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Encyclopedia > Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I
King of Spain
frame‎
Reign 22 November 1975 - Present
(32 years)
Coronation 27 November 1975
(Anointment Ceremony called:
Holy Spirit Mass)
Born January 5, 1938 (1938-01-05) (age 70)
Birthplace Rome, Italy
Predecessor Francisco Franco (General, former dictator)
Consort Queen Sofía (Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark)
Issue Infanta Elena
Infanta Cristina
Felipe, Príncipe de Asturias
Royal House House of Bourbon
Father Juan de Borbón, Count of Barcelona
Mother Maria Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Spanish Royal Family
Styles of
King Juan Carlos I
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire

Don Juan Carlos I (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born January 5, 1938, Rome, Italy) is the reigning King of Spain. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 352 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (357 × 607 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Sofía, Queen of Spain (Spanish: , Greek: ; born Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark on November 2, 1938; full name Sophía Margaríta Viktoría Frederíki), is the Queen Consort of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Her Royal Highness, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (Elena María Isabel Dominica de los Silos de Borbón y de Grecia de Marichalar), styled HRH The Infanta Elena (born December 20, 1963, in Madrid), is the eldest daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía, and third in... Her Royal Highness, The Infanta Cristina, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca (Cristina Federica Victoria Antonia de la Santísima Trinidad de Borbón y de Grecia), styled HRH The Infanta Cristina (born June 13, 1965), is the younger daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... HRH Infante Don Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona, Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg (June 20, 1913 – April 1, 1993), was the fourth son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, the monarch replaced by the Second Spanish Republic, and father of King... Donna María de las Mercedes of Bourbon, Princess of the Two Sicilies, Infanta of Spain, Countess of Barcelona (María de las Mercedes Cristina Genara Isabel Luísa Carolina Victoria) (Madrid, December 23, 1910- Lanzarote, January 2, 2000) was the mother of current King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... The Royal Family of the Kingdom of Spain consists of the direct descendants of the current king, Juan Carlos. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 375 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1701 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Queen Sofia of Spain Queen Sofía (Sophia Margarita Victoria Frederika), born Princess Sofia of Greece and Denmark is the Queen Consort of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ... Letizia, Princess of Asturias (née Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano; September 15, 1972, Oviedo, Spain) is the wife of Felipe, the Prince of Asturias, who is heir apparent to the Spanish throne. ... The Infanta Leonor of Spain (Leonor de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Ortiz), in English: Eleanor of All The Saints of Bourbon and Ortiz, born October 31, 2005, in Madrid, is the first child of Felipe, Prince of Asturias, and his wife Letizia, Princess of Asturias, and thus... The Infanta Sofía of Spain (), in English: Sophie of All the Saints of Bourbon and Ortiz, born 29 April 2007, in Madrid, is the second child of Felipe, Prince of Asturias, and his wife Letizia, Princess of Asturias. ... Elena of Spain The Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (Elena María Isabel Dominica de los Silos de Borbón y de Grecia de Marichalar); born December 20, 1963, in Madrid), is the eldest daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía, and third in the line of succession... The Infanta Cristina, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca (Cristina Federica Victoria Antonia de la Santísima Trinidad de Borbón y de Grecia), born June 13, 1965), is the younger daughter of King Juan Carlos of Spain and Queen Sofía. ... The Infanta Pilar of Spain, Duchess of Badajoz (Doña María del Pilar Alfonsa Juana Victoria Luisa Ignacia de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) (born July 30, 1936) is the elder daughter of H.R.H. Don Juan de Borbon, Count of Barcelona... The Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Hernani and Soria (Doña Margarita María de la Victoria Esperanza Jacoba Felicidad Perpetua de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) (born March 6, 1939), is the youngest daughter of Juan de Borbón, Count of Barcelona and Maria... Infante Don Carlos of Spain, Prince of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (Carlos Maria Alfonso Marcel de Borbon-Dos Sicilias y de Borbon-Parma) (born January 16, 1938 in Lausanne) is the son of Don Alfonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (1901-1964) and Princess Alice of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 375 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1701 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ...


On 22 November 1975, two days after the death of Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos was designated King according to the law of succession promulgated by Franco. He successfully oversaw the transition of Spain from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy. Polls from 2000 show that he is widely approved of by Spaniards.[1] Juan Carlos's titles include that of King of Jerusalem, as successor to the royal family of Naples. He is also a descendant of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom through his grandmother, Victoria Eugenie; of Louis XIV of France through the House of Bourbon; of the Emperor Charles V, who belonged to the Habsburg dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire; of the House of Savoy of Italy; etc. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg later Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain (24 October 1887-15 April 1969), a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, was the consort of the exiled King Alfonso XIII of Spain and the paternal grandmother of the current King of Spain, Juan Carlos. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ...


His name, while rarely anglicised, is rendered as John Charles Alphonse Victor María of Bourbon (and Bourbon-Two Sicilies). He was given these names after his father (Juan de Borbón), grandfather (Alfonso XIII) and maternal grandfather (Prince Carlos de Borbón-Dos Sicilias). This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Early life

He was born in Rome, where his grandfather Alfonso XIII of Spain had exiled after the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. The future King's early life was dictated largely by the political concerns of his father, Juan de Borbón, and Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to allow this. He began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. He then joined the army, doing his officer training, 1955–57, in the Military Academy of Zaragoza. Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Location Image:Donostia (San Sebastian), Euskadi location. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...


In 1956, when Juan Carlos was 18, he reportedly shot and killed his younger brother, Infante Alfonso, in a gunplay accident after returning home from Mass. This event occurred in the family residence in Estoril, Portugal.[2] Infante Alfonso of Spain (1941-1956) was a younger brother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Estoril Beach Estoril is a civil parish of the Portuguese municipality of Cascais. ...


From 1957 he spent a year in the naval school at Pontevedra and another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1961 he graduated from the Complutense University. He then went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela, and began carrying out official engagements. Naval redirects here. ... Pontevedra is a city in northwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Pontevedra in Galicia. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... SAN JAVIER (Pop. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... The Complutense University of Madrid, in Spanish Universidad Complutense de Madrid, is an important Spanish university, located in Madrid. ... During the 17th century, King Felipe IV ordered a small country palace or hunting lodge to be built in a place called La Zarzuela, close to Madrid. ...


'Prince of Spain', 1969-1975

The Standard of the King of Spain.
The Standard of the King of Spain.

The regime of Francisco Franco had come to power during the Spanish Civil War, which had pitted republicans, anarchists, socialists, and Communists supported by the Soviet dictator Stalin and by Communist volunteers from the entire world, against conservatives, monarchists, nationalists, and fascists, with the latter group ultimately emerging successful with the support of neighbouring Portugal and the major European Axis powers of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Despite his alliance with monarchists, Franco was not eager to restore the deposed Spanish monarchy once in power, preferring to head a regime with himself as head of state for life. Though Franco's partisan supporters generally accepted this arrangement for the present, much debate quickly ensued over who would replace Franco when he died. Monarchist factions demanded the return of a hard-line absolute monarchy, and eventually Franco agreed that his successor would be a monarch. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1654 × 1654 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1654 × 1654 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Royal Standard of Spain The Royal Standard of Spain (Estandarte Real or Estandarte del Rey) is the official flag of the King of Spain. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Anarchists can refer to several things, among which: The movie Anarchists Supporters of the principles of anarchism The Anarchists (Les Anarchistes), a famous song from Léo Ferré A List of anarchists This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Fascist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ...


The heir to the throne of Spain was Juan de Borbón (Count of Barcelona), the son of the late Alfonso XIII. However, Franco viewed the heir with extreme suspicion, believing him to be a liberal who was opposed to his regime. Franco then considered giving the throne to Juan Carlos's cousin (and proven Francoist) Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz, who had married Franco's granddaughter in 1972. In response, Juan Carlos started to use his second name Carlos to assert his claim to the heritage of the Carlist branch of his family. The Infante Don Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona (Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg) (June 20, 1913 – April 1, 1993), was the fourth son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the monarch replaced by the Second Spanish... Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 - February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Alfonso de Borbón y de Dampierre (French citizen as Alphonse de Bourbon) (1936–1989), also known as the Duke of Cádiz (as he was mostly called in Spain) and Duke of Anjou, was a pretender to the French throne. ... Look up Charles in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ...


Ultimately, Franco decided to skip a generation and name Prince Juan Carlos as his personal successor. Franco hoped the young Prince could be groomed to take over the nation while still maintaining the ultra-conservative nature of his regime. In 1969, Juan Carlos was officially designated heir and was given the new title of Prince of Spain (not the traditional Prince of Asturias). HRH The Prince of Asturias The title Prince of Asturias is given to the heir apparent to the Spanish throne, and the earlier kingdom of León. ...


Juan Carlos met and consulted with Franco many times while heir apparent and often performed official and ceremonial state functions alongside the dictator, much to the anger of hard-line republicans and more moderate liberals, who had hoped that Franco's death would bring in an era of reform. During those years, Juan Carlos publicly supported Franco's regime. However, as the years progressed, Juan Carlos began meeting with political opposition leaders and exiles, who were fighting to bring liberal reform to the country. Franco, for his part, remained largely oblivious to the prince's actions and denied allegations that Juan Carlos was in any way disloyal to his vision of the regime. Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ...


During periods of Franco's temporary incapacity in 1974 and 1975 Juan Carlos was acting head of state. Near death, on 30 October, 1975, Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos. On 22 November, following Franco's death, the Cortes Generales proclaimed Juan Carlos King of Spain and on November 27, Juan Carlos ascended the Spanish throne with an anointing ceremony called Holy Spirit Mass which was the equivalent to a coronation at the Jerónimos Church in Madrid. In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ...


Restoration of the monarchy

King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia with President George W. Bush and Laura Bush.
King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia with President George W. Bush and Laura Bush.

After Franco's death, Juan Carlos I quickly instituted reforms, to the great displeasure of Falangist and conservative (monarchist) elements, especially in the military, who had expected him to maintain the authoritarian state. He appointed Adolfo Suárez, a former leader of the Movimiento Nacional, as Prime Minister of Spain. Image File history File links Sofia,_Laura_Bush,_George_W._Bush_and_Juan_Carlos. ... Image File history File links Sofia,_Laura_Bush,_George_W._Bush_and_Juan_Carlos. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush and is thereby the First Lady of the United States. ... Falange was a totalitarian clerical fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish Republic. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Adolfo Suárez González, Duke of Suárez (born September 25, 1932) was Spains first democratically elected prime minister after the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. ... Falange was a totalitarian clerical fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish Republic. ... The President of the Government (Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), or Prime Minister, of Spain is the Spanish head of government. ...


On 20 May 1977, the leader of the only-recently legalized Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) Felipe González, accompanied by Javier Solana, visited Juan Carlos in the Zarzuela Palace. The event represented a key endorsement of the monarchy from Spain's political left, who had been historically republican. Left-wing support for the monarchy grew when the Communist Party of Spain was legalized shortly thereafter, a move Juan Carlos had pressed for, despite enormous right-wing military opposition at that time, during the Cold War. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Felipe González Márquez (born March 5, 1942) is a Spanish socialist politician. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


On 15 June 1977, Spain held its first post-Franco democratic elections. In 1978, a new Constitution was promulgated that acknowledged Juan Carlos as rightful heir of the Spanish dynasty and King. This language justified Juan Carlos' position by deeming him Head of State of a historical monarchy, and not simply the appointed heir of the dictator Franco. The Constitution was passed by the democratically elected Constituent Cortes, ratified by the people in a referendum (6 December) and then signed into law by the King before a solemn meeting of the Cortes. is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Constituent Cortes (Cortes constituyentes) is the description of the Cortes (Spanish parliament) when convened as a constituent assembly. ...


Further legitimacy had been restored to Juan Carlos´ position on 14 May 1977, when his father, Don Juan (whom many monarchists had recognized as the legitimate, exiled King of Spain during the Franco era), formally renounced his claim to the Throne and recognized his son as the sole head of the Spanish Royal House, transferring to him the historical heritage of the Spanish monarchy, thus making Juan Carlos both the de facto and the de jure (rightful) King in the eyes of the traditional monarchists. Juan Carlos, who was already King since Franco's death, gave an acceptance address after his father’s resignation speech and thanked him by confirming the title of Count of Barcelona that Don Juan had assumed in exile. It was a sovereign title associated to the crown. May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Transition to Democracy Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History...


Under the new 1978 Constitution Juan Carlos relinquished absolute power and became a reigning but non-ruling monarch. The reforms of these years attracted considerable animosity from the armed forces, which ultimately culminated in an attempted military coup on 23 February 1981, in which the Cortes was seized by members of the Guardia Civil in the parliamentary chamber (see 23-F). According to the widely accepted version, the coup ended up being thwarted by the public television broadcast by the King, calling for unambiguous support for the legitimate democratic government. In the hours before his speech, he had personally called many senior military figures to tell them that he was opposed to the coup, and that they had to defend the democratic government. However, some authors (like Ronald Hilton) cast doubt over the King's role in the events. According to the explanation offered by Patricia Sverlo, author of a biography of Juan Carlos,[3] the coup was actually organized by the Spanish establishment to neutralize the risk of a real coup by the army, moderate the left wingers' reformist demands, and increase Juan Carlos's popularity. Antonio Tejero with a gun in his hand, breaking into the Congress of Deputies February 23, 1981, attempting a coup. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... Río Nervión patrol boat, in Bilbao. ... Antonio Tejero with a gun in his hand, breaking into the Congress of Deputies February 23, 1981, attempting a coup. ... Note: Do not confuse with Ronald W. Hilton, Professor of Accounting at Cornell University. ...

Current Spanish Correos stamp depicting King Juan Carlos I.

When Juan Carlos became King, Communist leader Santiago Carrillo nicknamed him Juan Carlos the Brief, predicting that the monarchy would soon be swept away with the other remnants of the Franco era. After the collapse of the attempted coup mentioned above, however, in an emotional statement, Carrillo told television viewers: "God save the King". The Communist leader also remarked: "Today, we are all monarchists". If public support for the monarchy among democrats and leftists prior to 1981 had been limited, following the King's handling of the coup, it became significantly greater. According to a poll by "Sigma Dos" published in the newspaper El Mundo in November 2005, 77.5% of Spaniards thought Juan Carlos was "good or very good", 15.4% "not so good", and only 7.1% "bad or very bad". Even so, the issue of the monarchy re-emerged on 28 September 2007 as photos of the King were burnt in public in Catalonia by relatively small groups of protesters wanting the restoration of the Republic.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Correos is the national postal service of Spain, as recognized by the International Postal Union. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... Santiago Carrillo Solares (born January 18, 1915), Spanish politician, was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1960 to 1982. ... El Mundo is the second largest newspaper in Spain, with a circulation of 350,297 copies (2003). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


In July 2000, Juan Carlos was almost the victim of an assassination attempt by Juan María Fernández y Krohn.[5] Juan María Fernández y Krohn (born in Spain in 1950) was ordained a Catholic priest in 1978, though known for his extreme right wing political and religious views. ...


Role in contemporary Spanish politics

The election of socialist leader Felipe González to the Spanish prime ministership in 1982 marked the effective end of Juan Carlos' active involvement in Spanish politics. González would govern for over a decade, and his administration helped consolidate the democratic gains and thus maintained the stability of the nation. Today the King exercises little real power over the country's politics, but is regarded as an essential symbol of the country's unity. Unlike many other European monarchs, under the constitution, the King has immunity from prosecution in matters relating to his official duties. This is so because every act of the King as such (and not as a citizen) needs to be undersigned by a government official, thus making the undersigner responsible instead of the king. Offenses against the honour of the Royal Family are specially protected by the Spanish Penal Code. Under this protection, Basque independentist Arnaldo Otegi[6] and cartoonists from El Jueves were tried and punished. Felipe González Márquez (born March 5, 1942) is a Spanish socialist politician. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Arnaldo Otegi (b. ... Front page of El Jueves, issue #1480. ...


The King gives an annual speech to the nation on Christmas Eve. He is the commander-in-chief of the Spanish armed forces. He does however have informal powers such as giving speeches. This has been known to cause controversy when he spoke in order to see the handing back of Gibraltar in 1991 at the United Nations General Assembly, during which he described the issue as an unresolved colonial problem which affects Spain's territorial integrity.[citation needed] Nativity of the Lord redirects here. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


In 1979, King Juan Carlos I instituted the Ruta Quetzal as a way to promote cultural exchange between students from Spain and Latin America. In 1987, he became the first King of Spain to visit the former Spanish possession of Puerto Rico. The Ruta Quetzal (Quetzal Route) is a trip taken yearly by hundreds of Latin American, Spanish, and other Spanish-speaking students. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


He travels across Spain and the world representing Spain. His personal friendship with Hassan II of Morocco has eased tensions. In November 2007 at the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago de Chile, during a heated exchange, Juan Carlos interrupted a speaking Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and asked him, "¿Por qué no te callas?" ("Why don't you shut up?"). Chávez had been interrupting the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, while the latter was defending his predecessor and political opponent, José María Aznar, after Chávez had referred to Aznar as a fascist and "less human than snakes". The King shortly afterwards left the hall when President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua accused Spain of intervention in his country's elections and complained about some Spanish energy companies working in Nicaragua.[7] This was an unprecedented diplomatic incident and a rare display of public anger by the King.[8] King Hassan, pictured late in life. ... Countries participating in the Ibero-American Summit. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Ibero-American Summit, 2007: Juan Carlos, Zapatero and Chávez are seated on the right ¿Por qué no te callas? (English: Why dont you shut up?) was a phrase uttered by King Juan Carlos I of Spain, on November 10, 2007, to Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela, at...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ...   (born in Madrid on February 25, 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as Spanish prime minister from 1996 to 2004. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 11 November 1945) is the current President of Nicaragua. ...


Family and private life

In 1956 Juan Carlos accidentally killed his brother Alfonso in a shooting accident.[9] The incident is not mentioned in Juan Carlos's official biography and is the subject of disagreement. Infante Alfonso of Spain (1941-1956) was a younger brother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ...

Juan Carlos and his wife, Sofía.
Juan Carlos and his wife, Sofía.

Juan Carlos was married in Athens on 14 May 1962, to HRH Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark, daughter of King Paul. She was Greek Orthodox but converted to Roman Catholicism in order to become Spain's Queen. They have two daughters, Elena and Cristina, and a son, the heir apparent, Felipe. Image File history File links Juan_Carlos_2004. ... Image File history File links Juan_Carlos_2004. ... Sofía, Queen of Spain (Spanish: , Greek: ; born Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark on November 2, 1938; full name Sophía Margaríta Viktoría Frederíki), is the Queen Consort of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sofía, Queen of Spain (Spanish: , Greek: ; born Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark on November 2, 1938; full name Sophía Margaríta Viktoría Frederíki), is the Queen Consort of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Paul, King of The Hellenes (Greek Παύλος, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων, December 14, 1901–March 6, 1964) was King of Greece from 1947 to 1964. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Her Royal Highness, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (Elena María Isabel Dominica de los Silos de Borbón y de Grecia de Marichalar), styled HRH The Infanta Elena (born December 20, 1963, in Madrid), is the eldest daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía, and third in... Her Royal Highness, The Infanta Cristina, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca (Cristina Federica Victoria Antonia de la Santísima Trinidad de Borbón y de Grecia), styled HRH The Infanta Cristina (born June 13, 1965), is the younger daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ...


In 1972, Juan Carlos, a keen sailor, competed in the Dragon class event at the Olympic Games, though he did not win any medals. In their summer holidays, the whole family meets in Marivent Palace (Palma de Mallorca) and the Fortuna yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions. The king has manned the Bribón series of yachts. In winter, they usually go skiing in Baqueira-Beret and Candanchú (Pyrenees), where the king has occasionally ended with a broken leg. Former Olympic Class The Dragon is a keelboat designed by Johan Anker in 1929. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... Location Coordinates : Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Palma (Catalán) Spanish name Palma de Mallorca Nickname Ciutat Postal code 070XX Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Balearic Islands) Website http://www. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... Baqueira Beret is a ski station located in the heart of the Pyrenees, in the Valley of Arán, Lérida. ... General view of the resort town in autumn. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


Juan Carlos also enjoys bear hunting. In October 2004, he angered environmental activists after killing nine bears (of which one was a pregnant female) in central Romania.[10] In August 2006, it is alleged that Juan Carlos shot a drunken tame bear (Mitrofan) during a private hunting trip to Russia. The office of the Spanish Monarchy denies these claims, which are made by Russian regional authorities.[11].


Juan Carlos and Sophia are fluent in several languages. They both speak Spanish, English, and French. Unlike the Queen however, Juan Carlos does not speak German, nor her native language, Greek, a fact he regrets. In addition to the above languages, the King speaks fluent Italian, Portuguese and Catalan. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...


Juan Carlos is an amateur radio operator and holds the call sign EA0JC. His fondness of incognito motorbike riding has raised urban legends of people finding him on lonely roads. An amateur radio operator is an individual who, typically, uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other similar individuals on radio frequencies assigned to the Amateur Radio Service. ...


Titles

Main article: List of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown

King Juan Carlos I is a direct descendant of many famous European rulers from different countries, such as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (who reigned in Spain as Carlos I), King Louis XIV of France and Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Therefore, he is related to all the current monarchs of Europe. The Coat of Arms of the Spanish Crown King Juan Carlos I is a direct descendant of many famous European rulers from different countries, such as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (who as Carlos I is said to have been the first King of Spain), King Louis XIV of France... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 375 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1701 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 375 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1701 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Coat of Arms of the King of Spain The blazoning of the Coat of arms of the King appears in Title II, Rule 1, of Spanish Royal Decree 1511 of 21st January, 1977, whereby the Rules for Flags, Standards, Guidons, Banners and Badges are adopted. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...


The current Spanish constitution refers to the monarchy as "the Crown of Spain" and the constitutional title of the monarch is simply Rey/Reina de España: that is, "king/queen of Spain". However, the constitution allows for the use of other historic titles pertaining to the Spanish monarchy, without specifying them. A decree promulgated 6 November 1987 at the Council of Ministers regulates the titles further, and on that basis the monarch of Spain has a right to use ("may use") those other titles appertaining to the Crown. Contrary to some belief, the long titulary that contains the list of over 20 kingdoms, etc., is not in state use, nor is it used in Spanish diplomacy. In fact, it has never been in use in that form, as "Spain" was never a part of the list in pre-1837 era when the long list was officially used. is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


This feudal style was last used officially in 1836, in the titulary of Isabella II of Spain before she became constitutional Queen. Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king...


Titles in official use

  • King of Spain, of Castile, of León, of Aragon, of the Two Sicilies ( Naples and Sicily), of Jerusalem, of Navarre, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Mallorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Cordoba, of Corsica, of Murcia, of Menorca, of Jaen, of the Algarves, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Island, of the Spanish East and West Indies and of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea;
  • Archduke of Austria;
  • Duke of Burgundy, of Brabant, of Milan, of Athens and of Neopatria;
  • Count of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, of Rousillon and of Barcelona;
  • Lord of Biscay and of Molina

Other honors

He has been the recipient of numerous honorary degrees, including from University of Santo Tomas, Philippines, Southern Methodist University (where, in 2001, he formally opened the Meadows Museum, housing the largest collection of Spanish art outside Spain), and St. Mary's University, Texas. Juan Carlos also has received honorary Doctor of Laws degrees from New York University, and University of Utrecht, the Netherlands (25 October 2001). [12] In 1997, NYU opened the King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center (to promote research and teaching on Spain and the Spanish-speaking world) in the historic Judson Hall and adjacent buildings on Washington Square in New York City. He is also a member of the Sons of the American Revolution organization.[13] The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines (or simply the University of Santo Tomas, UST or affectionately, Ustê), is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. ... Dallas Hall at Dedman College at SMU The Laura Lee Blanton Hall during a rare snow storm Southern Methodist University (commonly SMU) is a nationally recognized, private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas (an enclave of Dallas). ... The Meadows Museum at Southern Methodist University is named after Algur H. Meadows. ... St. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... Utrecht University (Universiteit Utrecht in Dutch) is a university in Utrecht, The Netherlands. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) is a fraternal organization dedicated to historic preservation, education and patriotic endeavor. ...


Ancestors

Francis of Assisi of Bourbon (Spanish: Francisco de Asís de Borbón) was born in Aranjuez, Spain on 13 May 1822 and died at Épinay-sur-Seine, France, 17 April 1902). ... Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857–November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Archduke Karl Ferdinand (on the right) with his brother Archduke Albert Karl Ferdinand (Vienna, July 29, 1818 - Zidlochovice, November 20, 1874) was the second son of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen (1771-1847) and Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg, and the maternal grandfather of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. ... Maria Christina of Austria, Queen of Spain Maria Christina, Princess Imperia and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (Maria Christina Désirée Henriette Felicitas Rainiera von Habsburg-Lothringen, 21 July 1858–6 February 1929) was the second Queen consort of King Alfonso XII of Spain and... Elisabeth Franziska Maria, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary and Bohemia (17 January 1831 - 14 February 1903). ... The Infante Don Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona (Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg) (June 20, 1913 – April 1, 1993), was the fourth son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the monarch replaced by the Second Spanish... Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine Prince Alexander of Hesse GCB (15 July 1823 - 15 December 1888), was the third son and fourth child of Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and Wilhelmina of Baden. ... Prince Henry of Battenberg Prince Henry of Battenberg (Colonel Henry Maurice Battenberg, KG, PC) (5 October 1858 – 20 January 1896) was a descendant of the Grand Ducal House of Hesse, and later became a member of the British Royal Family through his marriage to Princess Beatrice, the youngest daughter of... Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine with his wife, Julia von Hauke Julia von Hauke (November 12, 1825 (O.S.)/November 24, 1825 (N.S.)–September 19, 1895) was the wife of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine (1823–1888), the mother of Alexander of Bulgaria, and ancestress to... A portrait of Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena), (24 October 1887-15 April 1969), later Queen Victoria Eugenia was the Queen consort of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Charles Augustus Emanuel, later HRH The Prince Consort; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The Princess Beatrice, (Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore), (14 April 1857 - 26 October 1944), was a member of the British Royal Family, the fifth daughter and the youngest child of Queen Victoria. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo, January 12, 1810 – May 22, 1859) was the King of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) from 1830 until his death. ... Prince or Infante Alfonso, Count of Caserta (28 March 1841-26 May 1934) was Duke of Calabria in succession of his brother, Francis II of the Two Sicilies. ... Maria Theresia Isabella, queen consort of Naples and Sicily Archduchess Maria Theresa (Isabella) of Austria (31 July 1816, Vienna - 8 August 1867, Albano) was the second Queen consort of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies. ... Don Carlos, Prince of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Infante of Spain (Carlo Maria Francesco di Assisi Pasquale Fernando Antonio di Padova Francesco di Paola Alfonso Andrea Avelino Tancredi) (Gries, November 10th, 1870 - Seville, November 11th, 1949) was the son of Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta and Maria Antonietta of Two Sicilies... Maria Antonia Josepha (Antonietta) (Naples, March 16, 1851 – Freiburg im Breisgau, September 12, 1938), was a Princess of the Two Sicilies. ... Donna María de las Mercedes of Bourbon, Princess of the Two Sicilies, Infanta of Spain, Countess of Barcelona (María de las Mercedes Cristina Genara Isabel Luísa Carolina Victoria) (Madrid, December 23, 1910- Lanzarote, January 2, 2000) was the mother of current King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Ferdinand-Philippe HRH Prince Ferdinand-Philippe of Orléans (September 3, 1810—July 13, 1842) was Prince Royal of France. ... Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris (August 24, 1838 – September 8, 1894) was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. ... Louise of Orléans, (Cannes, 1882 - Seville, 1958) was a Princess of the Two-Sicilies and maternal grandmother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Maria Amalia, 1842 (roughly age 60) by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. ... Princess Marie-Isabelle of Orléans, (Seville, September 21, 1848 - Seville, 1919) was an infanta of Spain and Countess of Paris. ... Infanta Doña María Luísa Fernanda of Spain (30 January 1832 - 2 February 1897) was Infanta of Spain and Duchess of Montpensier. ...

See also

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... Politics of Spain takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Spain uses the same system of (male-preference) primogeniture as the United Kingdom. ... The Coat of Arms of the Spanish Crown King Juan Carlos I is a direct descendant of many famous European rulers from different countries, such as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (who as Carlos I is said to have been the first King of Spain), King Louis XIV of France...

References

Primary sources

  • Paul Preston, Juan Carlos: Steering Spain from Dictatorship to Democracy, W W Norton & Co Inc, June 2004. ISBN 0-393-05804-2.
  • Ronald Hilton, SPAIN: King Juan Carlos.

Notes

  1. ^ (Spanish) Los españoles de hoy y el franquismo, ("The Spaniards of today and Francoism"), El País, undatedAdobe Shockwave file, part of Un rey para una democracia, 2000. Accessed online 29 December 2007.
  2. ^ Paul Preston, Juan Carlos: A People's King, HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London, United Kingdom, 2004, ISBN 0002556324
  3. ^ (Spanish) Patricia Sverlo, Un rey, golpe a golpe: biografía no autorizada de Juan Carlos de Borbón (PDF, in Spanish: "A king, blow by blow: an unauthorized biography of Juan Carlos de Borbón"); a highly critical biography, written from a Republican and Communist point of view. "Golpe a golpe" in the title is something of a pun: while it means "blow by blow", golpe is also the Spanish word for coup.
  4. ^ (English) Sinikka Tarvainen, Spanish royals worried about protests against monarchy, EUX.TV., 2007-09-28. Accessed online 29 December 2007.
  5. ^ (Dutch) Hans Cardyn, 'Belager' koning Albert komt er goedkoop vanaf, Het Belgische Koningshuis, undated. Accessed online 29 December 2007.
  6. ^ (English) Basque convicted for king insult, BBC News, 4 November 2005. Accessed online 29 December 2007.
  7. ^ (Spanish) El Rey Don Juan Carlos a Hugo Chávez: "¿Por qué no te callas?". Antena 3 (2007-11-11). Retrieved on 2007-11-11. ("King Juan Carlos to Hugo Chávez: 'Why don't you shut up?'")
  8. ^ (Spanish) "Nunca se había visto al Rey tan enfadado en público", 2007-11-10. Retrieved on 2007-11-10.  ("Never has the King been seen so angry in public")
  9. ^ (English) Justin Sparks and Peter Conradi, Juan Carlos ‘killed brother in prank’, The Sunday Times, May 11, 2003. Accessed online 29 December 2007.
  10. ^ Romania: Elite Hunting Spree Sparks Calls For Better Animal Protection, RFE/RL, January 27, 2005
  11. ^ "Royal row over Russian bear fate", BBC, 20 October 2006
  12. ^ (English) Honorary doctors 2001 , Utrecht University. Accessed online 29 December 2007.
  13. ^ (English) Edward F. Butler, Spain's Involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Part 2, National Society of Sons of the American Revolution, 27 November 2001. Accessed online 29 December 2007.

El País (Spanish for The Country) is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Spain. ... Adobe Shockwave (formerly Macromedia Shockwave) was Macromedias first and most successful multimedia player prior to the introduction of Macromedia Flash (now Adobe Flash). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For a Romanian TV station with the same name, see Antena 3 (Romania). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Sunday Times (disambiguation). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 5 January 1938
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Alfonso XIII
King of Spain
November 22, 1975present
Incumbent
Designated heir:
Crown Prince Felipe
Political offices
Preceded by
Francisco Franco
as dictator
Head of State of Spain
as King of Spain
November 22, 1975present
Incumbent
Designated heir:
Crown Prince Felipe
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Duke Jaime
— TITULAR —
King of Spain
July 19, 1969November 22, 1975
Reason for succession failure:
Monarchy abolished in 1931
became King
Preceded by
Louis XX of France
current pretender
Legitimist line of succession to the French throne
1st position
Succeeded by
Crown Prince Felipe
Vacant
Title last held by
Alfonso XIII
— TITULAR —
Byzantine Emperor
November 22, 1975present
Reason for succession failure:
Fall of Constantinople led to Ottoman conquest of Byzantine Empire
Incumbent
Designated heir:
Crown Prince Felipe
Persondata
NAME Juan Carlos I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, Juan (full name); Charles Alphonse Victor Maria of Bourbon (and Bourbon-Two Sicilies), John (Anglicisation)
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Spain
DATE OF BIRTH 5 January 1938
PLACE OF BIRTH Rome, Italy
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH
Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Present redirects here. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Present redirects here. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... Jaime Luitpold Isabelino Enrique de Borbón y Battenberg, Infante of Spain, Duke of Segovia (June 23, 1908- March 20, 1975), was the second son of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Demonym Spanish, Spaniard Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union 1516   -  Unification... HRH Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou (on his French National Identity Card; full name: Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou, born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... The Legitimist pretender to the French throne is Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou as the senior member of the House of Bourbon. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Present redirects here. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Byzantine redirects here. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1654 × 1654 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... King Louis of Spain ( August 25, 1707 - August 31, 1724) ruled less than one year between the time his father Philip V abdicated in his favor, and his death from smallpox, both in 1724. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 - August 10, 1759), king of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23 1713. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Amadeo I (Italian Amedeo, sometimes Latinized as Amadeus) (May 30, 1845 – January 18, 1890) was the 1st Duke of Aosta and King of Spain Biography Amadeo dAosta was born in Turin, Italy. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857–November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons through the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... Infante Carlos of Spain Don Carlos María Isidro Benito de Borbón, Infante of Spain (1788-1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Don Juan Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbón, Count of Montizón (French: Jean Charles Marie Isidore de Bourbon, comte de Montizón) (May 15, 1822 – November 21, 1887) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain from 1860 to 1887, and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of Madrid (1848 - 1909) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain, and later the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Jaime, Duke of Madrid and Anjou Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, called Duke of Madrid and known in France as Jacques de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou (27 June 1870 – 2 October 1931) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and the Legitimist claimant to... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime Alfonso Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime (London 12 September 1849-Vienna 29 September 1936) was the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France and the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Francisco Javier de Borbón y Braganza (Francis Xavier of Bourbon and Bragança). ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Sixto Enrique de Borbón, styled by his followers His Royal Highness Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma and Bourbon-Busset, Duke of Aranjuez, Infante of Spain, Prince of Parma and Piacenza, Regent of the Traditionalist Communion, Standard-bearer of Tradition, is the current Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Infante Don Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona (Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg) (June 20, 1913 – April 1, 1993), was the fourth son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the monarch replaced by the Second Spanish... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Jaime Luitpold Isabelino Enrique de Borbón y Battenberg, Infante of Spain, Duke of Segovia (June 23, 1908- March 20, 1975), was the second son of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso de Borbón y de Dampierre (French citizen as Alphonse de Bourbon) (1936–1989), also known as the Duke of Cádiz (as he was mostly called in Spain) and Duke of Anjou, was a pretender to the French throne. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... HRH Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou (on his French National Identity Card; full name: Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou, born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Archduke Karl Pius of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungry and Bohemia, Prince of Tuscany (4 December 1909 - 24 December 1953), called Carlos Pio de Habsburgo-Lorena y de Borbón in Spain, was a member of the Tuscan branch of the Imperial House of Habsburg and a Carlist claimant to... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... Heinz Fischer (born 9 October 1938) is the federal president of Austria. ... The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna: home to the offices of the Federal President. ... Albert II, King of the Belgians (Albert Félix Humbert Théodore Chrétien Eugène Marie), (born June 6, 1934), is the current King of the Belgians and a constitutional monarch. ... Successive Belgian kings are Regents 1830-1831: Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier 1944-1950: Charles, Count of Flanders None of these were King of Belgium: their title is King of the Belgians. ... Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Bulgarian: ) (born 28 June 1957) has been president of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002. ... This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... Dimitris Christofias (Greek: Δημήτρης Χριστόφιας) is a chubby Cypriot politician who is the General Secretary of AKEL and the President of the House of Representatives (Cypriot Parliament). ... The President of Cyprus is the countrys head of state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid) (born 16 April 1940) is the Queen regnant of Denmark. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmÉ‘s hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... {{Infobox President|name= Tarja Halonen |order=11th President of Finland |image=Finland. ... The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Horst Köhler ( , born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Karolos Papoulias Karolos Papoulias (Greek: Κάρολος Παπούλιας) is the President of the Hellenic Republic, former minister and member of the Hellenic parliament. ... This is a list of presidents of Greece. ... László Sólyom, President of Hungary László Sólyom (pronounced ) born on January 3, 1942 is the President of Hungary, having overcome the Hungarian Socialist Party nominee Katalin Szili in the election on June 7, 2005. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: ) is the head of state of Ireland. ... Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29, 1925), is an Italian politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian Republic. ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... Valdis Zatlers (born March 22, 1955) is president-elect of Latvia. ... President Valdas Adamkus Valdas Adamkus (born Valdemaras Adamkevičius on November 3, 1926) is the current President of the Republic of Lithuania. ... Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (given names: Henri Albert Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume; born at Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg, 16 April 1955) is the head of state of Luxembourg. ... Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy whose Head of State is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (or Grand Duchess of Luxembourg in the exceptional but twice occurred event of the sovereign being female). ... Edward Fenech Adami (Dwardu Fenech Adami, born February 7, 1934, Birkirkara) was the Prime Minister of Malta from 1987 until 1996 and from 1998 until 2004. ... The office of the President of Malta (Maltese: ), came into being on 13 December 1974, when Malta became a Commonwealth republic. ... Beatrix (born January 31, 1938 as Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld) has been the Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since April 30, 1980. ... The Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... Aníbal António Cavaco Silva (pron. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Portugal | Presidents of Portugal ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. ... Ivan GaÅ¡parovič (born March 27, 1941), Slovak politician and law professor, became President of Slovakia on June 15, 2004. ... Flag of the President of Slovakia This is a list of the Presidents of Slovakia. ... Danilo Türk (born 19 February 1952) was an Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs for the United Nations. ... Presidents of Slovenia: Milan Kučan (1990-2002) Janez Drnovšek (2002-2008) Categories: Lists of office-holders ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the current Swedish monarch and head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ... The Monarch of Sweden is the head of state of Sweden. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

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Juan Carlos I of Spain Summary (3698 words)
Juan Carlos was born as son of Infante Don Juan de Borbon, son of Alfonso XIII of Spain, and Princess Maria Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
The heir to the throne of Spain was Juan de Borbón, the son of the late Alfonso XIII.
Juan Carlos was married in Athens on May 14, 1962, to HRH Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark, daughter of King Paul.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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