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Encyclopedia > Jovian
Jovian
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Coin featuring Jovian.
Reign 27 June 363 -
17 February 364
Full name Flavius Iovianus
Born 331
Birthplace Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia)
Died 17 February 364
Place of death Dadastana
Predecessor Julian
Successor Valentinian I
Wife Charito (?), if so, still alive c. 380
Issue Two sons, one named Flavius Varronianus (consul in 364), possibly still alive c. 380
Father (Flavius?) Varronianus (comes domesticorum to Emperor Constantius II)
For other meanings see Jovian (disambiguation).

Flavius Iovianus, anglicized to Jovian, (331 - 17 February 364) was a soldier elected Roman Emperor by the army on 27 June 363 upon the death of Emperor Julian during his Sassanid campaign. Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Empire. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator withdraws from the world; his death occurs sometime in the next couple of years. ... Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator withdraws from the world; his death occurs sometime in the next couple of years. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... This article is about a military rank. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

Contents

Rise to power

Jovian was born at Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia) in 331, son of (Flavius?) Varronianus, the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards (comes domesticorum). He also joined the guards, and by 363 had risen to the same command that his father had once held. In this capacity, Jovian accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the disastrous Mesopotamian campaign of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian was mortally wounded during the retreat and died on 26 June 363. The next day, after the aged Saturninius Secundus Salutius, praetorian prefect of the Orient, declined the purple, the choice of the army fell upon Jovian. His election caused considerable surprise, and it is suggested by Ammianus Marcellinus that he was wrongly identified with another Jovianus, chief notary (primicerius notariorum), whose name also had been put forward, or that during the acclamations the soldiers mistook the name Jovianus for Julianus, and imagined that the latter had recovered from his illness. Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator withdraws from the world; his death occurs sometime in the next couple of years. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Look up Julian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are...

Prince Michael Street in Belgrade follows the original grid layout of Singidunum

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Knez Mihailova ulica (Prince Mihailo Street) is the main pedestrian street in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, with many cafes and expensive shops. ...

Restoration of Christianity

Jovian, a Christian, reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire ending the brief revival of paganism under his predecessor Julian. Upon arriving at Antioch, he revoked the edicts of Julian against the Christians. [1] The Labarum of Constantine the Great again became the standard of the army.[2] He issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that, while the exercise of magical rites would be severely punished, his subjects should enjoy full liberty of conscience.[3] Jovian entertained a great regard for Athanasius, whom he reinstated on the archiepiscopal throne,[4] desiring him to draw up a statement of the Catholic faith. In Syriac literature Jovian became the hero of a Christian romance. From Jovian's reign until the 15th century Christianity remained the dominant religion of both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, until the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... Constantine. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... // Turks and Turkish may refer to: Ethnic Turks Citizens or residents of Turkey in historical contexts, all Turkic peoples collectively Turk one of any of the peoples speaking any of the Turkic languages Turkic peoples A native or inhabitant of Turkey, or a member of Turkic speaking minorities in neighboring... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ...


Rule

Jovian continued the retreat begun by Julian, and, continually harassed by the Persians, succeeded in reaching the banks of the Tigris, where Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for a peace treaty on humiliatingly unfavourable terms. In exchange for safety, he agreed to withdraw from the five Roman provinces conquered by Galerius in 298, east of the Tigris, that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisibis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. The Romans also surrendered their interests in the kingdom of Armenia to the Persians and the Christian king of Armenia, Arshak II, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires, and was forced to cede part of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity. Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... Sinjar (Kurdish: Åžingar [1]) is name of region and a town in northwestern Iraq in the Ninawa Governorate near the Syrian border, with an estimate population in the 2006 census of about 39,875 residents [2]. The wall and other evidence at a huge mound in northeastern Syria known as... Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynasty after the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC. Capital Tigranakert Language(s) Armenian Political structure Empire History  - Established 190 BC  - Disestablished 66 BC The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to... Arshak II (or Arsaces II) was the son of King Diran and was himself king of Armenia from 350-367. ...


After arriving at Antioch Jovian decided to hurry to Constantinople to consolidate his position.


He died on 17 February 364 after a reign of only eight months. During his return to Constantinople Jovian was found dead in bed in his tent at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea. A surfeit of mushrooms or the poisonous carbon monoxide fumes of a charcoal warming fire have been assigned as the cause of death. is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne İznik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


Sources and references

  • Banchich, Thomas, "Jovian", De Imperatoribus Romanis.
  • Ammianus Marcellinus, xxv. 5-10
  • J. P. de la Bleterie, Histoire de Jovien (1740)
  • Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chapters xxiv., xxv.
  • Gibbon, Edward, 1737-1794. The history of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (NY : Knopf, 1993), v. 2, pp. 517 - 529.
  • G. Hoffmann, Julianus der Abtrünnige, 1880
  • J. Wordsworth in Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography
  • H. Schiller, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit, volume ii. (1887)
  • A. de Broglie, L'Église et l'empire romain au IVe siècle (4th ed. 1882).
  • This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. [1]

Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also

For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. ...

References

  1. ^ Philologic Results
  2. ^ Reigns Of Jovian, Valentinian and the Division of the Empire@Everything2.com
  3. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Flavius Claudius Jovianus
  4. ^ Philologic Results

External links

  • Wikimedia Commons logo Media related to Jovian from the Wikimedia Commons.
Preceded by
Julian
Roman Emperor
363364
Succeeded by
Valentinian I and Valens

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jovian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (348 words)
Jovian was born at Singidunum in 330, the son of the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards.
Some accounts have it that on Julian's death Jovian's soldiers called out "Jovianus!" The cry was mistaken for "Julianus", and the army cheered Jovian, briefly under the illusion that the slain Emperor had recovered from his wound.
Jovian was a Christian, in contrast to his predecessor Julian the Apostate, who had attempted a revival of paganism.
Roman Emperors - DIR Jovian (1583 words)
Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum.
The consulship of Jovian's son Varronianus was, of course, explained as the fulfillment of the dream of the elder Varronianus.
Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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