous" God. Interestingly, the biblical text that is considered to be the core of Judaism (Deut. 6,4: "Hear, O Israel, YHWH is our God, YHWH is One" (in Hebrew, "Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad", with "Adonai" standing in for YHWH)), represents this God's apparent intolerance of accepting the worship of other gods. As YHWH Himself was originally a War-God ("YHWH of the hosts"), the worship of fertility gods such as Baal (or the Baalim) was attractive once the Israelites had settled down. In this view, it was only by the Hellenic period that most Jews came to believe that their God was the only God (and thus, the God of everyone), and that the record of His revelation (the Torah) contained within it universal truths. This attitude reflected a growing Gentile interest in Judaism (some Greeks and Romans considered the Jews a most "philosophical" people because of their belief in a God that cannot be represented visually), and growing Jewish interest in Greek philosophy, which sought to establish universal truths, thus leading - potentially - to the idea of monotheism, at least in the sense that "all gods are One". Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks word for themselves) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ...


According to this theory, Jews began to grapple with the tension between their claims of particularism (that only Jews were required to obey the Torah), and universalism (that the Torah contained universal truths). The supposed result is a set of beliefs and practices concerning identity, ethics, and the relationships between man and nature and man and God that examine and privilege "differences" — for example the difference between Jews and non-Jews; the local differences in the practice of Judaism; a close attention, when interpreting texts, to differences in the meanings of words; attempts to preserve and encode different points of view within texts, and a relative avoidance of creed and dogma. A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ...


In contrast to the Orthodox religious view of the Hebrew Bible, critical biblical scholars also suggest that the Torah consists of a variety of inconsistent texts that were edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts (see Documentary hypothesis). Tora redirects here. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...


Religious doctrine and Principles of Faith

Historically, Judaism has considered belief in the divine revelation and acceptance of the Written and Oral Torah as its fundamental core belief, but Judaism does not have a centralized authority dictating religious dogma. This gave rise to many different formulations as to the specific theological beliefs inherent in the Torah and Talmud. While individual rabbis have at times agreed upon a firm formulation, generally other rabbis have disagreed, many criticizing any such attempt as minimizing acceptance of the entire Torah.[2] Notably, in the Talmud some principles of faith (e.g., the Divine origin of the Torah) are considered important enough that rejection of them can put one in the category of "apikoros" (heretic).[3] There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... Tora redirects here. ... For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbī is derived from a recent (18th... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Over the centuries, a number of clear formulations of Jewish principles of faith have appeared, and though they differ with respect to certain details, they demonstrate a commonality of core ideology. Of these, the one most widely considered authoritative is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith. These principles were controversial when first proposed, evoking criticism by Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo. The thirteen principles were ignored by much of the Jewish community for the next few centuries. (Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought, Menachem Kellner). Over time two poetic restatements of these principles ("Ani Ma'amin" and "Yigdal") became canonized in the Jewish prayerbook, and eventually became widely held. Today most of Orthodox Judaism holds that these beliefs are obligatory, and that Jews who do not fully accept each one of them are potentially heretical: Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... Hasdai ben Abraham Crescas (c. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Ani Maamin (Hebrew: I believe) is a prosaic rendition of Maimonides thirteen-point version of the Jewish principles of faith. ... The hymn which in the various rituals shares with Adon Olam the place of honor at the opening of the morning and the close of the evening service. ...

  1. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is the Creator and Guide of everything that has been created; He alone has made, does make, and will make all things.
  2. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be.
  3. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is not a body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no (physical) comparison to Him whatsoever.
  4. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is the first and the last.
  5. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him.
  6. I believe with perfect faith that all the works of the prophets are true.
  7. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses, our teacher, peace be upon him, was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both of those who preceded him and of those who followed him.
  8. I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses, our teacher, peace be upon him.
  9. I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be changed, and that there will never be any other Law from the Creator, blessed be His name.
  10. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His name, knows all the deeds of human beings, and all their thoughts, as it is said: “[He] that fashioned the hearts of them all, [He] that comprehends all their actions.”
  11. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, rewards those that keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them.
  12. I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah; and even though he may tarry, with all this I wait every day for his coming.
  13. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, blessed be His name, and exalted be His Name forever and ever.

Some, such as Rabbi Joseph Albo and the Raavad, criticized Maimonides' list as containing too many items that, while true, were not fundamentals of the faith, and thus placed too many Jews in the category of "heretic", rather than those who were simply in error. Many others criticized any such formulation as minimizing acceptance of the entire Torah (see above). As noted however, neither Maimonides nor his contemporaries viewed these principles as encompassing all of Jewish belief, but rather as the core theological underpinnings of the acceptance of Judaism. Along these lines, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and observances rather than religious beliefs, associating apostasy with a failure to observe Jewish law, and suggesting the requirements for conversion to Judaism included circumcision and adherence to traditional customs. This article needs cleanup. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (years 37 – shortly after 100 AD)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt , from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


Jewish literature

Rabbinic literature

A Torah scroll, the Torah contains the five books of Moses, which are the first five books of the Hebrew Bible.
A Torah scroll, the Torah contains the five books of Moses, which are the first five books of the Hebrew Bible.

Jews are often called a "People of the Book," and Judaism has an age-old intellectual tradition focusing on text-based Torah study. The following is a basic, structured list of the central works of Jewish practice and thought. For more detail, see Rabbinic literature. Download high resolution version (1777x1333, 411 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1777x1333, 411 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tora redirects here. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish term) or Old Testament (Christian term). ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... Torah study is the study by Jews of the Torah, Tanakh, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaisms religious texts, for the purpose of the mitzvah (commandment) of Torah study itself, meaning study for religious (as opposed to academic) purposes. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ...

Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish term) or Old Testament (Christian term). ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... Suggestion: The following categories should each contain one or a just a few brief paragraphs summing up the main exegetes and their works, with numerous internal links to individual articles. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The Minor Tractates are essays from the tannaitic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal tractate exists in the Mishnah. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Midrash halakha was the ancient rabbinic Jewish method of verifying the traditionally received laws by identifying their sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws authenticity. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים, Hebrew: Four columns - on the High Priests breastplate), also abbreviated as Tur, is an important work of Jewish law, composed by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian: , Qabbālāh, Israeli: Kabala) literally means receiving, in the sense of a received tradition, and is sometimes transliterated as Cabala, Kabbala, Qabalah, or other permutations. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... The siddur (plural siddurim) is the prayerbook used by Jews over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ...

Legal literature

Main article: Halakha

The basis of Jewish law and tradition ("halakha") is the Torah (the five books of Moses). According to rabbinic tradition there are 613 commandments in the Torah. Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups, the Kohanim and Leviyim (members of the tribe of Levi), some only to those who practice farming within the land of Israel. Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem existed, and fewer than 300 of these commandments are still applicable today. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Tora redirects here. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... This article discusses the Biblical patriarch. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ...


While there have been Jewish groups which claimed to be based on the written text of the Torah alone (e.g., the Sadducees, and the Karaites), most Jews believed in what they call the oral law. These oral traditions were transmitted by the Pharisee sect of ancient Judaism, and were later recorded in written form and expanded upon by the rabbis. Tora redirects here. ... The sect of the Sadducees - from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the teachings... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ...


Rabbinic Judaism has always held that the books of the Tanakh (called the written law) have always been transmitted in parallel with an oral tradition. To justify this viewpoint, Jews point to the text of the Torah, where many words are left undefined, and many procedures mentioned without explanation or instructions; this, they argue, means that the reader is assumed to be familiar with the details from other, i.e., oral, sources. This parallel set of material was originally transmitted orally, and came to be known as "the oral law". Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... Tora redirects here. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ...


By the time of Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi (200 CE), after the destruction of Jerusalem, much of this material was edited together into the Mishnah. Over the next four centuries this law underwent discussion and debate in both of the world's major Jewish communities (in Israel and Babylonia), and the commentaries on the Mishnah from each of these communities eventually came to be edited together into compilations known as the two Talmuds. These have been expounded by commentaries of various Torah scholars during the ages. Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...


Halakha, the rabbinic Jewish way of life, then, is based on a combined reading of the Torah, and the oral tradition - the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud and its commentaries. The Halakha has developed slowly, through a precedent-based system. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, is referred to as responsa (in Hebrew, Sheelot U-Teshuvot.) Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law are written that are based on the responsa; the most important code, the Shulkhan Arukh, largely determines Orthodox religious practice today. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ...


Jewish philosophy

Main article: Jewish philosophy

Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. Major Jewish philosophers include Solomon ibn Gabirol, Saadia Gaon, Maimonides, and Gersonides. Major changes occurred in response to the Enlightenment (late 1700s to early 1800s) leading to the post-Enlightenment Jewish philosophers. Modern Jewish philosophy consists of both Orthodox and non-Orthodox oriented philosophy. Notable among Orthodox Jewish philosophers are Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler, Joseph Soloveitchik, and Yitzchok Hutner. Well-known non-Orthodox Jewish philosophers include Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, Abraham Joshua Heschel, and Emmanuel Levinas. Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Solomon Ibn Gabirol, also Solomon ben Judah, is a Spanish Jewish poet and philosopher. ... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler ([ [ 1892]]-[[30 diciembre ] ] [ [ 1953 ] ]) era un influyente [ [ juda�smo ortodoxo|Jud�o ortodoxo ] ] [ [ rabbi ] ], [ [ erudito de Talmud]]ic, y fil�sofo jud�o del vig�simo siglo. ... Rav Joseph Ber (Yosef Dov, Yoshe Ber) Soloveitchik (Hebrew: ) () was an American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist and modern Jewish philosopher. ... Yitzchok (Isaac) Hutner (1906 - 1980) was an Orthodox rabbi born in Warsaw, Poland, to a family with both Ger Hasidim and non-Hasidic Lithuanian Jews in their origins. ... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... Franz Rosenzweig (1886 - 1929) was one of the most influential modern Jewish religious thinkers. ... Rabbi Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (June 11, 1881- November 8, 1983) founded Reconstructionist Judaism. ... Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907, Warsaw, Poland – December 23, 1972) was considered by many to be one of the most significant Jewish theologians of the 20th century. ... Emmanuel Levinas (January 12, 1906 - December 25, 1995) was a Jewish philosopher originally from Kaunas in Lithuania, who moved to France where he wrote most of his works in French. ...


Related Topics

A Torah database (מאגר תורני or מאגר יהדות) is an electronic collection of classic Jewish texts in electronic form, the kinds of texts which especially in Israel are often called The Traditional Jewish Bookshelf (ארון הספרים היהודי); the texts are in their original languages (Hebrew or Aramaic). ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ...

Jewish identity

Distinction between Jews and Judaism

According to Daniel Boyarin, the underlying distinction between religion and ethnicity is foreign to Judaism itself, and is one form of the dualism between spirit and flesh that has its origin in Platonic philosophy and that permeated Hellenistic Judaism.[5] Consequently, in his view, Judaism does not fit easily into conventional Western categories, such as religion, ethnicity, or culture. Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that most of Judaism's 4,000-year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West. During this time, Jews have experienced slavery, anarchic and theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile; in the Diasporas, they have been in contact with and have been influenced by ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment (see Haskalah) and the rise of nationalism, which would bear fruit in the form of a Jewish state in the Levant. They also saw an elite convert to Judaism (the Khazars), only to disappear as the centers of power in the lands once occupied by that elite fell to the people of Rus and then the Mongols. Thus, Boyarin has argued that "Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension."[6] For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ...


What makes a person Jewish?

Main article: Who is a Jew?

According to traditional Jewish Law, a Jew is anyone born of a Jewish mother or converted in accord with Jewish Law. American Reform Judaism and British Liberal Judaism accept the child of one Jewish parent (father or mother) as Jewish if the parents raise the child as a Jew by Progressive standards. All mainstream forms of Judaism today are open to sincere converts. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Judaism maintains that a Jew, whether by birth or conversion, is a Jew forever. A Jewish atheist or Jewish convert to another religion is still a Jew, albeit not in good religious standing. How religious one is, in this sense, is only important in one's status in Jewish law. For example, a person denying the Jewish principles of faith may be considered a heretic, while still considered Jewish. There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... Look up Heretic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The question of what determines Jewish identity was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David ben Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew") from Jewish religious authorities and intellectuals worldwide. The question is far from settled, and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...


Jewish demographics

Main article: Jewish population

The number of Jews in the world is hotly contested and any estimate given may or may not be an accurate one. According to the Jewish Year Book (1901), the number of Jews in 1900 was around 11 million. The latest estimates available are from the World Jewish Population Survey of 2002, and the Jewish Year Calendar, (2005). The former states that in 2002 there were a total of 13.3 million Jews in the world, while the latter states a total of 14.6 million. Jewish population growth is currently almost zero percent, with a 0.3% growth from 2000 to 2001. The number of converts as well as the birthrate of Jews in Israel and the promotion of interest in Jewish practices in America and other countries suggest that Judaism will steadily grow during the twenty-first century. Jewish population refers to the number of Jews in the world, something that is difficult to calculate, given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. ...


Judaism divisions

In the late Middle Ages, when Europe and western Asia were divided into Christian and Islamic countries, the Jewish people also found themselves divided into two main groups. Jews in central and eastern Europe, namely in Germany and Poland, were called Ashkenazi. Sephardic Jews can trace their tradition back to the Mediterranean countries, particularly Spain and Portugal under Muslim rule. When they were expelled in 1492, they settled in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, the Far East, and northern Europe. The two traditions differ in a number of ritual and cultural ways, but their theology and basic Jewish practice are the same. The Hasidic sects of eastern Europe and some North African and Oriental countries also differ from other groups in their rites but they, too, maintain the concept of divine authority. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a move by some Jewish groups away from traditional or orthodox observances. This trend gave rise to a number of groups within Judaism. Orthodox Jews (see Orthodox Judaism) who form the majority, assert the supreme authority of the Torah and adhere to all the traditions of Judaism, including the strict dietary laws (see kosher) and the segregation of women in the synagogue. Reform Judaism rejects the idea that Jews are the chosen people, has a liberal interpretation of the dietary laws, and takes a questioning attitude towards the Torah. Conservative Judaism is a compromise between Orthodox and Reform in its acceptance of the traditional law, making some allowances for modern conditions, although its services and ceremonies are closer to Orthodox than to Reform. Liberal Judaism, or Reconstructionism, goes further than Reform in attempting to adapt Judaism to the needs of the modern world and to interpret the Torah in the light of current scholarship. In all the groups except Orthodox, women are not segregated in the synagogue, and there are female rabbis in both Reform and Liberal Judaism. Many people who call themselves Jews prefer to identify Judaism with a historical and cultural tradition rather than with strict religious observance, and a contemporary debate (complicated by the history of non-Jewish attitudes towards Jews) centres on the question of how to define a Jew. As in other religions, fundamentalist movements have emerged; for example, Gush Emunim. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Look up Central in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations[1] (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tora redirects here. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... This term is used for religious movements that deal with the relations between the adherents of a religion and a secular society, but in two diametrically opposed directions. ... Gush Emunim גוש אמונים (Hebrew: Block [of the] faithful) was an Israeli political movement. ...


Jewish denominations

Main article: Jewish denominations

Over the past two centuries the Jewish community has divided into a number of Jewish denominations; each has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, and how one should live as a Jew. To some degree, these doctrinal differences have created schisms between the Jewish denominations. Nonetheless, there is some level of Jewish unity. For example, it would not be unusual for a Conservative Jew to attend either an Orthodox or Reform synagogue. The article on Relationships between Jewish religious movements discusses how different Jewish denominations view each other. Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... This article discusses the relationship between the various denominations of Judaism. ...

  • Orthodox Judaism holds that both the Written and Oral Torah were divinely revealed to Moses, and that the laws within it are binding and unchanging. Orthodox Jews generally consider the Shulkhan Arukh, to be the definitive codification of Jewish law, and assert a continuity between the Judaism of the Temple in Jerusalem, pre-Enlightenment Rabbinic Judaism. and modern-day Orthodox Judaism. Most of Orthodox Judaism holds to one particular form of Jewish theology, based on Maimonides' 13 principles of Jewish faith. Orthodox Judaism broadly (and informally) shades into two main styles, Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism. The philosophical distinction is generally around accommodation to modernity and weight placed on non-Jewish disciplines, though in practical terms the differences are often reflected in styles of dress and rigor in practice. According to most Orthodox Jews, Jewish people who do not keep the laws of Shabbat and Yom Tov (the holidays), Kashrut, and family purity are considered non-religious. Any Jew who keeps at least those laws would be considered observant and religious.
    Hasidic Jews are one part of the Haredi community, the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. Pictured here, Hasidic Rebbes.
    Hasidic Jews are one part of the Haredi community, the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. Pictured here, Hasidic Rebbes.
    • Hasidic Judaism is a form of Orthodox Judaism based on the teachings of Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (the 'Baal Shem Tov'). Hasidic philosophy is rooted in the Kabbalah, and Hasidic Jews accept the Kabbalah as sacred scripture. They are distinguished both by a variety of special customs and practices including reliance on a Rebbe or supreme religious leader, and for a special dress code particular to each Hassidic group.
    • Traditional Orthodox or Haredi Judaism is a very conservative form of Judaism. It is sometimes called Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, but this term is widely considered to be offensive. Though there are a number of Haredi Jewish groups who, like Modern Orthodoxy, accept modernization (including followers of Torah im Derech Eretz and perhaps most notably Lubavitch Hassidism), the modern culture is seen as a means to worship God instead of an end unto itself. Many Orthodox Jews do not look at one's professed denomination alone as the principal way of evaluating religious level; instead they view Jews by how closely their beliefs and practices accord with Orthodox ones.
    • Modern Orthodox is a common traditional form of Judaism, which has a broad adherence to historic traditions, and practices, and worship and belief in traditional form.
  • Conservative Judaism, known as Masorti Judaism outside of the United States and Canada, developed in Europe and the United States in the 1800s, as Jews reacted to the changes brought about by the Enlightenment and Jewish emancipation. It is characterized by a commitment to following traditional Jewish laws and customs, including observance of Shabbat and Kashrut; a deliberately non-fundamentalist teaching of Jewish principles of faith; a positive attitude toward modern culture; an acceptance of both traditional rabbinic modes of study and modern scholarship and critical text study when considering Jewish religious texts.
    • It teaches that Jewish law was not static, but rather has always developed in response to changing conditions.
    • It holds that the Torah is a divine document written by prophets inspired by God, but rejects the Orthodox position that it was dictated by God to Moses. Similarly, Conservative Judaism holds that Judaism's oral law is divine and normative, but rejects some Orthodox interpretations of the oral law.
    • Accordingly, Conservative Judaism holds that both the Written and Oral Law may be interpreted by the Rabbinnate to reflect modern sensibilities and suit modern conditions, although great caution should be exercised in doing so.
  • Progressive Judaism is composed of multiple movements in several countries.
  • Reform Judaism, called Liberal or Progressive in many countries, originally formed in Germany in response to the Enlightenment. (Note that in the United Kingdom, there are two distinct congregational unions, Reform and Liberal. The former is significantly more traditional than the latter, but both hold to essentially the same theoretical position.) Its defining characteristic with respect to the other movements is its rejection of the binding nature of Jewish ceremonial law as such and instead believing that individual Jews should exercise an informed autonomy about what to observe. Reform Judaism initially defined Judaism as a religion, rather than as a race or culture; rejected most of the ritual ceremonial laws of the Torah while observing moral laws; and emphasized the ethical call of the Prophets. Reform Judaism developed a prayer service in the vernacular (along with Hebrew in most cases) and emphasized personal connection to Jewish tradition over specific forms of observance. Today, many Reform congregations encourage the study of Hebrew and traditional observances.
In Reform Judaism, prayer is often conducted in the vernacular and men and women have equal roles in religious observance.
In Reform Judaism, prayer is often conducted in the vernacular and men and women have equal roles in religious observance.
  • Reconstructionist Judaism started as a stream of philosophy by Mordechai Kaplan, a Conservative rabbi, and later became an independent movement emphasizing reinterpreting Judaism for modern times. Like Reform Judaism, Reconstructionist Judaism does hold not that Jewish law, as such, requires observance, but unlike Reform, Reconstructionist thought emphasizes the role of the community in deciding what observances to follow.
  • Jewish Renewal, a recent North American movement, was begun by Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, a Hassidic rabbi, in the 1960s. Jewish Renewal focuses on spirtuality and social justice, but does not address issues of Jewish law. Men and women participate equally in prayer.
  • Humanistic Judaism. A small nontheistic movement that emphasizes Jewish culture and history as the sources of Jewish identity. Founded by Rabbi Sherwin Wine, it is centered in North America and Israel but also has affiliated groups in Europe and Latin America.

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy; sometimes abbreviated as MO or Modox) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sabbath. ... Jewish holiday, (or Yom Tom or chag or taanit in Hebrew) is a day that is holy to the Jewish people according to Judaism and is usually derived from the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Torah, and in some cases established by the rabbis in later eras. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Judaism, niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew) is technically a state of minor exclusion when a woman is menstruating and for about a week later until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... Hasidim in Brooklyn , New York celebrating while in traditional dress This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Hasidim in Brooklyn , New York celebrating while in traditional dress This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי. It mostly refers to the leader of a Hasidic Jewish movement. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (רבי ישראל בן אליעזר, c. ... Hasidic Philosophy or Chassidic philosophy (also Hasidism or Hassidism, Chassidus or Chassidut or Chasidut) is the teachings and philosophy underlying Hasidic Judaism. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian: , Qabbālāh, Israeli: Kabala) literally means receiving, in the sense of a received tradition, and is sometimes transliterated as Cabala, Kabbala, Qabalah, or other permutations. ... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי. It mostly refers to the leader of a Hasidic Jewish movement. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Torah im Derech Eretz (Hebrew תורה עם דרך ארץ - Torah with the way of the land) is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism articulated by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888), which formalizes a relationship between traditionally observant Judaism and the modern world. ... Chabad Lubavitch, also known as Lubavitch Chabad, is a large branch of Hasidic Judaism. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy; sometimes abbreviated as MO or Modox) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sabbath. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... Progressive Judaism is an umbrella term for all strands of Judaism which do not view the oral law as binding. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Tora redirects here. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Image File history File links Services at a reform synagogue File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Services at a reform synagogue File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Rabbi Mordechai Menahem Kaplan (June 11, 1881- November 8, 1983) founded Reconstructionist Judaism. ... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, D.H.L., Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati; Brooklyn Chabad Ordination 1947. ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Sherwin T. Wine (b. ...

Jewish denominations in Israel

Main article: Judaism in Israel

Even though all of these denominations exist in Israel, Israelis tend to classify Jewish identity in ways that are different than diaspora Jewry. Most Jewish Israelis classify themselves as "secular" (hiloni), "traditional" (masorti), "religious" (dati) or Haredi. The term "secular" is more popular as a self-description among Israeli families of western (European) origin, whose Jewish identity may be a very powerful force in their lives, but who see it as largely independent of traditional religious belief and practice. This portion of the population largely ignores organized religious life, be it of the official Israeli rabbinate (Orthodox) or of the liberal movements common to diaspora Judaism (Reform, Conservative). The great majority of citizens in the State of Israel are Jewish; the great majority of Israeli Jews practice Judaism as their religion. ... The term: diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά – a scattering or sowing of seeds) is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands; being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the ensuing developments in their dispersal and culture. ...


The term "traditional" (masorti) is most common as a self-description among Israeli families of "eastern" origin (i.e., the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa). This term, as commonly used, has nothing to do with the official Masorti (Conservative) movement. Masorti means traditional in Hebrew. ...


There is a great deal of ambiguity in the ways "secular" and "traditional" are used in Israel. They often overlap, and they cover an extremely wide range in terms of ideology and religious observance.


The term "Orthodox" (Ortodoxi) is unpopular in Israeli discourse (among both "secular" and "religious" alike). Nevertheless, the spectrum covered by "Orthodox" in the diaspora exists in Israel, again with some important variations. The "Orthodox" spectrum in Israel is a far greater percentage of the Jewish population in Israel than in the diaspora, though how much greater is hotly debated. Various ways of measuring this percentage, each with its pros and cons, include the proportion of religiously observant Knesset members, the proportion of Jewish children enrolled in religious schools, and statistical studies on "identity". The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ...


What would be called "Orthodox" in the diaspora includes what is commonly called dati (religious) or haredi (ultra-Orthodox) in Israel. The former term includes what is called "Religious Zionism" or the "National Religious" community, as well as what has become known over the past decade or so as haredi-leumi (nationalist haredi), or "Hardal," which combines a largely haredi lifestyle with nationalist ideology. Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


Haredi applies to a populace that can be roughly divided into three separate groups along both ethnic and ideological lines: (1) "Lithuanian" (non-hasidic) haredim of Ashkenazic origin; (2) Hasidic haredim of Ashkenazic origin; and (3) Sephardic haredim. The third group is the largest, and has been the most politically active since the early 1990s.


Alternative Judaism

Other expressions of Jewish identity fall outside of this conservative-liberal continuum. Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ...


Unlike the above denominations, which were ideological reactions that resulted from the exposure of traditional rabbinic Judaism to the radical changes of modern times, Karaite Judaism did not begin as a modern Jewish movement. The followers of Karaism believe they are the remnants of the non-Rabbinic Jewish sects of the Second Temple period, such as the Sadducees, though others contend they are a sect started in the 8th and 9th centuries. The Karaites, or "Scripturalists," accept only the Hebrew Bible and what they view as the Peshat: "Plain or Simple Meaning"; and do not accept non-biblical writings as authoritative. Some European Karaites do not see themselves as part of the Jewish community, while most do. It is interesting to note that the Nazis often did not associate Karaites with Jews, and therefore several Karaite communities were spared in WWII and exist to this day even in places such as Lithuania where Jewish communities were completely devastated. In other areas, such as Greece, the Nazis deemed Karaites as belonging to a greater Jewish tradition and abused them accordingly. Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... The sect of the Sadducees - from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the teachings... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Another historical division among ethnic Jews are the Samaritans, who maintain a distinct cultural and religious identity from mainstream Judaism, and are located entirely around Mount Gerizim in the Nablus/Shechem region of the West Bank and in Holon, near Tel Aviv in Israel. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Mount Gerizim; archaeological research Mount Gerizim (Samaritan Hebrew Ar-garízim, Arabic جبل جرزيم Jabal Jarizīm, Tiberian Hebrew הַר גְּרִזִּים Har Gərizzîm, Standard Hebrew הַר גְּרִיזִּים Har Gərizzim) is a mountain in the West Bank near Nablus which is sacred to the Samaritan sect. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... The Yanshul, half-cat half-owl, the symbol of Holons Childrens Museum. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


Jewish views of religious pluralism describes how Judaism views other religions; it also describes how members of each of the Jewish religious denominations view the other denominations. This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ...


Jewish observances

Prayers

Main article: Jewish services
A Yemeni Jew wearing a kippah skullcap prays with a tallit shawl. The prayer box strapped to his forehead and arm are tefillin. His uncut side-curls are payot.
A Yemeni Jew wearing a kippah skullcap prays with a tallit shawl. The prayer box strapped to his forehead and arm are tefillin. His uncut side-curls are payot.

There are three main daily prayer services, named Shacharit, Mincha (literally: "flour-offering") and Maariv or Arvit. All services include a number of benedictions called the Amidah or the Shemoneh Esrei ("eighteen"), which on weekdays consists of nineteen blessings (one was added in the time of the Mishna, but the name remains). Another key prayer in many services is the declaration of faith, the Shema which is recited at shacharit and maariv. The shema states, "Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad," or "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One." Most of the prayers in a traditional Jewish service can be said in solitary prayer. However, in order to have an actual service, you are required to have ten people. This is called a minyan (prayer quorum). There are also prayers and benedictions recited throughout the day, such as those before eating ("Hamotzi" for bread, "Mezonot" for pastry, etc) or drinking ("Hagaffen" for grape juice or wine, "Shehakol" for water, etc). There are a number of common Jewish religious objects used in prayer. The tallit is a Jewish prayer shawl. A kippah or yarmulke—pronounced ya-ma-ka (skullcap) is a head covering worn during prayer by most Jewish men, and at all times by more orthodox Jewish men — especially Ashkenazim. Phylacteries or tefillin, boxes containing the portions of the Torah mandating them, are also worn by religious Jews during weekday morning services. Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Download high resolution version (487x702, 64 KB)Yemeni Jew in traditional costume, from March, 1914 National Geographic Magazine. ... Download high resolution version (487x702, 64 KB)Yemeni Jew in traditional costume, from March, 1914 National Geographic Magazine. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are either of two boxes containing Biblical verses and black, leather straps attached to them which are used in orthodox Jewish prayer. ... The present Gerer Hasidic Rebbe in Israel, Rabbi Yakov Aryeh Alter (b. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Shema Yisrael (שמע ישראל) are the first two words of a section of the Hebrew Bible that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Yamaha Motor Company Limited (ヤマハ発動機株式会社) TYO: 7272 , a Japanese motorized vehicle-producing company (whose HQ is at 2500 Shingai, Iwata, Shizuoka), is part of the Yamaha Corporation. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Tefillin, also called phylacteries, are leather objects used in Jewish prayer, containing Biblical verses. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are either of two boxes containing Biblical verses and black, leather straps attached to them which are used in orthodox Jewish prayer. ... Tora redirects here. ...


The Jewish approach to prayer differs among the various branches of Judaism. While all use the same set of prayers and texts, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, and whether one prays in a particular liturgical language or the vernacular differs from denomination to denomination, with Conservative and Orthodox congregations using more traditional services, and Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues more likely to incorporate translations, contemporary writings, and abbreviated services.


Jewish holy days

Main article: Jewish holiday
On Yom Kippur, according to some the most important Jewish holy day, Jews fast and pray in atonement for their sins, communal as well as individual, from an 1878 painting.
On Yom Kippur, according to some the most important Jewish holy day, Jews fast and pray in atonement for their sins, communal as well as individual, from an 1878 painting.

Jewish holy days celebrate central themes in the relationship between God and the world, such as creation, revelation, and redemption. A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1647x2130, 959 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1647x2130, 959 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ...


Shabbat

Main article: Shabbat

Shabbat, the weekly day of rest lasting from shortly before sundown on Friday night to shortly after sundown Saturday night, commemorates God's day of rest after six days of creation.[7] It plays a pivotal role in Jewish practice and is governed by a large corpus of religious law. At sundown on Friday, the woman of the house welcomes the Shabbat by lighting two or more candles and reciting a blessing. The evening meal begins with the Kiddush, a blessing recited aloud over a cup of wine, and the Mohtzi, a blessing recited over the bread. It is customary to have Challah, two braided loaves of bread, on the table. During Shabbat, Jews are forbidden to engage in any activity that falls under 39 categories of "melakhah," translated literally as "work." In fact the activities banned on the Sabbath are not "work" in the usual sense: They include such actions as lighting a fire, writing, using money and carrying in the public domain. The prohibition of lighting a fire has been extended in the modern era to driving a car, which involves burning fuel, and using electricity. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sabbath. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sabbath. ...


Three pilgrim festivals

Jewish holidays, mostly festivals (haggim), celebrate revelation by commemorating different events in the passage of the Children of Israel out of slavery in Egypt to their return to the Land of Israel. They are also timed to coincide with important agricultural seasons. They are also pilgrimage holidays, for which the Children of Israel would journey to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices to God in His Temple. The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...

  • Passover (Pesach) is a week-long holiday beginning on the evening of the 14th day of Nisan (the first month in the Hebrew calendar), that commemorates the Exodus from Egypt, and coincides with the barley harvest. It is the only holiday that centers on home-service, the Seder. Leavened products are removed from the house prior to the holiday, and are not consumed during the holiday. Instead, one eats Matzah, or unleavened bread. Traditional food symbols include the shank bone (not eaten by Ashkenazim, only displayed), the bitter herb, and the parsley (or another vegetable).
  • Shavuot ("Pentecost" or "Feast of Weeks") celebrates the anniversary of the revelation of the Torah to the Israelites on Mount Sinai, and marks the transition from the barley harvest to the wheat harvest.
  • Sukkot ("Tabernacles" or "The Festival of Booths") commemorates the wandering of the Children of Israel through the desert. It is celebrated through the construction of temporary booths called Sukkahs that represent the temporary shelters of the Children of Israel during their wandering. It coincides with the fruit harvest, and marks the end of the agricultural cycle. During Sukkot, Jews are commanded to create their own sukkah, a simple hut. They decorate it with fruit and vegetables. The roof is made of pine tree branches so that you can see the stars through the ceiling. Jews all around the world eat and sleep in this Sukkah for 7 days and nights. Sukkot concludes with Shemini Atzeret, where Jews begin to pray for rain and Simchat Torah, the holiday in which Jews finish reading the Torah and start over at the beginning. Jews read the end of the Torah, have a huge session of singing and dancing, then read the beginning of the Torah.

This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Seder is a Hebrew word meaning order, and can have any of the following meanings: Seder - readings of the Torah according to the ancient Palestinian triennial cycle. ... Leaven is a raising agent for bread. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Tora redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ...

High Holy Days

Main article: High Holidays

The High Holidays (Yamim Noraim or "Days of Awe") celebrate judgment and forgiveness. The High Holidays refers to the ten-day period in Judaism which begins with Rosh Hashanah followed by the ten days of repentance, ending with Yom Kippur, the day of repentance. ...

  • Rosh Hashanah ("[Jewish] New Year" or Yom Ha-Zikkaron - "Day of Remembrance," or Yom Teruah - "Day of the Sounding of the Shofar"). Although Rosh Hashanah means "new year" (literally, the "head [of] the year") it falls on the first day of the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar, Tishri. It is called the Jewish New Year because it celebrates the day that the world was created; it also marks the beginning of the atonement period that ends ten days later with Yom Kippur. During these ten days, one is required to apologize to everyone whom one has wronged, and the aggrieved should forgive.
  • Yom Kippur, ("Day of Atonement") is centered on redemption; a day of atonement and fasting for sins committed individually and communally during the previous year. Many consider this the most important Jewish holiday. Yom Kippur is both a solemn day marked by self-scrutiny, when Jews should "afflict" themselves (by fasting), and a celebratory day, as Jews reflect on God's mercy.

This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... A shofar in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ‎) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... Tishrei or Tishri (תִּשְׁרִי, תִּשְׁרֵי, Standard Hebrew Tišri, Tišre, Tiberian Hebrew Tišrî, Tišrê: from Akkadian tašrītu Beginning, from šurrû To begin... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...

Other holidays

Hanukkah Hanukkah (Hebrew: ‎), the Festival of Rededication (also known incorrectly as the Festival of Lights) is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of Kislev, which can occur in very late November, or throughout December. ...


Hanukkah, חנוכה, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Dedication, is an eight day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev (Hebrew calendar). The festival is observed in Jewish homes by the kindling of lights on each of the festival's eight nights, one on the first night, two on the second night and so on. Kislev (or Chisleu) (Hebrew: כִּסְלֵו, Standard Kislev Tiberian  ; from Akkadian kislimu) is the third month of the ecclesiastical year and the ninth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ‎) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ...


The holiday was called Hanukkah meaning "dedication" because it marks the re-dedication of the Temple after its desecration under Antiochus IV. Spiritually, Hanukkah commemorates the "Miracle of the Oil". According to the Talmud, at the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem following the victory of the Maccabees over the Seleucid Empire, there was only enough consecrated olive oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days - which was the length of time it took to press, prepare and consecrate new oil. There are several monarchs known by the title of Antiochus IV: Antiochus IV of Syria, who ruled during the time of Caligula; Antiochus Epiphanes, the Seleucid oppressor of the Jews who provoked the revolt of the Maccabees. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... A bottle of olive oil. ...


Hanukkah was originally a minor holiday within Judaism but in modern times became one of the most celebrated and extravagant within the Jewish community.


Purim Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, from Akkadian pūru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of all the Jews at the time who were living under the authority of the Persian Empire, resulting from the Babylonian captivity (after Persia had conquered Babylonia), from Hamans plot...


Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm English: "Lots") is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of Persian Jews from the plot of the evil Haman to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. It is characterized by public recitation of the Book of Esther, giving mutual gifts of food and drink, giving charity to the poor, and a celebratory meal (Esther 9:22); other customs include drinking alcohol, wearing of masks and costumes, and huge joyus and sometimes wild parties. A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Haman is a name that is applied to different personages in different religious traditions: Haman (Bible), appears in the Book of Esther and is the main villain in the Jewish holiday of Purim. ... Extermination is the act of killing with the intention of eradicating a population. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ...


Purim is celebrated annually on the 14th of the Hebrew month of Adar. Adar (אֲדָר, Standard Hebrew Adar, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḏār: from Akkadian adaru) is the sixth month of the religious year and the twelfth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ...


Torah readings

Main article: Torah reading

The core of festival and Sabbath prayer services is the public reading of the Torah, along with connected readings from the other books of the Jewish Bible, called Haftarah. During the course of a year, the full Torah is read, and the cycle begins again every autumn during Simhat Torah (“rejoicing in the Torah”). The Jewish ritual of Torah reading (in Hebrew: קריאת התורה, Kriat HaTorah; Reading [of] the Torah) involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. ... The haftarah (haftara, haphtara, haphtarah, Hebrew הפטרה‎; plural haftarot, haftaros, haphtarot, haphtaros) is a text selected from the books of Neviim (The Prophets) that is read publicly in the synagogue after the reading of the Torah on each Sabbath, as well as on Jewish festivals and fast days. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with the Torah. It is a Jewish holiday that takes place at the conclusion of Sukkot, a Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as The Feast of Booths (Tabernacles). ...


Synagogues and Jewish buildings

Main article: Synagogue
Interior of the Esnoga synagogue in Amsterdam. The tebáh (reader’s platform) in the foreground, and the Hekhál (Ark) is in the background.
Interior of the Esnoga synagogue in Amsterdam. The tebáh (reader’s platform) in the foreground, and the Hekhál (Ark) is in the background.

Synagogues are Jewish houses of prayer and study, they usually contain separate rooms for prayer (the main sanctuary), smaller rooms for study, and often an area for community or educational use. There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly, so a synagogue may contain any (or none) of these features: A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Image File history File links Interior of the Esnoga (Spanish and Portuguese synagogue) in Amsterdam, from tebáh (bima) towards hekhál (ark). ... Image File history File links Interior of the Esnoga (Spanish and Portuguese synagogue) in Amsterdam, from tebáh (bima) towards hekhál (ark). ... Niteowlneils 10:02, 10 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...

  • an ark (called aron ha-kodesh by Ashkenazim and hekhal by Sephardim) where the Torah scrolls are kept (the ark is often closed with an ornate curtain (parokhet) outside or inside the ark doors);
  • a large elevated reader's platform (called bimah by Ashkenazim and tebah by Sephardim), where the Torah is read (and from where the services are conducted in Sephardi synagogues);
  • an Eternal Light (ner tamid), a continually-lit lamp or lantern used as a reminder of the constantly lit menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem; and,
  • (mainly in Ashkenazi synagogues) a pulpit facing the congregation to preach from and a pulpit or amud (Hebrew for "post" or "column") facing the Ark for the Hazzan (reader) to lead the prayers from.

In addition to synagogues, other buildings of significance in Judaism include yeshivas, or institutions of Jewish learning, and mikvahs, which are ritual baths. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Tora redirects here. ... Parochet (also paroches, parokhet) is the curtain on the front of the Aron Kodesh in a synagogue that cover the Sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls). ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... This article is about the Jewish educational system. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ...


Dietary laws: Kashrut

Main article: Kashrut

The laws of kashrut ("keeping kosher") are the Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with Jewish law is termed kosher, and food not in accord with Jewish law is termed treifah or treif. From the context of the laws in the book of Leviticus, the purpose of kashrut is related to ritual purity and holiness, as well as health. Kashrut involves the abstention from consuming animals that eat other animals, and that roam the sea floor eating the excretions of other animals, therefore excluding birds/beasts of prey and seafood (other than fish), respectively. Also, mixing meat and milk is not allowed, as this is viewed as cooking the child in its mother's milk. Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ...


Although sometimes rationalized by reference to hygiene, its stated purpose is perhaps better understood as providing certainty that food eaten is prepared and partaken only from sources which are confirmed to have been spiritually appropriate and which avoided spiritual "negatives" such as pain, sickness, unclean animals or abusive practices in its preparation.


Family purity

Main article: Niddah

The laws of niddah ("menstruant", often referred to euphemistically as "family purity") and various other laws regulating the interaction between men and women (e.g., tzeniut, modesty in dress) are perceived, especially by Orthodox Jews, as vital factors in Jewish life, though they are rarely followed by Reform or Conservative Jews. The laws of niddah dictate that sexual intercourse cannot take place while the woman is having a menstrual flow, and she has to count seven "clean" days and immerse in a mikvah (ritual bath) following menstruation. Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew), in Judaism, is technically a state of marital separation when a woman is menstruating and seven subsequent days until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew), in Judaism, is technically a state of marital separation when a woman is menstruating and seven subsequent days until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... Tzeniut (or Tznius or Tzniut) (Hebrew: צניעות, modesty) is a term used within Judaism. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes in the females of some animal species that is associated with reproductive fertility. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ...


Life-cycle events

Life-cycle events, or rites of passage, occur throughout a Jew's life that serve to strengthen Jewish identity and bind him/her to the entire community. A rite of passage is a ritual that marks a change in a persons social or sexual status. ...

  • Brit milah - Welcoming male babies into the covenant through the rite of circumcision on their eighth day of life. The baby boy is also given his Hebrew name in the ceremony. A naming ceremony intended as a parallel ritual for girls, named zeved habat, enjoys limited popularity.
  • Bar mitzvah and Bat mitzvah (B'nai mitzvah) - This passage from childhood to adulthood takes place when a female Jew is 12 and a male Jew is 13 years old among Orthodox and some Conservative congregations. In the Reform movement, both girls and boys have their bat/bar mitzvah at age 13. This is often commemorated by having the new adults, male only in the Orthodox tradition, lead the congregation in prayer and publicly read a 'portion' of the Torah.
  • Marriage - Marriage is an extremely important lifecycle event. A wedding takes place under a chupah, or wedding canopy, which symbolizes a happy house. At the end of the ceremony, the groom breaks a glass with his foot, symbolizing the continuous mourning for the destruction of the Temple, and the scattering of the Jewish people.
  • Death and Mourning - Judaism has a multi-staged mourning practice. The first stage is called the Shiv'ah (literally "seven", observed for one week) during which it is traditional to sit at home and be comforted by friends and family, the second is the shloshim (observed for one month) and for those who have lost one of their parents, there is a third stage, avelut yud bet chodesh, which is observed for eleven months.

Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant Jewish... This article is about male circumcision. ... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... // May you be comforted with all the mourners of Zion and Jerusalem Death and dying Everything that Jews do regarding death is for one of two reasons: respect for the dead (kavod ha-met) or to console those left behind (nihum avelim). ... Mourning is in the simplest sense synonymous with grief over the death of someone. ... Shivah (שבעה Hebrew: seven) is the name for Judaisms week-long period of grief and mourning for the seven first-degree relatives: father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, or spouse. ...

Religious clothing

A kippah (Hebrew: כִּפָּה, also kipah, kipa, kippa, plural kippot; Yiddish: יאַרמלקע, yarmlke, yarmulke, yarmulka, yarmelke, less commonly called kapel) is a thin, usually slightly-rounded cloth skullcap worn by observant Jews (usually men, but not always; see below). Kipot range in size from four inches to 9.5 inches (100 mm to 240 mm) or larger in diameter. Yamaha Motor Company Limited (ヤマハ発動機株式会社) TYO: 7272 , a Japanese motorized vehicle-producing company (whose HQ is at 2500 Shingai, Iwata, Shizuoka), is part of the Yamaha Corporation. ...


Tzitzit (Ashkenazi pronunciation: tzitzis) are fringes or tassles (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית (Mishnaic)) found on a tallit worn by observant Jews as part of practicing Judaism. In Orthodox Judaism it is only worn by males. Tzitzit (Ashkenazi Hebrew: tzitzis) are fringes or tassels (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית (Mishnaic)) found on a tallit worn by observant Jews as part of practicing Judaism. ... Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ...


A kittel, a white approximately knee-length belted overgarment resembling a lab coat, is worn by observant Jews on the High Holidays and by service leaders on certain other occasions. Both the tallit and kittel form part of the tachrichim, the burial garments. A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ...


Community leadership

Classical priesthood

Judaism does not have a clergy, in the sense of full-time specialists required for religious services. Technically, the last time Judaism had a clergy was prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, when priests attended to the Temple and sacrifices. The priesthood is an inherited position, and although priests no longer have any but vestigial clerical duties, they are still honored in many Jewish communities. Many Orthodox Jewish communities believe that they will be needed again for a future Third Temple and need to remain in readiness for future duty. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...

  • Kohen (priest) - patrilineal descendant of Aaron, brother of Moses. In the Temple, the kohanim were charged with performing the sacrifices. Today, a Kohen is the first one called up at the reading of the Torah, performs the Priestly Blessing, as well as complying with other unique laws and ceremonies, including the ceremony of redemption of the first-born.
  • Levi (Levite) - Patrilineal descendant of Levi the son of Jacob. In the Temple in Jerusalem, the levites sang Psalms, performed construction, maintenance, janitorial, and guard duties, assisted the priests, and sometimes interpreted the law and Temple ritual to the public. Today, a Levite is called up second to the reading of the Torah. Levites also have a number of other minor duties in traditional synagogues, including washing the hands of the Kohanim (priests) before they say the priestly blessing.

It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ... This article discusses the Biblical patriarch. ... This article discusses the Biblical patriarch. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ...

Prayer leaders

From the time of the Mishnah and Talmud to the present, Judaism has required specialists or authorities for the practice of very few rituals or ceremonies. A Jew can fulfill most requirements for prayer by himself. Some activities — reading the Torah and haftarah (a supplementary portion from the Prophets or Writings); the prayer for mourners; the blessings for bridegroom and bride; the complete grace after meals — require a minyan, the presence of ten adults (Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews require ten adult men; some Conservative Jews and Reform Jews include women in the minyan). The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Tora redirects here. ...


The most common professional clergy in a synagogue are: A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...

  • Rabbi of a congregation - Jewish scholar who is charged with answering the legal questions of a congregation. This role requires ordination by the congregation's preferred authority (i.e. from a respected Orthodox rabbi or, if the congregation is Conservative or Reform, from academic seminaries). A congregation does not necessarily require a rabbi. Some congregations have a rabbi but also allow members of the congregation to act as shatz or baal kriyah (see below).
    • Hassidic Rebbe - rabbi who is the head of a Hasidic dynasty.
  • Chazzan (note: the "ch" denotes voiceless pharyngeal fricative) (cantor) - a trained vocalist who acts as shatz. Chosen for a good voice, knowledge of traditional tunes, understanding of the meaning of the prayers and sincerity in reciting them. A congregation does not need to have a dedicated chazzan.

Jewish prayer services do involve two specified roles, which are sometimes, but not always, filled by a rabbi and/or hazzan in many congregations. In other congregations these roles are filled on an ad-hoc basis by members of the congregation who lead portions of services on a rotating basis: Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbī is derived from a recent (18th... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי. It mostly refers to the leader of a Hasidic Jewish movement. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

  • Shaliach tzibur or Shatz (leader — literally "agent" or "representative" — of the congregation) leads those assembled in prayer, and sometimes prays on behalf of the community. When a shatz recites a prayer on behalf of the congregation, he is not acting as an intermediary but rather as a facilitator. The entire congregation participates in the recital of such prayers by saying amen at their conclusion; it is with this act that the shatz's prayer becomes the prayer of the congregation. Any adult capable of speaking Hebrew clearly may act as shatz (Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews allow only men to act as shatz; some Conservative Jews and Reform Jews allow women to act as shatz as well).
  • Baal kriyah (master of the reading) reads the weekly Torah portion. The requirements for acting as a baal kriyah are the same as those for the shatz. Additionally, in many congregations, the baal kriyah is known as the baal koreh, although this is grammatically incorrect.

Note that these roles are not mutually exclusive. The same person is often qualified to fill more than one role, and often does. Often there are several people capable of filling these roles and different services (or parts of services) will be led by each. A hazzan (or chazzan, Hebrew for Cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Tora redirects here. ...


Many congregations, especially larger ones, also rely on a:

  • Gabbai (sexton) - Calls people up to the Torah, appoints the shatz for each prayer session if there is no standard shatz, and makes certain that the synagogue is kept clean and supplied.

The three preceding positions are usually voluntary and considered an honor. Since the Enlightenment large synagogues have often adopted the practice of hiring rabbis and hazzans to act as shatz and baal kriyah, and this is still typically the case in many Conservative and Reform congregations. However, in most Orthodox synagogues these positions are filled by laypeople on a rotating or ad-hoc basis. Although most congregations hire one or more Rabbis, the use of a professional hazzan is generally declining in American congregations, and the use of professionals for other offices is rarer still. The Age of Enlightenment (French: Siècle des Lumières, German: Aufklärung) refers to the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...


Specialized religious roles

  • Dayan (judge) - expert in Jewish law who sits on a beth din (rabbinical court) for either monetary matters or for overseeing the giving of a bill of divorce (get). A dayan always requires semicha.
  • Mohel - performs the brit milah (circumcision). An expert in the laws of circumcision who has received training from a qualified mohel.
  • Shochet (ritual slaughterer) - slaughters all kosher meat. In order for meat to be kosher, it must be slaughtered by a shochet who is expert in the laws and has received training from another shochet, as well as having regular contact with a rabbi and revising the relevant guidelines on a regular basis.
  • Sofer (scribe) - Torah scrolls, tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzot (scrolls put on doorposts), and gittin (bills of divorce) must be written by a sofer who is an expert in the laws of writing.
  • Rosh yeshivah - head of a yeshiva. Somebody who is an expert in delving into the depths of the Talmud, and lectures the highest class in a yeshiva.
  • Mashgiach of a yeshiva - expert in mussar (ethics). Oversees the emotional and spiritual welfare of the students in a yeshiva, and gives lectures on mussar.
  • Mashgiach over kosher products - supervises merchants and manufacturers of kosher food to ensure that the food is kosher. Either an expert in the laws of kashrut, or (generally) under the supervision of a rabbi who is expert in those laws.

A Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) is a religious Jewish scholar who is an expert in Jewish law. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... Get has several meanings: In Judaism, a get (גט) is a religious divorce. ... Semicha (Hebrew: ‎, leaning [of the hands]), also semichut (Hebrew: ‎, ordination), or semicha lerabbanut (Hebrew: ‎, rabbinical ordination) is derived from a Hebrew word which means to rely on or to be authorized. It generally refers to the ordination of a rabbi within Judaism. ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant Jewish... Shechita Shechita (Hebrew ) is the ritual slaughter of animals, as prescribed for slaughter of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tora redirects here. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are either of two boxes containing Biblical verses and black, leather straps attached to them which are used in orthodox Jewish prayer. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... Get has several meanings: In Judaism, a get (גט) is a religious divorce. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a... This article is about the Jewish educational system. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article is about the Jewish educational system. ... Mashgiach ruchani (or Mashgiach, (Hebrew: Spiritual supervisor/guide) is a title that usually refers to a rabbi who has an official position within a yeshiva responsible for the non-academic areas of yeshiva students lives. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Jewish religious history

Main article: Jewish history

As Judaism is an old religion with a long tradition of documentation, Jewish history is an extensive topic; this section will cover the elements of Jewish history of most importance to the Jewish religion and the development of Jewish denominations. Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ...


Ancient Jewish religious history

Jews trace their religious lineage to the biblical patriarch Abraham, who established a covenant with God and moved to Canaan with his followers around 1800 BCE according to the Bible, through Isaac and Jacob, and they consider Abraham to be the founder of Judaism. Around 1600 BCE, as a result of famine, many Israelites migrated to Egypt, after a few hundred years of living freely in Egypt they were eventually held in slavery until the 13th century BCE, when Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and established a covenant with God around 1280 BCE, starting the religious tradition of Judaism. After the Exodus from Egypt, the Jews came back to Canaan around 1200 BCE, and settled the land. A kingdom was established under Saul and continued under King David and Solomon with its capital in Jerusalem. After Solomon's reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel (in the north) and the Kingdom of Judah (in the south). The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Sargon II in the late 8th century BCE with many people from the capital Samaria being taken captive to Media and the Habor valley. The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the center of ancient Jewish worship. The Judean elite were exiled to Babylonia and this is regarded as the first Jewish Diaspora. During this captivity the Jews in Babylon wrote what is known as the "Babylonian Talmud" while the remaining Jews in Judea wrote what is called the "Palestinian Talmud". These are the first written forms of the Torah and the Babylonian Talmud is the Talmud used to this day. Later many of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state(KING)In most monarchies the monarch usually reigns as head of state for life; this is... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (ܣܪܓܘܢ in Syriac) (r. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally southeast to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... A stone (2. ...


During the early years of the Second Temple, the highest religious authority was a council known as the Great Assembly, led by Ezra of the Book of Ezra. Among other accomplishments of the Great Assembly, the last books of the Bible were written at this time and the canon sealed.


After a Jewish revolt against Roman rule in 66 CE, the Romans all but destroyed Jerusalem. Following a second revolt, Jews were not allowed to enter the city of Jerusalem and most Jewish worship was forbidden by Rome. Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, prayer took the place of sacrifice, and worship was rebuilt around rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities (see Jewish diaspora). Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ...


Historical Jewish groupings (to 1700)

Around the first century CE there were several small Jewish sects: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots, Essenes, and Christians. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, these sects vanished. Christianity survived, but by breaking with Judaism and becoming a separate religion; the Pharisees survived but in the form of Rabbinic Judaism (today, known simply as "Judaism"). The Sadducees rejected the divine inspiration of the Prophets and the Writings, relying only on the Torah as divinely inspired. Consequently, a number of other core tenets of the Pharisees' belief system (which became the basis for modern Judaism), were also dismissed by the Sadducees. The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... The sect of the Sadducees - from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the teachings... Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and ones own cause. ... The Essenes (sg. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... The sect of the Sadducees - from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the teachings... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Tora redirects here. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ...


Like the Sadducees who relied only on the Torah, some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the oral law of the Pharisees/rabbis, as recorded in the Mishnah (and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds), relying instead only upon the Tanakh. These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites, and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect. Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous. An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Over time Jews developed into distinct ethnic groups — amongst others, the Ashkenazi Jews (of Central and Eastern Europe with Russia); the Sephardi Jews (of Spain, Portugal, and North Africa), the Beta Israel of Ethiopia and the Yemenite Jews, from the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. This split is cultural, and is not based on any doctrinal dispute, although the distance did result in minor differences in practice and prayers. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Beta Israel (Hebrew: , Geez ቤተ፡ እስራኤል BÄ“ta Isrāēl, Amharic BÄ“te Isrāēl, from Aramaic for House of Israel), also known by the term Falasha (Amharic for Exiles or Strangers, as they were called by non-Jewish Ethiopians), a term that may be considered pejorative, are Jews of... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases...


Persecutions

Antisemitism arose during the Middle Ages, in the form of persecutions, pogroms, forced conversion, expulsions, social restrictions and ghettoization. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background are united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ...


This was different in quality to any repressions of Jews in ancient times. Ancient repression was politically motivated and Jews were treated no differently than any other ethnic group would have been. With the rise of the Churches, attacks on Jews became motivated instead by theological considerations specifically deriving from Christian views about Jews and Judaism. (See also Racial antisemitism) Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ...


Hasidism

Main article: Hasidic Judaism

Hasidic Judaism was founded by Israel ben Eliezer (1700-1760), also known as the Ba'al Shem Tov (or Besht). It originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people, when European Jews had turned inward to Talmud study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic", and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy. His disciples attracted many followers; they themselves established numerous Hasidic sects across Europe. Hasidic Judaism eventually became the way of life for many Jews in Europe. Waves of Jewish immigration in the 1880s carried it to the United States. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (רבי ישראל בן אליעזר, c. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Early on, there was a serious schism between Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as mitnagdim, (lit. "opponents"). Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the overwhelming exuberance of Hasidic worship; their untraditional ascriptions of infallibility and alleged miracle-working to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect. Since then differences between the Hasidim and their opponents have slowly diminished and both groups are now considered part of Haredi Judaism. Mitnagdim or misnagdim is a Hebrew word (מתנגדים) meaning opponents; this term was used to refer to European religious Jews who opposed Hasidic Judaism. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ...


The Enlightenment and Reform Judaism

Main articles: Haskalah and Reform Judaism

In the late 18th century CE Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience. A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment," began, especially in Central Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge. The thrust and counter-thrust between supporters of Haskalah and more traditional Jewish concepts eventually led to the formation of a number of different branches of Judaism: Haskalah supporters founded Reform Judaism and Liberal Judaism, while traditionalists founded what is called Orthodox Judaism, and Jews seeking a balance between the two sides founded Conservative Judaism. A number of smaller groups came into being as well. Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ...


The Holocaust

Main article: The Holocaust

While the Holocaust, the genocide of millions of Jews under Nazi Germany in World War II, did not directly affect Jewish denominations, the discrimination, moves to flee the Nazis, and great loss of life it caused resulted in a radical demographic shift, ultimately transforming the makeup of organized Judaism into the way it is today. (For example, various Hasidic rebbes and their central followers moved to the United States, settling in New York City and other urban centers.) A Jewish day of mourning, Yom HaShoah, was inserted into the Hebrew calendar commemorating the Holocaust. Selection of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in May/June 1944. ... Selection of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in May/June 1944. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ...


The present situation

In most Western nations, such as the United States of America, Israel, Canada, United Kingdom, Argentina and South Africa, a wide variety of Jewish practices exist, along with a growing plurality of secular and non-practicing Jews. For example, in the world's second largest Jewish community, the United States, according to the 2001 edition of the National Jewish Population Survey, 4.3 million out of 5.1 million Jews had some sort of connection to the religion. Of that population of connected Jews, 80% participated in some sort of Jewish religious observance, but only 48% belonged to a synagogue. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS) 2000-01 is a representative survey of the Jewish population in the United States sponsored by United Jewish Communities and the Jewish federation system. ...


Religious (and secular) Jewish movements in the USA and Canada perceive this as a crisis situation, and have grave concern over rising rates of intermarriage and assimilation in the Jewish community. Since American Jews are marrying at a later time in their life than they used to, and are having fewer children than they used to, the birth rate for American Jews has dropped from over 2.0 down to 1.7 (the replacement rate is 2.1). (This is My Beloved, This is My Friend: A Rabbinic Letter on Intimate relations, p. 27, Elliot N. Dorff, The Rabbinical Assembly, 1996). Intermarriage rates range from 40-50% in the US, and only about a third of children of intermarried couples are raised Jewish. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5.5 million in 1990 to 5.1 million in 2001. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora, but a focus on population masks the diversity of current Jewish religious practice, as well as growth trends among some communities, like haredi Jews. Intermarriage normally refers to marriage between people belonging to different religions, tribes, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Elliot N. Dorff (born 24 June 1943) is a Conservative rabbi, a professor of Jewish theology at the University of Judaism in California (where he is also Rector), author, and a bio-ethicist. ... Originally set up as the alumni association of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS), the Rabbinical Assembly (RA) is the official, international body of Conservative rabbis, with some 1400 members. ... The term: diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά – a scattering or sowing of seeds) is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands; being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the ensuing developments in their dispersal and culture. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ...


In the last 50 years there has been a general increase in interest in religion among many segments of the Jewish population.[citation needed] All of the major Jewish denominations have experienced a resurgence in popularity, with increasing numbers of younger Jews participating in Jewish education, joining synagogues, and becoming (to varying degrees) more observant.[citation needed] Complementing the increased popularity of the major denominations has been a number of new approaches to Jewish worship, including feminist approaches to Judaism and Jewish renewal movements. There is a separate article on the Baal teshuva movement, the movement of Jews returning to observant Judaism. Though this gain has not offset the general demographic loss due to intermarriage and acculturation, many Jewish communities and movements are growing.[citation needed] Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pocahontas, in England, as Mrs John Rolfe, 1616: engraving after Simon Van de Passe Acculturation is the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people. ...


Judaism and other religions

Christianity and Judaism

See also: Judeo-Christian, Christianity and anti-Semitism, Jewish view of Jesus, Cultural and historical background of Jesus, and Christian-Jewish reconciliation

Since the Holocaust, there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people; the article on Christian-Jewish reconciliation studies this issue. Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... Christianity diverged from Judaism in the first century CE: for this reason, the Jewish view of Jesus is important for a historical understanding of Christianitys initial reception. ... This article — a part of the Jesus and history series of articles — discusses the cultural and historical background of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, without regard to his divinity, or to his existence as an actual historical figure. ... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... Selection of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in May/June 1944. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ...


Islam and Judaism

Main article: Islam and Judaism
See also: Muslim Jew, Islam and anti-Semitism, and Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an

Under Islamic rule, Judaism has been practiced for almost 1500 years and this has led to an interplay between the two religions which has been positive as well as negative at times. The period around 900 to 1200 in Moorish Spain came to be known as the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Muslim Jew is someone who is Jewish by ethnicity, but who has converted to Islam. ... See anti-Semitism for etymology and semantics of the term. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ...


The 20th century animosity of Muslim leaders towards Zionism, the political movement of Jewish self-determination, has led to a renewed interest in the relationship between Judaism and Islam. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


Judaism and Zoroastrianism

For most of its early history, Jews lived under the Zoroastrian Persian empire. Some scholars believe Judaism started off as a western branch of the state religion of the Persian empire, as evidenced by the fact that Cyrus the great, the first king of the Persian empire, and subsequent Iranian kings funded the construction of the second temple. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: Kūruš[1], modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (ca. ...


Syncretic beliefs incorporating Judaism

There are some religious beliefs that combine elements of Judaism with those of other religions. The most well-known of these is the Messianic Judaism movement (closely related to Hebrew Christianity), groups of ethnic Jews and gentiles who believe that Jesus is the Messiah. These groups typically combine Christian theology and Christology with Jewish religious practices. The most controversial of these groups is the American Jews for Jesus. The Jew-to-Gentile ratio of adherents is unknown and can vary widely between bodies of believers. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Note differences: Hebrew Christians identify themselves primarily as Christians. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jews for Jesus is a Christian [1] evangelical organization based in San Francisco, California, whose goal is to convince Jews that Jesus is the Messiah and God. ...


Other examples of syncretism include Judeo-Paganists, a loosely-organized set of Jews who incorporate pagan or Wiccan beliefs; Jewish Buddhists, another loosely-organized group that incorporates elements of Asian spirituality in their faith; and some Renewal Jews who borrow freely and openly from Buddhism, Sufism, Native American religion, and other faiths. Some Rastafarian traditions emphasize a connection to Judaism and believe that Africans are the true "lost tribe" of Israel. Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For the book series Wicca see Sweep (book series) and Circle Of Three. ... // Jubu A Jubu is a person with a Jewish ethnic and or religious background who practices forms of Buddhist meditation and spirituality. ... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Criticism of Judaism

Main article: Criticism of Judaism

Criticism of Judaism has existed since Judaism's formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. This does not cite its references or sources. ...


In many religions ex-members and excommunicates became known for criticism of their former faith. In Judaism a process like excommunication is called cherem and amongst these are critics of the faith. Cherem (or Herem חרם), is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. ...


See also

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Jews and Judaism

Jewish population refers to the number of Jews in the world, something that is difficult to calculate, given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. ... Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Hinduism by country Islam by country Buddhism by country Roman Catholics... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Jewish humour refers to a long tradition of humor in Judaism dating back to the Torah and the Midrash, but generally refers to the more recent stream of verbal, self-depreciating and often anecdotal humor originating in Eastern Europe and which took root in the United States over the last... This page is a list of Jews. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Since Biblical times, the Jewish people have had close ties with Africa, going back to Abrahams sojourns in Egypt, and later the Israelite captivity under the Pharoahs. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... Italkim (Hebrew for Italians; pl. ...

Jewish law and religion

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lashon hara (Hebrew לשון חרא חחח; evil tongue, also transliterated as loshon hora) is the Jewish sin of gossip. ... This article discusses Jewish views of homosexuality. ... Forgiveness is the mental, emotional and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution[[:Template:American Psychological Association. ... Sephardic Judaism is used in this article to describe the religious practices of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as these are peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim. ... The role of women in Judaism is determined by the Hebrew Bible, Talmud (oral law), tradition and by non-religious cultural factors. ...

Comparative

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ilah. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... The following is a list of religions. ...

References

  1. ^ For an exploration of the Jewish population, please see Jewish population and Jews by country
  2. ^ Rabbi S. of Montpelier, Yad Rama, Y. Alfacher, Rosh Amanah.
  3. ^ M. San 10:1.
  4. ^ "Judaism 101: A Glossary of Basic Jewish Terms and Concepts", Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations in America, April 12, 2006.
  5. ^ Boyarin, Daniel (October 14, 1994). "Introduction", A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, pp. 13–38. ISBN 0-520-08592-2 LCCN 93-36269. Retrieved on 2006-06-15. “Paul was motivated by a Hellenistic desire for the One, which among other things produced an ideal of a universal human essence, beyond difference and hierarchy. This universal humanity, however, was predicated (and still is) on the dualism of the flesh and the spirit, such that while the body is particular, marked through practice as Jew or Greek, and through anatomy as male or female, the spirit is universal. Paul did not, however, reject the body — as did, for instance, the gnostics — but rather promoted a system whereby the body had its place, albeit subordinated to the spirit. Paul's anthropological dualism was matched by a hermeneutical dualism as well. Just as the human being is divided into a fleshy and a spiritual component, so also is language itself. It is composed of outer, material signs and inner, spiritual significations. When this is applied to the religious system that Paul inherited, the physical, fleshy signs of the Torah, of historical Judaism, are re-interpreted as symbols of that which Paul takes to be universal requirements and possibilities for humanity. 
  6. ^ Boyarin, Daniel (October 14, 1994). "Answering the Mail", A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 244. ISBN 0-520-08592-2 LCCN 93-36269. Retrieved on 2006-06-15. “Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension with one another. 
  7. ^ "Shabbat", Judaism 101, April 12, 2006.

Jewish population refers to the number of Jews in the world, something that is difficult to calculate, given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ...

Bibliography

  • Boyarin, Daniel 1994 A Radical Jew: Paul and the Politics of Identity Berkeley: University of California Press
  • Ancient Judaism, Max Weber, Free Press, 1967, ISBN 0-02-934130-2
  • Living Judaism: The Complete Guide to Jewish Belief, Tradition and Practice Wayne Dosick.
  • Conservative Judaism: The New Century, Neil Gillman, Behrman House.
  • American Jewish Orthodoxy in Historical Perspective Jeffrey S. Gurock, 1996, Ktav.
  • Philosophies of Judaism Julius Guttmann, trans. by David Silverman, JPS. 1964
  • Back to the Sources: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts Ed. Barry W. Holtz, Summit Books
  • A History of the Jews Paul Johnson, HarperCollins, 1988
  • A People Divided: Judaism in Contemporary America, Jack Wertheimer. Brandeis Univ. Press, 1997.
  • Encyclopaedia Judaica, Keter Publishing, CD-ROM edition, 1997
  • The American Jewish Identity Survey, article by Egon Mayer, Barry Kosmin and Ariela Keysar; a sub-set of The American Religious Identity Survey, City University of New York Graduate Center. An article on this survey is printed in The New York Jewish Week, November 2, 2001.

Ancient Judaism (book) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For other persons named Max Weber, see Max Weber (disambiguation). ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

General

Orthodox/Haredi

Traditional/Conservadox

Conservative

Reform

Reconstructionist

  • Jewish Reconstructionist Federation: Official website

Humanistic

Karaite

Jewish religious literature and texts

Wikimedia Torah study projects

Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Pentateuch

Text study projects at Wikisource. In many instances, the Hebrew versions of these projects are more fully developed than the English. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Mikraot Gedolot, often called the Rabbinic Bible in English, is an edition of Tanakh (in Hebrew) that generally includes four distinct elements: The biblical text according to the mesorah in its letters, vocalization, and cantillation marks. ... Gen. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ...


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