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Encyclopedia > Joual

Joual is the common name for the linguistic features of basilectal Quebec French that are associated with the French-speaking working class in Montreal. Some speakers of Quebec French from very small towns and villages outside of Quebec's largest cities, e.g., Montreal, Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, and Sherbrooke, may have other names to identify "joual", such as Magoua and Chaouin. In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Magoua is a particular dialect of basilectal Quebec French spoken in the Trois-Rivières area, between Trois-Rivières and Maskinongé. Categories: | | ... Chaouin is a particular dialect of basilectal Quebec French spoken in the south-shore area of Trois-Rivières. ...

Attitudes towards "joual" range from stigma to exaltation depending on forms and components of human communication such as social setting (formal/informal; public/private), channel (spoken vs. written; broadcast) and so on. Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ...

"Joual" is often termed a sociolect of the Quebecois working class. However, it can no longer be strictly considered as such given two major events in the latter half of the 20th century: upward socio-economic mobility among Quebecois, and a cultural renaissance connected to the Quebec sovereignty movement. At the beginning of the 21st century, "joual" is a form of "Franglish" that also fits the description of a diatype more than any other categorization. Many Quebecois, who were raised in Quebec during the 20th century and also possess an excellent command of English, understand, and can revert to, "joual". In linguistics, a sociolect is the language spoken by a social group, social class or subculture. ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ... Diatype is a term first used by the linguist Michael Gregory to describe a type of language variation which is determined by its social purpose. ...


Origin of the name joual

Although coinage of the name joual is often attributed to French Canadian journalist André Laurendeau, usage of this term throughout French-speaking Canada predates the 1930's. French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... André Laurendeau (March 21, 1912 in Montreal — June 1, 1968) was a Quebec novelist, playwright, essayist, journalist and politician. ...

The actual word joual is the representation of how the word cheval (horse) is pronounced by those who speak "joual". Cheval is usually pronounced as one syllable, [ʃval], by all francophones in la Francophonie. With this in mind, in the chain of speech some vowels and consonants undergo changes due to their environment. In the case of [ʃval], the Voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ] was voiced to become a Voiced postalveolar fricative [ʒ], thereby creating [ʒval]. Next, the [v] at the beginning of a syllable in some regional dialects of French or even in very rapid speech in general weakens to become the semi-vowel [w] written "ou". The end result is the word [ʒwal] transcribed as joual. La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides, though these are now dispreferred) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ...

Most notable or stereotypical linguistic features

Joual French English
toué toi you or "ya"
moué moi me
mot "verb" je vais te "verb" I will "verb" you
chu je suis I'm or "Ahm"
tu es (t'es) you're or "yer"
ché je sais I know
pantoute pas du tout not at all
pis puis / et puis then / "So what?"
y il he or "'e"
a elle she
ouais or ouin oui yeah or "yep"
y'a il y a there's or "there're"
icitte ici here
ben bien well / very / many (context)
s'a sur la on the 'xyz' (feminine)
su'l sur le on the 'xyz' (masculine)
tsé tu sais y'know
nuitte nuit night
dé-hor dehors outside
boutte bout end, tip
litte lit bed
Han? hein ? huh? or what?
eille hey you
frette froid cold
fa fait make or do
fak donc (ça fait que) so, therefore

Diphthongs are normally present where long vowels would be present in standard French. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ...

Although moué and toué are today considered substandard slang pronunciations, these were the pronunciations of Old French and French used by the kings of France, the aristocracy and the common people in all provinces of Northern France. After the 1789 French Revolution, the standard pronunciation in France changed to that of a stigmatized form in the speech of Paris, but Quebec retained the historically "correct" one, having been isolated from the Revolution by the 1760 British Conquest of New France.[1] Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Joual shares many features with modern Oïl languages, such as Norman, Gallo, Picard and Poitevin-Saintongeais though its affinities are greatest with the 17th century koiné of Paris.[2] Speakers of these languages of France predominated among settlers to New France. The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken by the people in Poitou. ... The literal meaning of the Greek word koine (κοινή) is common. It is used in several senses: Koiné Greek (Κοινή Ἑλληνική), a Greek dialect that developed from the Attic dialect (of Athens) and became the spoken language of Greece at the time of the Empire of Alexander the Great. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...

Another outstanding characteristic of Joual is the use of profanity called sacre in everyday speech.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

English loanwords

There are a number of English loanwords in joual although they have been stigmatised since the 1960s:[4] A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...

    • Bécosse: From backhouse, used generally in the sense of a bathroom. Unlike most borrowing, this one can sometimes be seen written, usually as shown here.
    • Bicycle or bécik: Bicycle
    • Bike or bécik: Motorbike
    • Blood: Compliment, as in "Té Blood" (You're all right). Rarely used today.
    • Braker: Pronounced [bɹɛɪke] or [bʁeɪke]. Verb meaning "to brake".
    • Breaker: Pronounced bɹeɪkə or bʁeɪkə. Circuit breaker (disjoncteur). Still very often used nowadays.
    • Caller: Pronounced [kʌ:le]. Verb meaning to phone someone.
    • Canife: Pronounced Kah-Neef. A pocket knife, literally the French pronunciation of the English word (K-nife).
    • Coat: Winter jacket (only for the clothing item), never in the sense of "layer".
    • Chum: Most often in the sense of boyfriend, although sometimes simply as friend.
    • Dumper: [dʌmpe]. To throw in the trash, to deposit something, or to break up with someone.
    • Enfirouaper: To cheat someone. This comes from "in fur wrap". Centuries ago, fur traders would sell a ballot of fur, actually filled with cardboard in the middle.[5]
    • Frencher: Pronounced fʁɛn(t)ʃe or fɹɛn(t)ʃe. To French-kiss.
    • Fucker le chien: Pronounced [fɔke lʃkɛ̃]. Can be used to imply that something is difficult to do or to indicate a problem.
    • Fuse
    • Gas: Pronounced [gɑz]. In the sense of fuel or in the sense of flatulence.
    • Lift: Only used in the sense of giving a lift to someone in one's vehicle.
    • Mossel: Muscle.
    • Peppermint, usually pronounced like pepper men
    • Pinotte: Peanuts. Unlike most other borrowings, this one is sometimes seen written, usually spelled like here. (also a street slang for amphetamines)
    • les States: Pronounced le steɪt. Used when referring to the USA.
    • Tinque : Usually pronounced tɛ̃ɪk. Used in the sense of "container": Tinque à gaz [fuel tank]
    • Toaster: Grille-pain
    • Tough
    • Truck
    • Suit: Coat.
    • Ski-doo: Snowmobile (name of a Bombardier trademark).
  • Some words were also previously thought to be of English origin, although modern research has shown them to be from regional French dialects:
    • Pitoune (log, cute girl, loose girl): previously thought to come from "happy town" although the word "pitchoune" exists in dialects from southern France and means "cute girl".
    • Poutine: was thought to come from "pudding", but some have drawn a parallel with the Languedocian word "poudingo", a stew made of scraps, which was (in Montreal) the previous use of the term.

Poutine Poutine (pronunciation in IPA as heard in Quebec French — listen to it in . ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ...


  1. ^ Marc Picard, "La diphtongue /wa/ et ses équivalents en français du Canada." Cahiers de linguistique de l'Université du Québec 1974, 4.147-164.
  2. ^ Henri Wittmannn, "Le français de Paris dans le français des Amériques." Proceedings of the International Congress of Linguists 16.0416 (Paris, 20-25 juillet 1997). Oxford: Pergamon (CD edition). [1]
  3. ^ Gilles Charest, Le livre des sacres et blasphèmes québécois. Montréal: L"Aurore, 1974; Jean-Pierre Pichette, Le guide raisonné des jurons. Montréal: Les Quinze, 1980; Diane Vincent, Pressions et impressions sur les sacres au Québec. Québec: Office de la langue française, 1982.
  4. ^ The standard reference to this subject is Gilles Colpron, Les anglicismes au Québec: Répertoire classifié. Montréal: Beauchemin.
  5. ^ Gaston Dulong, Dictionnaire des canadianismes. Québec: Larousse Canada, 1989, p. 180. However, this view of enfirouaper as an Anglicism is strongly disputed today. [2]

See also

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Magoua is a particular dialect of basilectal Quebec French spoken in the Trois-Rivières area, between Trois-Rivières and Maskinongé. Categories: | | ... Chaouin is a particular dialect of basilectal Quebec French spoken in the south-shore area of Trois-Rivières. ... There are various lexical differences between Quebec French and Metropolitan French in France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Chiac is an Acadian French vernacular mixed with English, spoken in the south-east Canada, especially among youth near Moncton, Memramcook and Shediac. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

External links

  • Article on joual at Canadian theatre
  • Article on joual in La Linguistique journal
  • A few excerpts of texts in joual
  • http://www.yorku.ca/paull/articles/1990h.html
  • http://www.yorku.ca/paull/articles/1992.html
  • http://www.yorku.ca/paull/articles/2004b.html

  Results from FactBites:
Joual - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (717 words)
Joual is the common name for the linguistic features from Quebec French that are associated with the working class, those receiving public assistance, and even some Quebec nationalists.
Attitudes towards Joual range from stigma to exaltation depending on forms and components of human communication such as social setting (formal/informal; public/private), channel (spoken vs. written; broadcast) and so on.
Joual is often termed a sociolect of Québec's French-speaking working class.
Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia (698 words)
The introduction of joual also enabled the introduction into theatre (at the time dangerously close to becoming a purely élitist form) of other dialects of the country from Michael Cook 's and Codco 's Newfoundland dialects to the Montreal anglo working class accents of David Fennario 's plays.
Joual is considered by some to be a horrific bastardization of French but over and over again writers in Quebec have proven that any dialect can be rendered lyrical.
From Michel Garneau 's joual Shakespeare to Jean Barbeau 's joual fantasies (loaded with puns; even the titles!), joual has found a place in the theatre and is no longer greeted with the dismay it once caused (indeed, Belles Soeurs was refused a subsidy to travel abroad because of its joual).
  More results at FactBites »



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