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Encyclopedia > Juan Manuel, Duke of Penafiel

Don Juan Manuel, Infante of Castile (May 5? 12821349), son of the infante Don Manuel and Beatrix of Savoy, and grandson of St. Ferdinand, was born at Escalona. Most famous for composing Libro de los ejemplos del conde Lucanor y de Patronio, one of the earliest works of prose in Castilian Spanish. Don (usually preceded in English by the),derived from Latin Dominus, is a Spanish (pron. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...

Contents


Life

His father died in 1284, and the young prince was educated at the court of his cousin, Sancho IV of Castile, with whom his precocious ability made him a favorite. In 1294 he was appointed adelantado of Murcia and in his fourteenth year served against the Moors at Granada. In 1304 he was entrusted by the queen-mother, Dona Maria de Molina, to conduct political negotiations with James II of Aragon on behalf of her son, Ferdinand IV, then under age. His diplomacy was successful and his marriage to James II's daughter, Constance, added to his prestige. On the death of Ferdinand IV and of the regents who governed in the name of Alphonso XI, Don Juan Manuel acted as guardian of the king who was proclaimed of age in 1325. Statue of Sancho IV of Castile and León Sancho IV the Brave (1257/58 – April 25, 1295) was a king of Castile and León (1284 - 1295). ... Adelantado was a Governor-like military office held by the Spanish Conquistadores of the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Murcia (37°59′N 1°8′W) is a city and municipality on the river Segura in southeastern Spain and the capital of the Autonomous Community of Murcia. ... Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ... James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. ... Ferdinand IV, El Emplazado or the Summoned, (December 6, 1285 - September 7, 1312) was a king of Castile (1295 - 1312). ... Alfonso XI of Castile (August 13, 1311 _ March 26/27, 1350) was the king of Castile and León, the son of Spain in 1340. ...


His ambitious design of continuing to exercise the royal power was defeated by Alphonso, who married the ex-regent's daughter Constanza, and removed his father-in-law from the scene by nominating him adelantado mayor de la frontera. Alphonso XI's repudiation of Constanza, whom he imprisoned at Toro, drove Don Juan Manuel into opposition, and a long period of civil war followed. Toro is a town in the province of Zamora, Spain. ...


On the death of his wife Constantina in 1327, Don Juan Manuel strengthened his position by marrying Dona Blanca de la Cerda; he secured the support of Juan Nunez, alferez of Castile, by arranging a marriage between him and Maria, daughter of Don Juan el Tuerto; he won over Portugal by promising the hand of his daughter, the ex-queen Constance, to the infante of that kingdom, and he entered into alliance with Muhammad III of Granada. This formidable coalition compelled Alphonso XI to sue for terms, which he accepted in 1328 without any serious intention of complying with them; but he was compelled to release Dona Constanza. War speedily broke out anew, and lasted till 1331 when Alphonso XI invited Juan Manuel and Juan Nunez to a banquet at Villahumbrales with the intention, it was believed, of assassinating them; the plot failed, and Don Juan Manuel joined forces with Peter IV of Aragon. He was besieged by Alphonso XI at Garci-Nufiez, whence he escaped on July 30, 1336, fled into exile, and kept the rebellion alive till 1338, when he made his peace with the king. He proved his loyalty by serving in further expeditions against the Moors of Granada and Africa, and died a tranquil death in the first half of 1349. Constance of Penafiel or Constance, Princess of Castile (Spanish Constanza) (1323 - November 13, 1345) was the daughter of Juan Manuel El Scritor de Castile, Duke of Penafiel, and Constanza of Aragon. ... Peter IV of Aragon (1319-1387), king of Aragon (1336-1387), the Ceremonious or el del punyalet (the one of the little dagger). ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ...


Juan Manuel (1282 Escalona - 1349 Cordoba), Infante of Castile, was the son of the Infante Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena (1234-83) and his second wife, Beatrice of Savoy (d 23 February 1292). He was born in the last year of his elderly father's life. His mother died when he was around 10 years old. For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ...


Juan Manuel was called "el Scritor", i.e an author. An author is the person who creates a written work, such as a book, story, article or the like. ...


He was Lord of Penafiel, Escalona and Villena, succeeding his father, as his eldest surviving son. The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Castle of la Atalaya, in Villena. ...


He inherited the Dominion of Villena (he'd later be Duke, possibly of Villena and/or of Penafiel). He was also Lord of Elche, which he later lost to James II of Aragón, and Governor of Murcia. View of Elche Elche (in Spanish) or Elx (in Catalan) is a city in the Alicante province in Valencia, Spain, near the city of Alicante. ... James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. ... Murcia (37°59′N 1°8′W) is a city and municipality on the river Segura in southeastern Spain and the capital of the Autonomous Community of Murcia. ...


In 1299, Juan Manuel married Isabel of Majorca (d c 1301), daughter of James II of Majorca (died 1301). On 1311, he remarried to Constanza of Aragon (1300-27), daughter of James II of Aragon. Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Majorca used only abroad James II (Catalan: Jaume II) was king of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1243 until 1311. ... James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. ...


In 1312, his cousin Ferdinand IV of Castile died, leaving a one year-old son, Alfonso XI of Castile. The child king's regents, Pedro of Castile and Juan of Castile stripped Juan Manuel of the governorship of Murcia, saying people didn't want him (which was true). Ferdinand IV, El Emplazado or the Summoned, (December 6, 1285 - September 7, 1312) was a king of Castile (1295 - 1312). ... Alfonso XI of Castile (August 13, 1312 – March 26/27, 1350) was the king of Castile and León, the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. ... Pedro of Castile (1290, Valladolid – 1319), Infante of Castile and Lord of Los Cameros, was the son of Sancho IV of Castile and his wife Maria de Molina. ...


In 1319, after Don Pedro and Don Juan died in battle, Don Juan Manuel became regent of the young king alongside the boy's grandmother, Queen Maria de Molina, and his uncle Don Felipe of Castile.


In 1325, he proposed the young king to marry his daughter Constanza (c 1323-1345), born from his second marriage. The courts agreed to it, but the king preferred to marry his cousin Maria of Portugal instead. The contracted marriage was annulled in 1327. Offended, Don Juan Manuel left Castile and entered the service of his father-in-law James II of Aragon. Constance of Penafiel or Constance, Princess of Castile (Spanish Constanza) (1323 - November 13, 1345) was the daughter of Juan Manuel El Scritor de Castile, Duke of Penafiel, and Constanza of Aragon. ...


After Alfonso XI came of age, he asked Don Juan Manuel's help to pacify the kingdom. Don Juan Manuel asked for the title of Duke, the right to mint coins and that his rents be raised from 400.000 to 600.000 maravedies per year. He didn't get everything, but his rights were confirmed and he became again Governor of Murcia. That same year, he married one last time to Blanca Núñez de Lara de La Cerda - in 1329, he married third time, Blanca of La Cerda (d 1347), descendant of sovereign Lords of Vizcaya (the Basque country) and of the Lara and of Alfonso X's eldest son. Duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy, principe is...


It was not the last time Don Juan Manuel and Alfonso XI were at odds. On 1335, he refused to enter the battle against the moors during the siege of Gibraltar. He left for Aragon, but returned the same year, just to leave again soon after because Don Juan Manuel claimed Alfonso XI was preventing his daughter Constanza to leave Castile to marry Pedro of Portugal. They patched things in 1337. Pedro I of Portugal, king of Portugal (in English, Peter I), sometimes known as Pedro the Cruel (not to be confused with Pedro I of Castile, also known as Pedro the Cruel), was born in April 8, 1320 and died in January 18, 1367. ...


He successfully fought alongside his cousin Sancho IV of Castile in the Battle of Rio Salado (October 30, 1340). Statue of Sancho IV of Castile and León Sancho IV the Brave (1257/58 – April 25, 1295) was a king of Castile and León (1284 - 1295). ... Battle of Río Salado (October 30, 1340), was a united victory of Portugal King Afonso IV and Castilian King Alfonso XI over Muslim ruler Abu al-Hasan Ali of Marinid dynasty and Nasrid ruler Yusuf I. Categories: Spain-related stubs | Military stubs ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ...


In 1343, he fought alongside Alfonso XI against the moors in the battle of Algeciras, entering the city victoriously.


He retired from politics a couple of years later, devoting himself to literary efforts.


Children

By Constanza of Aragon:

By Blanca Núñez de Lara: Constance of Penafiel or Constance, Princess of Castile (Spanish Constanza) (1323 - November 13, 1345) was the daughter of Juan Manuel El Scritor de Castile, Duke of Penafiel, and Constanza of Aragon. ... Pedro I of Portugal, king of Portugal (in English, Peter I), sometimes known as Pedro the Cruel (not to be confused with Pedro I of Castile, also known as Pedro the Cruel), was born in April 8, 1320 and died in January 18, 1367. ...

  • Fernando Manuel (d c 1350), Lord of Escalona, Penafiel and Villena, who married 1346 Juana of Ampurias, a daughter of Ramón Berenguer, count of Ampurias, himself a younger son of James II of Aragón. The couple had a daughter, Blanca Manuel (c 1348-1361), heiress of Villena, Escalona and Penafiel until 1361
  • Joan Manuel (1339-1381), who married 1350 Enrique de Trastamare (1333-79), a bastard son of Alfonso XI of Castile and future king, thus Juana ultimately became Queen of Castile. In 1361 she inherited Villena, Escalona and Penafiel. From her cousin, she also inherited Lara and Vizcaya (Basque country).

Illegitimate by Inés de Castañeda: Henry of Trastamara (January 13, 1334 Sevilla - May 29, 1379 Santo Domingo de la Calzada) (Enrique de Trastámara), was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Leonora de Guzman, and half brother to Pedro I the Cruel (or the Lawful, depending on who wrote the history). ... Alfonso XI of Castile (August 13, 1312 – March 26/27, 1350) was the king of Castile and León, the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. ...

  • Sancho Manuel (1320-1347)
  • Enrique Manuel (1340-1390)

Books

These are some of the books he wrote:

  • Libro de caballero et del escudero (The book of the knight and the squire)
  • Libro de los Estados
  • Libro de caza (Hunting Book)
  • De las maneras de amor (About the ways of love)

Literary Works

Distinguished as an astute politician, Don Juan Manuel is an author of the highest eminence, and, considering the circumstances of his stormy life, his voluminousness is remarkable. The Libra de los Sabios, a treatise called Engenos de Guerra and the Libra de Cantares, a collection of verses, were composed between 1320 and 1327; but they have disappeared together with the Libra de la caballeria (written during the winter of 1326, and the Reglas como se debe Irovar, a metrical treatise assigned to 1328-1334.


Of his surviving writings, Juan Manuel's Cronica abreviada was compiled between 1319 and 1325, while the Libra de la caza must have been written between 1320 and 1329; and during this period of nine years the Crania de Espana, the Cronica complida, and the Tratado sobre las armas were produced. The Libra del caballero et del escudero was finished before the end of 1326; the first book of the Libra de los estados was finished on 22 May 1330, while the second was begun five days later; the first book of El Conde Lucanor was written in 1328, the second in 1330, and the fourth is dated 12th of June 1335- We are unable to assign to any precise date the devout Tractado on the Virgin, dedicated to the prior of the monastery at Peñafiel, to which Don Juan Manuel bequeathed his manuscripts; but it seems probable that the Libra de las frailes predicadores is slightly later than the Libra de los estados; tha the Libra de los castigos (left unfinished, and therefore known by the alternative title of Libra infinido) was written not later than 1333, and that the treatise De las maneras de amor was composed between 1334 and 1337. May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Don Juan Manuels Libro de los ejemplos del conde Lucanor y de Patronio, known commonly as El Conde Lucanor or Libro de los ejemplos (original Old Castilian: Libro de los enxiemplos del Conde Lucanor et de Patronio), one of the earliest works of prose in Castilian Spanish. ...


The historical summaries, pious dissertations and miscellaneous writings are of secondary interest. The Libra del caballero et del escudero is on another plane; it is no doubt suggested by Raymond Lull's Libre del orde de cavalleria, but the points of resemblance have been exaggerated; the morbid mysticism of Lull is rejected, and the carefully finished style justifies the special pride which he author took in this performance. The influence of Lull's Blanquerna is likewise visible in the Libra de los estados; but here are marked divergences of substance which go to prove Don Juan Manuel's acquaintance with some version (not yet dentified) of the Barlaam and Josaphat legend. Nothing is more striking than the curious and varied erudition of the turbulent prince who weaves his personal experiences with historical or legendary incidents, with reminiscences of Aesop and Phaedrus, with the Disciplina clericalis of Petrus Alfonsi, with Kalilah and Dim-iah, with countless Oriental traditions, and with all the material of anecdotic literature which he embodies in the Libra de redecessor of Boccaccio in the province of romantic narrative. Ramon Llull. ... Barlaam of Calabria an Italian clergyman of the 14th century Saint Barlaam, eventual companion of St. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 - December 21, 1375) was a Florentine author and poet, the greatest of Petrarchs disciples, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poems in the vernacular. ...


The Cento novelle antiche are earlier in date, but these anonymous tales, derived from popular stories diffused throughout the world, lack the personal character which Don Juan lends to all he touches. They are simple, unadorned variants of folklore terms; El Conde Lucanor is essentially the production of a conscious artist, deliberative and selective in his methods. Don Juan Manuel has not Boccaccio's festive fancy nor his constructive skill; he is too persistently didactic and concerned to point a moral; but he excels in knowledge of human nature, in the faculty of ironic presentation, in tolerant wisdom and in luminous conciseness. He naturalizes the Eastern apologue in Spain, and by the laconic picturesqueness of his expression imports a new quality into Spanish prose which attains its full development in the hands of Juan de Valdes and Cervantes. Some of his themes are utilized for dramatic purposes by Lope de Vega in La Pobreza estimada, by Ruiz de Alarcon in La Prueba de las promesas, by Calderón in La Vida es sueño, and by Canizares in Don Juan de Espina en Milan: there is an evident, though remote, relation between the tale of the 'mancebo que casó con una mujer muy fuerte y muy brava' and The Taming of the Shrew; and a more direct connection exists between some of Don Juan Manuel's 'enxemplos' and some of Andersen's fairy tales. Juan de Valdés (c. ... Cervantes can refer to: Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, 16th-century man of letters Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, a municipality in the Philippines Cervantes, a town in Western Australia Cervantes de Leon, a character in the Soul Calibur series of fighting games This is a... Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ... Pedro Calderon de la Barca Pedro Calderón de la Barca (January 17, 1600 – May 25, 1681), was an important dramatist of the Spanish Golden Age. ... Taming of the Shrew by Augustus Egg The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Hans Christian Andersen. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

 
 

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