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Encyclopedia > Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito

In office
January 14, 1953 – May 4, 1980
Preceded by Ivan Ribar
Succeeded by Lazar Koliševski

In office
November 29, 1945 – January 14, 1953
Succeeded by Petar Stambolić

In office
September 1, 1961 – October 10, 1964
Succeeded by Gamal Abdel Nasser

Born May 25, 1892(1892-05-25)
Kumrovec, Croatia, Austria-Hungary
Died May 4, 1980 (aged 87)
Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia
Political party League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Spouse Pelagija Broz (married and divorced)
Jovanka Broz (married)
Religion Atheist
Stamp of the Soviet Union, Josip Broz Tito, 1982 (Michel № 5151, Scott № 5019).
Stamp of the Soviet Union, Josip Broz Tito, 1982 (Michel № 5151, Scott № 5019).

Josip Broz Tito (Serbian Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, listen , Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary May 7, 1892, [ May 25 according to official death certificate] – Ljubljana, SFRY May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 until his death in 1980. During World War II, Tito organized the anti-fascist resistance movement known as the Yugoslav Partisans. Later he was a founding member of Cominform, [1] but resisted Soviet influence (see Titoism), and became one of the founders and promoters of the Non-Aligned Movement. He died on May 4, 1980, in Ljubljana, capital of Slovenia. Tito may refer to the following: // Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980), Yugoslav marshal and leader List of places named after Tito Tito-Stalin split, a conflict between the leaders of Yugoslavia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Tito-Å ubaÅ¡ić Agreement, an attempt by the Western Powers to merge... Members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II (from left to right): Dr. Bakarić, Ivan Milutinović, Edvard Kardelj, Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar-Leka Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Milovan Đilas. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Ivan Ribar and Tito during World War II Ivan Ribar (1881-1968), was a Yugoslav politician of Croatian descent. ... Lazar KoliÅ¡evski (Лазар Колишевски) also Lazar Penev Kolishev (Лазар Пенев Колишев) (1914–2002) was a Communist political leader in Socialist Republic of Macedonia closely allied with Tito. ... // Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, 1918-1929 Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1929-1945 Prime Ministers and Premiers of the Federative Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia, 1945-1963 See List of leaders of communist Yugoslavia Premiers of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Petar Stambolić was a Yugoslav politician who served as Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1982 until 1983. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Titos House in Kumrovec Kumrovec is a picturesque village in the central part of Croatia, part of the Krapina-Zagorje county, on the Sutla river, along the Croatian-Slovenian border. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Jovanka Broz with Tito. ... A stamp is a distinctive mark or impression made upon an object, for instance those made on a piece of paper and used to indicate the prepayment of a fee or tax. ... Serbian Cyrillic is the Serbian variant of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Titos House in Kumrovec Kumrovec is a picturesque village in the central part of Croatia, part of the Krapina-Zagorje county, on the Sutla river, along the Croatian-Slovenian border. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...

Contents

Early years

Josip Broz was born in Kumrovec, Croatia, then part of Austria-Hungary, in an area called Zagorje. He was the seventh child of Franjo and Marija Broz. His father, Franjo Broz, was a Croat, while his mother Marija (born Javeršek) was a Slovenian. After spending part of his childhood years with his paternal grandfather in Podsreda, he entered the primary school in Kumrovec, and failed the second grade. He left school in 1905. Krapina-Zagorje county - Krapinsko-zagorska županija is a county in northern Croatia. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Slovenians or Slovenes (Slovenian Slovenci, singular Slovenec, feminine Slovenka) are a South Slavic people primarily associated with Slovenia and the Slovenian language. ... Podsreda is a town in Slovenia. ... Titos House in Kumrovec Kumrovec is a picturesque village in the central part of Croatia, part of the Krapina-Zagorje county, on the Sutla river, along the Croatian-Slovenian border. ...


In 1907, moving out of the rural environment, Broz started working as a machinist's apprentice in Sisak. There, he became aware of the labor movement and celebrated May 1 - Labour Day for the first time. In 1910, he joined the union of metallurgy workers and at the same time the Social-Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia. Between 1911 and 1913, Broz worked for shorter periods in Kamnik (Slovenia), Cenkovo (Bohemia), Munich and Mannheim (Germany), where he worked for Benz automobile factory; he then went to Wiener Neustadt, Austria, where he worked at Daimler as a test driver. Sisak on the map of Croatia Sisak (German: Sissek, Hungarian: Sziszek, Italian: Siscia) is a city in central Croatia. ... The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Labour Day Parade in Toronto in the early 1900s A Labour Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Area: 265. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Benz can refer to: Karl Benz, a German automobile engineer and inventor Mercedes-Benz, a brand of automobiles and trucks Kafi Benz, an American writer, historian, designer, and artist, the founder of Friends of Seagate Inc. ... Wiener Neustadt (Hungarian: Bécsújhely) is located south of Vienna in the state of Lower Austria. ... Daimler may refer to Gottlieb Daimler, German engineer and automobile inventor in the 1880s Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, his Stuttgart-based company, maker of Mercedes vehicles since 1903, later merged into Daimler-Benz, maker of Mercedes-Benz vehicles (since 1926) DaimlerChrysler (1998), a part German, part American, part Japanese car maker...


In the army

In May 1912, Broz won a silver medal at an army fencing competition in Budapest. In the autumn of 1913, Broz was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army and at the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he was sent to Ruma. He was arrested for anti-war propaganda and imprisoned in the Petrovaradin fortress. In January 1915, he was sent to the Eastern Front in Galicia to fight against Russia. He distinguished himself as a capable soldier and was recommended for military decoration. On Easter March 25, 1915, while in Bukovina, he was seriously wounded and captured by Russians. For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... - Ruma (Рума) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 45. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Petrovaradin Fortress, on the Danube river, overlooking Novi Sad Petrovaradin Fortress (Serbian: Петроварадинска тврђава or Petrovaradinska tvrÄ‘ava, Hungarian: Péterváradi vár) is a fortress on the Danube river, near Novi Sad (Hungarian: Újvidék) in the Serbian province of Vojvodina (Hungarian: Délvidék). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ...


Prisoner and revolutionary in Russia

After thirteen months at the hospital, Broz was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains where prisoners selected him for their camp leader. In February 1917 revolting workers broke into the prison and freed the prisoners. Broz joined a Bolshevik group. In April 1917, he was arrested again but managed to escape and join the demonstrations in Saint Petersburg on July 16-17, 1917. On his way to Finland, Broz was caught and imprisoned in the Petropavlovsk fortress for three weeks. He was again sent to Kungur, but he escaped from the train. He hid out with a Russian family where he met and married Pelagija Belousova. Broz then enlisted with the Red Guards in Omsk. In the spring of 1918, he applied for membership in the Russian Communist Party. In June 1918 Broz left Omsk to find work and support his family. He was employed as a mechanic near Omsk for a year. In January 1920 he and his wife made a long and difficult journey home where he arrived in September. Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Petropavlovsk may refer to: Petropavl, also known as Petropavlovsk, a city in Kazakhstan, and Petropavlovsk Airport Battleship Petropavlovsk (1897) (эскадренный броненосец Петропавловск), Imperial Russia (1897-1904) Battleship Petropavlovsk (1914) (линейный корабль Петропавловск), a Gangut class battleship in the Baltic Fleet (1914-1953) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a city in Russia Petropavlovsk, name of several rural settlements in Russia... The famous Kungur Ice Cave is nearby Kungur is a town at the south-east of the Perm Oblast in Russia, and is the center of the Kungursky district. ... Red Guards refer to socialist or communist militia formed to instigate, support, or defend communist revolutions. ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


Return to Yugoslavia

Broz immediately joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. The CPY's influence on the political life of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was growing rapidly. In the 1920 elections the Communists won 59 seats and became the third strongest party. The king's regime would not tolerate the CPY and declared it illegal. In 1921 all Communist-won mandates were nullified. Broz continued his work underground despite pressure on Communists from the government. As 1921 began he moved to Veliko Trojstvo near Bjelovar and found work as machinist. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


In 1925, Broz moved to Kraljevica where he started working at a shipyard. He was elected as a union leader and a year later he led a shipyard strike. He was fired and moved to Belgrade, where he worked in a train coach factory in Smederevska Palanka. He was elected as Workers Commissary but was fired as soon as his CPY membership was revealed. Broz then moved to Zagreb, where he was appointed secretary of Metal Workers Union of Croatia.


In 1934, he became a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, then based in Vienna, Austria, and adopted the code name "Tito".


In 1935, Tito travelled to the Soviet Union, working for a year in the Balkan section of Comintern. He was a member of the Soviet Communist Party and the Soviet secret police (NKVD). In 1936, the Comintern sent Comrade Walter (i.e. Tito) back to Yugoslavia to purge the Communist Party there. In 1937, Stalin had the Secretary-General of the CPY, Milan Gorkic, murdered in Moscow. The same year, Tito returned from the Soviet Union to Yugoslavia after being named there by Stalin as Secretary-General of the still-outlawed CPY. During this period, he faithfully followed Comintern policy, criticizing Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany until the pact of 1939, and then switching to a criticism of western democracies until 1941. The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...


World War II

Main article: Yugoslav People's Liberation War

On 6 April 1941, German, Italian, and Hungarian forces launched an invasion of Yugoslavia. The German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) initiated a three-pronged drive on the Yugoslavian capital, Belgrade. Meanwhile, the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) bombed Belgrade (Operation Punishment) and other major Yugoslavian cities. Attacked from all sides, the armed forces of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia quickly crumbled. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... “April War” redirects here. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


On 17 April, after King Peter II and other members of the government fled the country, the remaining representatives of Yugoslavia's legitimate government and military met with the Germans at Belgrade. The Yugoslavians signed an armistice with Germany. This armistice ended eleven days of futile resistance against the invading German armed forces (Wehrmacht). is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II Karađorđević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


Yugoslavia was then dismembered by the Germans. Some Yugoslavian territories, like Slovenia, were annexed outright by Germany and several "puppet states" were created. The "Independent State of Croatia" (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, or NDH) was established as a pro-Nazi puppet state with an Italian king, Tomislav II. Tomislav never visited Croatia and the NDH was really ruled by "Leader" (Poglavnik) Ante Pavelić and his Fascist Ustaša party. Puppet states were also set up in Serbia, Montenegro, and southern Yugoslavia. German troops occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as part of Serbia. Other parts of the country were annexed or occupied by Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Italy. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Aimone, King of Croatia, 4th Duke of Aosta (Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe di Torino) (9 March 1900 - 29 January 1948), later King Tomislav II of Croatia and the 4th Duke of Aosta was a member of House of Savoy. ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German (in Banat) Political structure Military administration Military Commander  - 1941 Franz Böhme  - 1941-1944 (?) (Unknown) Serbian government leader  - 1941 Milan Aćimović  - 1941-1944 Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate... The Principality of Pindus and Voivodship of Macedonia (also Pindo or Pindos, sometimes Pindus and Moglena; Aromanian: Printsipat di la Pind, Macedonian: Војводство Македонија) was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian control in northwest Greece during World War II. The Principalty was initially promoted by Alchiviad Diamandi di Samarina, since... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


The formation of the first post-invasion communist partisan resistance group in Yugoslavia is recorded to have occurred on 28 April 1941 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Other groups followed and, ultimately, Tito was acknowledged as the communist commander. Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ...


From 13 May 1941, Tito and the communist partisans faced competition in Yugoslavia from the largely Serbian "Yugoslav Army of the Fatherland" (Jugoslovenska vojska u otadžbini, or JVUO). This anti-German and anti-communist resistance movement was Royalist and commanded by General Draža Mihailović. The forces under Mihailović were also known as Chetniks. For a long time, the Chetniks were supported by the British, the United States, and the Yugoslavian government in exile of King Peter II. is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The Chetniks (Serbian: Четници, ÄŒetnici) were a Royalist paramilitary formations operating in the Balkans before and during World Wars. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Dragoljub Draža Mihailović (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић; Anglicised: Drazha Mihailovich ; also known as Чича or ÄŒiča) (April 27, 1893 - July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general now primarily remembered as leader of the resistance movement Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland during World War II. After the war, he was tried... The Chetniks (Serbian: Четници, ÄŒetnici) were a Royalist paramilitary formations operating in the Balkans before and during World Wars. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ...


Tito did not initially respond to the German invasion of Yugoslavia because of Stalin's non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany[citation needed]. On 4 July 1941, after Germany launched the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa), Tito called a Central committee meeting which named him Military Commander and issued a call to arms. “April War” redirects here. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov...


However, on 22 June 1941 (the day of the German invasion of the Soviet Union) in the Brezovica forest near the city of Sisak, Croatia, the communist partisans formed the famous First Sisak Partisan Brigade (mostly consisting of Croats from the nearby city). This shows that Tito, in fact, took advantage of the Pact to prepare as best he could for the inevitable, so that his men could rise up on the very first day of Operation Barbarossa.[citation needed] Despite the delays caused by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, this unit was one of the earliest anti-fascist military formations in Europe. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Sisak on the map of Croatia Sisak (German: Sissek, Hungarian: Sziszek, Italian: Siscia) is a city in central Croatia. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... First Sisak Partisan Brigade or Croatian Prvi Sisački odredwas the first anti-fascist armed unit in Croatia and Europe. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


The communist partisans soon began a widespread and successful guerrilla campaign and started liberating chunks of territory. The activities of the partisans provoked the Germans into "retaliation" against civilians. These retaliations resulted in mass murders (for each killed German soldier, 100 civilians were to be killed and for each wounded, 50). Tito's acceptance of this harsh retaliation, suffered primarily by innocent civilians, was a major point of contention between himself and Mihailović. Guerrilla redirects here. ...


In the liberated territories, the partisans organized people's committees to act as civilian government. Tito was the most prominent leader of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia - AVNOJ, which convened in Bihac on 26 November 1942, and in Jajce on 29 November 1943. In these two sessions, they established the basis for post-war organisation of the country, making it a federation. In Jajce, Tito was named President of the National Committee of Liberation.[2] On December 4, 1943, while most of the country was still occupied by the Axis, Tito proclaimed a provisional democratic Yugoslav government. AVNOJ (AntifaÅ¡ističko V(ij)eće Narodnog OsloboÄ‘enja Jugoslavije), standing for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, was the political umbrella organization for the peoples liberation committees that was established on November 26, 1942 to administer terrorities under their control. ... Bihać is a town on the Una river in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, center of the Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Tito's communist partisans stood up to intense Axis attacks between January and June 1943, Allied leaders switched their support to the partisans. King Peter II of Yugoslavia, American President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill joined Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin in officially recognizing Tito and his partisans at the Tehran Conference. This resulted in Allied aid being parachuted behind Axis lines to assist the partisans. As the leader of the communist resistance, Tito was a target for the Axis forces in occupied Yugoslavia. The Germans came close to capturing or killing Tito on at least three occasions: in the 1943 "Case White" (Fall Weiss) offensive; in the subsequent "Case Black" (Fall Schwarz) offensive, in which he was wounded on 9 June, being saved only because his loyal dog sacrificed himself; and on 25 May 1944, when he barely managed to evade the Germans after their "Operation Knight's Leap" (Unternehmen Rösselsprung) airdrop outside his Drvar headquarters. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... The Axis Powers is a term for the loose alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. ... Fall Weiss (Plan White) was a German strategic plan for a combined Axis attack launched in early 1943 against the Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia, in the Independent State of Croatia. ... The Sutjeska offensive (May-June 1943) was a failed attempt by the Axis forces to destroy the anti-occupation Yugoslav partisan force, marking a turning point for Yugoslavia during World War II. This action--codenamed Operation Schwarz (Black) by the Germans--took place near the Sutjeska river, in Italian-occupied... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Rösselsprung (Knights Leap) was a World War II operation by the Germans in April and May 1944, whose goal was to capture Josip Broz Tito and disrupt the leadership of the communist Partisan movement in Yugoslavia. ... Operation Rösselsprung (Knights Leap) was a World War II operation by the Germans in April and May 1944, whose goal was to capture Josip Broz Tito and disrupt the leadership of the communist Partisan movement in Yugoslavia. ... A C-130 Hercules airdropping a light tank. ... Drvar is a town and a municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina, located on the road between Bosansko Grahovo and Bosanski Petrovac, also near Glamoč. It is administratively part of the West Bosnia Canton of the Federation. ...


The partisans were supported directly by Allied airdrops to their headquarters, with Brigadier Fitzroy Maclean playing a significant role in the liaison missions. The Balkan Air Force was formed in June 1944 to control operations that were mainly aimed at helping his forces. Due to his close ties to Stalin, Tito often quarreled with the British and American staff officers attached to his headquarters. Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle MacLean of Duart and Strachur, 1st Baronet of Dunconnel, (March 11, 1911, Egypt - June 15, 1996, Scotland) was a Scottish diplomat, adventurer, writer and politician. ... The RAFs Balkan Air Force was a late-World War II air formation. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


On 5 April 1945, Tito signed an agreement with the USSR allowing "temporary entry of Soviet troops into Yugoslav territory". Aided by the Red Army, the partisans won the war for liberation in 1945. At the end of the war, all external forces were ordered off Yugoslav soil after the end of hostilities in Europe. is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ...


SFR Yugoslavia

Josip Broz Tito
May 25, 1892 - May 4, 1980 (aged 87)

Josip Broz Tito as Marshal of Yugoslavia in 1978.
Place of birth Flag of Austria-Hungary Kumrovec, Croatia, Austro-Hungarian Empire
Place of death Flag of Yugoslavia Ljubljana, SFR Yugoslavia
Allegiance Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Service/branch SFR Yugoslavia
Years of service 1941-1980
Rank Marshal of Yugoslavia
Commands Partisan Units of Yugoslavia
People's Liberation Army
Yugoslav People's Army
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
Awards Awards and decorations
Other work Prime Minister of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Marshal of Yugoslavia (serbo-croat MarÅ¡al Jugoslavije) was the highest rank of Yugoslav Peoples Army. ... Titos House in Kumrovec Kumrovec is a picturesque village in the central part of Croatia, part of the Krapina-Zagorje county, on the Sutla river, along the Croatian-Slovenian border. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Marshal of Yugoslavia (serbo-croat MarÅ¡al Jugoslavije) was the highest rank of Yugoslav Peoples Army. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Peoples Liberation Army also known as Partisans were the communist resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // The flag of Croato-Serbian friendship, one of the early flags used by Partisans In April 1941, Yugoslavia... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Tito redirects here. ... // Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, 1918-1929 Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1929-1945 Prime Ministers and Premiers of the Federative Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia, 1945-1963 See List of leaders of communist Yugoslavia Premiers of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II (from left to right): Dr. Bakarić, Ivan Milutinović, Edvard Kardelj, Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar-Leka Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Milovan Đilas. ...

Aftermath of World War 2

In late 1944, the Treaty of Vis (Viški sporazum) was signed in an attempt to merge Tito's communist government with the government in exile of King Peter II. This treaty was also known as the Tito-Šubašić Agreement. Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... The Tito-Å ubaÅ¡ić Agreement was an attempt by the Westerners to merge pre-war royal government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia with the communist-lead partisans who were defending the country in Second World War and were de facto rulers on the liberated territories. ...


On 7 March 1945, the provisional government of the Democratic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Demokratska federativna republika Jugoslavija, or DFRY) was assembled in Belgrade by Marshal Tito and the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. This government was headed by Tito and had no input from the Yugoslavian government in exile, or from King Peter II. After the elections in November 1945, Tito was named as the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DFRY. The country was later to be renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY), and then finally Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister that helps to form foreign policy for sovereign nations. ...


It was at this time that Yugoslav forces, in loose conjunction with the Red Army, were involved in deportations of ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) from Yugoslavia. The Danube Swabians minority was labeled by Yugoslavs as Nazi collaborators since many had fought in the notorious 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division 'Prinz Eugen'. This SS division was comprised of volunteers from the ranks of the Volksdeutsche minority.
Many innocent people and non-combatants were killed in the days immediately after the war due to the fact that they were inextricably mixed in with the retreating Germans and Nazi collaborators, including the remnants of the Chetnik movement, the Ustaše (the NDH version of the SS), the Croatian Home Guard, and the Slovene Home Guard (Slovensko domobranstvo, or SD). Most of the military formations were captured while fleeing amongst crowds of refugees and, despite Tito's promise of harmless surrender to the collaborators, a large number of both collaborators and non-collaborators ended up killed. These events are generally known as the Bleiburg massacre.
The Yugoslav Partisans were also allegedly involved with other mass killings such as the foibe massacres,[3] the killings in Bačka of Hungarian fascists, and Operation Keelhaul, the killing of a number of Cossack soldiers (known in Yugoslavia as "Čerkezi") handed over to Yugoslavia and the Red Army by the British.
However, there is no evidence that such massacres were ordered by Tito or the Partisan command, and they are though mostly to be related to local residents and Partisan leaders serving vigilante justice on Nazi collaborators and foreigners related to the war. In order to put these events in context, it must be pointed out that they are dwarfed by the crimes of the Axis powers and their collaborators between 1941 and 1945 which resulted in an estimated 1,700,000 Yugoslav dead. Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Åžvabi or Åžvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Å vabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Å vabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ... Freiwilligen-Gebirgs-Division SS-Freiwilligen-Division Prinz Eugen SS-Freiwilligen-Gebirgs-Division Prinz Eugen 7. ... SS redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chetniks. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Croatian Home Guard (Croatian: Hrvatsko domobranstvo, often abbr. ... Bleiburg memorial in Zagrebs Mirogoj cemetery The Bleiburg massacre, (also known in a more emotional context as the Bleiburg tragedy[1]) is a generalising name that encompasses events that took place during May 1945, after the formal end of World War II in Europe, but at a time when... Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ... The 1944-1945 Killings in Bačka were the killings of several thousands of ethnic Hungarians in Bačka allegedly organised by members of the Yugoslav Partisan Movement after they gained control over the area between 1944 and 1945. ... Operation Keelhaul was a programme carried out in Austria by British forces in May and June 1945 that decided the fate of thousands of post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In November 1945, a new constitution was drawn up and Yugoslavia organized an army from the Partisan movement, the Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslavenska narodna armija, or JNA) which was, for a period, considered the fifth strongest in Europe. Tito also organized a secret police force, the State Security Administration (Uprava državne bezbednosti/sigurnosti/varnosti, UDBA). Both the UDBA and the security agency, the "Department of People's Security" (Organ Zaštite Naroda (Armije), or OZNA), were charged (among other things) with seeking out, imprisoning and bringing to trial large numbers of Nazi collaborators; sometimes this included Catholic priests due to the widespread involvement of Croatian Catholic clergy with the Ustaša regime. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... UDBA or Uprava državne bezbednosti/sigurnosti/varnosti (Serbian Cyrillic: УДБА or Управа државне безбедности) (State Security Administration, literally state security directorate) was the secret police organization of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Security agency is an organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation, state or organization. ... OZNA or Organ ZaÅ¡tite Naroda (Armije) (lit. ... During World War II a number of Croatian Catholic priests, and some of the then bishops in the territory, cooperated with the UstaÅ¡a regime, who ran a Nazi puppet state that pursued a genocidal policy against the Serbs (who were Eastern Orthodox Christians), Jews and Roma. ...


On November 29, 1945, King Peter II of Yugoslavia was deposed by the Yugoslav Constituent Assembly, and on March 13, 1946, Draža Mihailović was captured by OZNA. He was executed on July 18. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dragoljub Draža Mihailović (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић; Anglicised: Drazha Mihailovich ; also known as Чича or ÄŒiča) (April 27, 1893 - July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general now primarily remembered as leader of the resistance movement Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland during World War II. After the war, he was tried... OZNA or Organ ZaÅ¡tite Naroda (Armije) (lit. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tito's position in Yugoslavia had several characteristics of a dictatorship, though it fell short on that common in other communist states after the Second World War. The Communist Party of Yugoslavia won the first post-war elections, in which simplified ballots allowed only for the alternatives of yes and no. Despite the controversial nature of these ballots, it must be noted that Tito evidently enjoyed massive popular support at the time. The Party immediately used its power to seek out remaining collaborators, nationalists and anti-Communists, partially using methods characteristic of Stalinist People's Republics.[4]Tito's administration did, however, unite a country that had been severely affected by the war and successfully suppressed the nationalist sentiments of the peoples of Yugoslavia in favor of the common Yugoslav goal. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In October 1946, in its first special session for 75 years, the Vatican excommunicated Tito and the Yugoslav government for sentencing Catholic archbishop Stepinac to 16 years in prison on charges of helping terrorists and of forcing conversion of Serbs to Catholicism.[5] The sentence was later commuted. Later, Yugoslavia became by far the most religiously liberal among the socialist states[citation needed], since Tito believed that oppression only makes religion spread. Tito always considered religious agitation a great threat. Alojzije Stepinac Blessed Alojzije (Aloysius) Viktor Cardinal Stepinac (May 8, 1898 – February 10, 1960) was a Croatian Catholic Prelate. ...


Yugoslav President

In 1948, motivated by the desire to create a strong independent economy, Tito became the first (and the only successful) socialist leader to defy Stalin's leadership in the COMINFORM; he was one of the few people to stand up to Stalin's demands for absolute loyalty. Stalin took it personally – for once, to no avail. "Stop sending people to kill me", Tito wrote. "If you don't stop sending killers, I'll send one to Moscow, and I won't have to send a second."[6] The Yugoslav Communist Party was expelled from the association on June 28, 1948. This rift with the Soviet Union brought Tito much international recognition, but also triggered a period of instability often referred to as the Informbiro period. Tito's form of communism was labeled Titoism by Moscow, which encouraged purges against suspected "Titoites'" throughout the Communist bloc. The crisis nearly escalated into an armed conflict.[7] The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Tito-Stalin Split be merged into this article or section. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ...


On June 26, 1950, the National Assembly supported a crucial bill written by Milovan Đilas and Tito about "self-management" (samoupravljanje): a type of independent socialism that experimented with profit sharing with workers in state-run enterprises. On January 13, 1953, they established that the law on self-management was the basis of the entire social order in Yugoslavia. Tito also succeeded Ivan Ribar as the President of Yugoslavia on January 14, 1953. is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Milovan Đilas or Djilas (Serbian Cyrillic: Милован Ђилас) (4 June 1911 - 20 April 1995) was a Montenegrin Serb[1] Communist politician, theorist and author in Yugoslavia. ... Self-Management is the process by which computer systems shall manage their own operation without human intervention. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Profit sharing, when used as a special term, refers to various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on companys profitability in addition to employees regular salary and bonuses. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ivan Ribar and Tito during World War II Ivan Ribar (1881-1968), was a Yugoslav politician of Croatian descent. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Stalin's death Tito rejected the USSR's invitation for a visit to discuss normalization of relations between two nations. Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin visited Tito in Belgrade in 1955 and apologized for wrongdoings by Stalin's administration.[8] Tito visited USSR in 1956, which signaled to the world that animosity between Yugoslavia and USSR was easing.[9] However, the relationship between the USSR and Yugoslavia would reach another low in the late 1960s.

Tito with Actress Sophia Loren.

Under Tito's leadership, Yugoslavia became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. In 1961, Tito co-founded the movement with Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, India's Jawaharlal Nehru, Indonesia's Sukarno and Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah, in an action called The Initiative of Five (Tito, Nehru, Nasser, Sukarno, Nkrumah), thus establishing strong ties with third world countries. This move did much to improve Yugoslavia's diplomatic position. Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


On April 7, 1963, the country changed its official name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Reforms encouraged private enterprise and greatly relaxed restrictions on freedom of speech and religious expression.[10] In 1966 an agreement with the Vatican was signed according new freedom to the Yugoslav Roman Catholic Church, particularly to teach the catechism and open seminaries. Tito's new socialism met opposition from traditional communists culminating in conspiracy headed by Aleksandar Rankovic.[11] In the same year Tito declared that Communists must henceforth chart Yugoslavia's course by the force of their arguments (implying a granting of freedom of discussion and an abandonment of dictatorship). The state security agency (UDBA) saw its power scaled back and its staff reduced to 5000. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...


On January 1, 1967, Yugoslavia was the first communist country to open its borders to all foreign visitors and abolish visa requirements.[12] In the same year Tito became active in promoting a peaceful resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict. His plan called for Arabs to recognize State of Israel in exchange for territories Israel gained.[13] Arabs rejected his land for peace concept. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...

Tito meets with Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi in 1975.
Tito meets with Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi in 1975.

In 1967, Tito offered Czechoslovak leader Alexander Dubček the chance to fly to Prague on three hours notice if Dubček needed help in facing down the Soviets.[14] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (636x637, 85 KB)Gadaffi and Tito. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (636x637, 85 KB)Gadaffi and Tito. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


In 1971, Tito was re-elected as President of Yugoslavia for sixth time. In his speech in front of Federal Assembly he introduced 20 sweeping constitutional amendments that would provide an updated framework on which the country would be based. The amendments provided for a collective presidency, a 22 member body consisting of elected representatives from six republics and two autonomous provinces. The body would have a single chairman of the presidency and chairmanship would rotate among six republics. When the Federal Assembly fails to agree on legislation, the collective presidency would have the power to rule by decree. Amendments also provided for stronger cabinet with considerable power to initiate and pursue legislature independently from the Communist Party. Djemal Bijedic was chosen as the Premier. The new amendments aimed to decentralize the country by granting greater autonomy to republics and provinces. The federal government would retain authority only over foreign affairs, defense, internal security, monetary affairs, free trade within Yugoslavia, and development loans to poorer regions. Control of education, healthcare, and housing would be exercised entirely by the governments of the republics and the autonomous provinces.[15]


Tito's greatest strength, in the eyes of the western communists, had been in suppressing nationalist insurrections and maintaining unity throughout the country. It was Tito's call for unity, and related methods, that held together the people of Yugoslavia. This ability was put to a test several times during his reign, notably during the so-called Croatian Spring (also referred to as masovni pokret, maspok, meaning "mass movement") when the government had to suppress both public demonstrations and dissenting opinions within the Communist Party. Despite this suppression, much of maspok's demands were later realised with the new constitution. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On May 16, 1974, the new Constitution was passed, and Josip Broz Tito was named President for life. is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and its predecessor, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY) was developed after the World War II as follows: Constitution of FLRY, adopted on January 31, 1946 Constitutional Law of the FLRY, adopted on January 13, 1953 Constitution of SFRY, adopted... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Foreign policy

Tito was notable for pursuing a foreign policy of neutrality during the Cold War and for establishing close ties with developing countries. Tito's strong belief in self-determination caused early rift with Stalin and consequently, the Eastern Bloc. His public speeches often reiterated that policy of neutrality and cooperation with all countries is natural as long as these countries are not using their influence to pressure Yugoslavia to take sides. Relations with the United States and Western European nations were generally cordial. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...

1978, Josip Broz Tito and Jimmy Carter in the Oval Office.
1978, Josip Broz Tito and Jimmy Carter in the Oval Office.

Yugoslavia had a liberal travel policy permitting foreigners to freely travel through the country and its citizens to travel worldwide.[16] This was limited by most Communist countries. A number of Yugoslav citizens worked throughout Western Europe. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2904 × 1961 pixel, file size: 761 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Josip Tito and Jimmy Carter visit in the Oval Office Source: Carter White House Photographs Collection Date: 03/07/1978 Licence: Public Domain File history... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2904 × 1961 pixel, file size: 761 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Josip Tito and Jimmy Carter visit in the Oval Office Source: Carter White House Photographs Collection Date: 03/07/1978 Licence: Public Domain File history...


Tito also developed warm relations with Burma under U Nu, travelling to the country in 1955 and again in 1959, though he didn't receive the same treatment in 1959 from the new leader, Ne Win. Prime Minister U Nu U Nu (otherwise known as Thakin Nu; May 25, 1907 - February 14, 1995) was a Burmese nationalist and political figure. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Because of its neutrality, Yugoslavia would often be one of the only Communist countries to have diplomatic relations with right-wing, anti-Communist governments. For example, Yugoslavia was the only communist country allowed to have an embassy in Alfredo Stroessner's Paraguay.[17] However, one notable exception to Yugoslavia's neutral stance toward anti-communist countries was Chile under Augusto Pinochet; Yugoslavia was one of many communist countries which severed diplomatic relations with Chile after Allende was overthrown.[18] Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, whose name is also spelled Strössner or Strößner, (November 3, 1912, Encarnación - August 16, 2006, Brasília) served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. ... Original members of the Government Junta (1977). ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (June 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ...


Final years

8 May 1980, Josip Broz Tito's funeral

After the constitutional changes of 1974, Tito increasingly took the role of senior statesman. His direct involvement in domestic policy and governing was diminishing.


In January 1980, Tito was admitted to Klinični center Ljubljana (the clinical centre in Ljubljana, Slovenia) with circulation problems in his legs. His left leg was amputated soon afterwards. He died there on May 4, 1980, three days before his 88th birthday. His funeral drew many world statesmen.[19] Based on the number of attending politicians and state delegations, it was the largest statesman funeral in history.[20] They included four kings, thirty-one presidents, six princes, twenty-two prime ministers and forty-seven ministers of foreign affairs. They came from both sides of the Cold War, from 128 different countries [21]. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Quotes

Tito was most admired for his speeches about brotherhood and unity, some of which are listed below.


"We have spilt an ocean of blood for brotherhood and unity of our peoples and we shall not allow anyone to touch or destroy it from within."[22]


"No one questioned ' who is a Serb, who is a Croat, who is a Muslim ', we were all one people, that's how it was back then, and I still think it is that way today."[23] Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ...


"None of our republics would be anything if we weren't all together; but we have to create our own history - history of United Yugoslavia, also in the future."


"We study and take as an example the Soviet system, but we are developing socialism in our country in somewhat different forms."[24]


"I will give everything from myself to make sure that Yugoslavia is great, not just geographically but great in spirit, and that it hold firmly to its neutrality and sovereignty that has been established through great sacrifice in the last battle (referring to the second World War)."


"A decade ago young people en masse began declaring themselves as Yugoslavs. It was a form of rising Yugoslav nationalism, which was a reaction to brotherhood and unity and a feeling of belonging to a single socialist self-managing society. This pleased me a lot." Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ...


Commenting on Stalin

"To say the least - this is a disloyal, non-objective attitude towards our Party and our country. It's a consequence of a terrible delusion that has been blown up to monstrous dimensions in order to destroy the reputation of our Party and its leadership, to take away the glory of the Yugoslavian people and their struggle. To trample everything great that our nation achieved with great sacrifices and blood loss - in order to break the unity of our Party, which represents a guarantee for successful development of socialism in our country and for the establishment of happiness of our people."


Quotes about Bosnia and Herzegovina

"Let that man be a Bosnian, Herzegovinian. Outside they don't call you by another name, except simply a Bosnian. Whether that be a Muslim (Bosniak), Serb or Croat. Everyone can be what they feel that they are, and no one has a right to force a nationality upon them."


"Bosnia and Herzegovina was once a seed of division between the Croat and Serb people. Officials in Zagreb and Belgrade brought forth decisions on Bosnia-Herzegovina - decisions involving its wealth and decisions to exploit the country even more; but they didn't care about what their decisions would do to the people living in Bosnia-Herzegovina. They, for the sake of achieving their goals, pitted one people against the other."


"During the war, a battle was fought here, not only for the creation of a new Yugoslavia, but also a battle for Bosnia and Herzegovina as a sovereign republic. To some generals and leaders their position on this was not quite clear. I never once doubted my stance on Bosnia. I always said that Bosnia and Herzegovina cannot belong to this or that, only to the people that lived there since the beginning of time."


Aftermath

At the time of his death, speculation began about whether his successors could continue to hold Yugoslavia together. Ethnic divisions and conflict grew and eventually erupted in a series of Yugoslav wars a decade after his death. Tito was buried in a mausoleum in Belgrade, called Kuća Cveća (The House of Flowers) and numerous people visit the place as a shrine to "better times," although it no longer holds a guard of honour. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Tito Memorial - The House of Flowers. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ...


The gifts he received during his presidency are kept in the Museum of the History of Yugoslavia (whose old names were "Museum 25. May," and "Museum of the Revolution") in Belgrade. The value of the collection is priceless: it includes works of many world-famous artists, including original prints of Los Caprichos by Francisco Goya, and many others. Los Caprichos are a set of aquatint prints created by the Spanish master-painter Francisco Goya during the 1790s. ... Goya redirects here. ...


During his life and especially in the first year after his death, several places were named after Tito. Several of these places have since returned to their original names, such as Podgorica, formerly Titograd (though Podgorica's international airport is still identified by the code TGD), which reverted to its original name in 1992. Streets in Belgrade, the capital, have all reverted back to their original pre-World War II and pre-communist names as well. In 2008, 2000 protestors marched on Zagreb's Josip Broz Square to demand its original name of Theatre Square be restored.[25] In the Croatian coastal city of Opatija the main street (also its longest street) still bears the name of Marshall Tito. During Josip Broz Titos presidency and in the years following his death in 1980, several places in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were named or renamed in honor of him as part of his cult of personality. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Position of Opatija in Croatia. ...


Family and personal life

Tito's first wife was Pelagija Broz (née Belousova), a Russian who bore him three children: daughter Zlatica and sons Hinko and Žarko (born 1924). They were married in Omsk before moving to Yugoslavia. She was transported to Moscow by the communists when Tito was imprisoned in 1928. Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ...


His next notable relationship was with Hertha Haas, a woman of Jewish descent whom he met in Paris in 1937. They never married, although in May 1941, she bore him a son, Mišo. They parted company in 1943 in Jajce during the second meeting of AVNOJ. All throughout his relationship with Haas, Tito maintained a promiscuous life and had a parallel relationship with Davorjanka Paunovic, codename Zdenka, a courier and his personal secretary, who, by all accounts, was the love of his life. She died of tuberculosis in 1946 and Tito insisted that she be buried in the backyard of the Beli Dvor, his Belgrade residence.[26] This article is about the capital of France. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... AVNOJ (AntifaÅ¡ističko V(ij)eće Narodnog OsloboÄ‘enja Jugoslavije), standing for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, was the political umbrella organization for the peoples liberation committees that was established on November 26, 1942 to administer terrorities under their control. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Beli Dvor (White Palace) was built in 1934-1937, on the Dedinje Hill near Belgrade, as a summer house for king Alexander of Yugoslavia (Aleksandar KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević). The king, however, was assassinated the year construction began and it then became home to the Prince Regent, Paul of Yugoslavia, and...


His best known wife was Jovanka Broz (born Budisavljevic). Tito was just shy of his 59th birthday, while she was 27, when they finally married in April 1952, with state security chief Aleksandar Rankovic as the best man. Their eventual marriage came about somewhat unexpectedly since Tito actually rejected her some years earlier when his confidante Ivan Krajacic brought her in originally. At that time, she was in her early 20s and Tito, objecting to her energetic personality, opted for the more mature opera singer Zinka Kunc instead. Not the one to be discouraged easily, Jovanka continued working at Beli Dvor, where she managed the staff of servants and eventually got another chance after Tito's strange relationship with Zinka failed. Since Jovanka was the only female companion he married while in power, she also went down in history as Yugoslavia's first lady. Their relationship was not a happy one, however. It had gone through many, often public, ups and downs with episodes of infidelities and even allegations of preparation for a coup d'etat by the latter pair. Certain unofficial reports suggest Tito and Jovanka even formally divorced in the late 1970s, shortly before his death. The couple did not have any children. Jovanka Broz with Tito. ... Ranković, Tito and Đilas Aleksandar Leka Ranković (1909-1982) was a leading Yugoslav Communist of Serbian origin. ... Zinka Milanov (née Kunc) Zinka Milanov née Zinka Kunc (May 17, 1906 - May 30, 1989) was a Croatian-born operatic soprano. ... Beli Dvor (White Palace) was built in 1934-1937, on the Dedinje Hill near Belgrade, as a summer house for king Alexander of Yugoslavia (Aleksandar KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević). The king, however, was assassinated the year construction began and it then became home to the Prince Regent, Paul of Yugoslavia, and... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Tito's notable grandchildren include Aleksandra Broz, a prominent theatre director in Croatia, Svetlana Broz, a cardiologist and writer in Bosnia and Josip (Joška) Broz and Edvrard Broz. Dr. Svetlana Broz was born in Belgrade in 1955 as the youngest child of Zarko Broz (eldest son of Josip Broz Tito) and Dr. Zlata Jelinek - Broz. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Though Tito was most likely born on May 7, he celebrated his birthday on May 25, after he became president of Yugoslavia, to mark the occasion of an unsuccessful attempt at his life by the Nazis in 1944. Nazis found forged documents of Tito's, where May 25 was stated as his birthday. They attacked Tito on the day they believed was his birthday.[citation needed] is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tito spoke four languages in addition to his native Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian: Czech, German, Russian, and English. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


May 25 was institutionalized as the Day of Youth in former Yugoslavia. The Relay of Youth started about two months earlier, each time from a different town of Yugoslavia. The baton passed through hundreds of hands of relay runners and typically visited all major cities of the country. On May 25 of each year, the baton finally passed into the hands of Marshal Tito at the end of festivities at Yugoslav People's Army Stadium (hosting FK Partizan) in Belgrade.(May 25, 1977: Marica Lojen of Kumrovec passing the baton into Tito's hands: http://www.titoville.com/images/tito-in-stafeta.jpg) is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Youth Day is a holiday dedicated to the youths of a country. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fudbalski Klub Partizan (Serbian Cyrillic: ФК Партизан, English: Football Club Partizan) is a football club from Belgrade, Serbia. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Origin of the name "Tito"

A popular explanation of the sobriquet claims that it is a conjunction of two Serbo-Croatian words, ti (meaning "you") and to (meaning "that"). As the story goes, during the frantic times of his command, he would issue commands with those two words, by pointing to the person, and then task.[27] However, when Tito adopted the name, he was in no position to give orders because he was not the leader of the communist party, just a member.


Tito is also an old, though uncommon, Croatian name, corresponding to Titus. Tito's biographer, Vladimir Dedijer, claimed that it came from the Croatian romantic writer, Tituš Brezovački, but the name is very well known in Zagorje. For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Dedijer (1914-1990) was an editor of the Yugoslav Communist Party newspaper Borba and member of the agitprop section to the General Staff during World War II. He later became a member of the partys Central Committee. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ...


The newest theory is from the Croatian journalist Denis Kuljiš. He got information from a descendant of the Comintern spy Baturin, operating in Istanbul in the thirties, about a code system that was used by the latter. Josip Broz was one of his agents, and his secret nicks were always names of pistols (including “Valter”, confirmed by Tito himself). One of the last nicknames was “TT” (TT-30, a Soviet pistol), and Broz after coming back to Yugoslavia even signed some communist party documents with that name. Kuljiš thinks that within a few years “TT” (pronounced as “te te”) became “Tito”.


Awards and decorations

Tito received many awards and decorations both from his own country and from other countries. Most notable of these (with defunct awards in italics) are:


Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia decorations

Marshal Tito's ribbons as they would appear today(Does not include all foreign awards)
Marshal Tito's ribbons as they would appear today
(Does not include all foreign awards)
Award or decoration Country Date received Remarks Ref
Order of the National Hero of Yugoslavia SFRY 6 November 1944, 15 May 1972, 16 May 1977 only person to receive it three times [28]
Order of the Yugoslavian Great Star SFRY 1 February 1954 highest national order of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [28]
Order of Freedom SFRY 12 June 1945 highest military order of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [28]
Order of the Hero of Socialist labour SFRY 8 December 1948 [28]
Order of the National liberation SFRY 15 August 1943 [28]
Order of the War flag SFRY 29 December 1951 [28]
Order of the Yugoslavian flag with sash SFRY 26 November 1947 [28]
Order of the partisan star with golden wreath SFRY 15 August 1943 [28]
Order of the Republic with golden wreath SFRY 2 July 1960 [28]
Order of merits for the people with golden star SFRY 9 June 1945 [28]
Order of the brotherhood and unity with golden wreath SFRY 15 August 1943 [28]
Order of the National army with laurer wreath SFRY 29 December 1951 [28]
Order of military merits with the great star SFRY 29 December 1951 [28]
Order for courageousness SFRY 15 August 1943 [28]
Commemorative medal of the Yugoslavian partisans - 1941 SFRY 14 September 1944 [28]
"30 Years of Victory over Fascism" Medal SFRY 9 May 1975 [28]
"10 Years of Yugoslav Army" Medal SFRY 22 December 1951 [28]
"20 Years of Yugoslav Army" Medal SFRY 22 December 1961 [28]
"30 Years of Yugoslav Army" Medal SFRY 22 December 1971 [28]

Order of National Hero of Yugoslavia, 1st Class The Order of the National Hero (Serbo-Croatian: , Slovenian: , Macedonian: ) was a Yugoslavian gallantry medal, the second highest military award in the Socialist Yugoslavia, It was awarded to individuals, military units, political and other organisations who distinguished themselves by extraordinary heroic deeds... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ...

International awards

Award or decoration Country Date received Remarks Ref
Order of Léopold Belgium 6 October 1970 highest military order of Belgium. [28]
Order of the Elephant Denmark 29 October 1974 highest order of Denmark. [29]
Médaille militaire France 5 May 1956 Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Dwight D. Eisenhower also received it. [30]
Medal Zwycięstwa i Wolności 1945 Poland 16 March 1946 670,000 of the medals were awarded from 1958 to 1992 [28]
Krzyż Partyzancki Poland 16 March 1946 55,000 of the medals were awarded [28]
Order of Victory USSR 9 September 1945 highest military decoration of the Soviet Union
one of 5 foreigners to receive it
[31]
Order of Suvorov USSR September 1944 [28]
Order of Lenin USSR 5 June 1972 Highest National Order of the Soviet Union [28]
Order of the October Revolution USSR 16 August 1977 [28]

Order of Léopold The Order of Léopold is the highest Order military order of Belgium and is named in honour of King Léopold I. The decoration was established in 1832. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of arms of Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway surrounded by the collars of the Order of the Elephant and the Order of the Dannebrog. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... French Military Medal The Médaille militaire (Military Medal) is a decoration of the French Republic which was first instituted in 1852. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Churchill redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Medal Zwycięstwa i Wolności 1945 (Polish for Medal of the Victory and Fredom 1945) was a Polish military decoration, awarded to persons, who fought during the World War II against Germany. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Krzyż Partyzancki (Polish for Partisan Cross) was a Polish military decoration, awarded to World War II partisans (part of resistance movement fighting in the contryside). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Order of Victory The Order of Victory (Russian: Орден Победы) was the highest military decoration in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Order of Suvorov (Russian Орден Суворова) is a Soviet award, named after Aleksandr Suvorov, was established on July 29, 1942 (during World War II) by a Decision of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The medal was created to award army personnel for exceptional duty in combat operations. ... The Order of Lenin (Russian: Орден Ленина, Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was the highest national order of the Soviet Union. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Order of the October Revolution was instituted on October 31, 1967, in time for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

See also

Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Marshal of Yugoslavia (serbo-croat Maršal Jugoslavije) was the highest rank of Yugoslav Peoples Army. ... During Josip Broz Titos presidency and in the years following his death in 1980, several places in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were named or renamed in honor of him as part of his cult of personality. ...

Further reading

  • Barnett, Neil. Tito. London: Haus Publishing, 2006 (paperback, ISBN 1-904950-31-0).
    • Reviewed by Adam LeBor in the New Statesman, September 11, 2006.
  • Carter, April. Marshal Tito: A Bibliography (Bibliographies of World Leaders). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1989 (hardcover, ISBN 0-313-28087-8).
  • Dedijer, Vladimir. Tito. New York: Arno Press, 1980 (hardcover, ISBN 0-405-04565-4).
  • Djilas, Milovan, Tito: The Story from Inside. London: Phoenix Press, 2001 (new paperback ed., ISBN 1-84212-047-6).
  • MacLean, Fitzroy. Tito: A Pictorial Biography. McGraw-Hill 1980 (Hardcover, ISBN 0-07-044671-7).
  • Pavlowitch, Stevan K. Tito: Yugoslavia's Great Dictator, A Reassessment. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1992 (hardcover, ISBN 0-8142-0600-X; paperback, ISBN 0-8142-0601-8); London: C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers), 1993 (hardcover, ISBN 1-85065-150-7; paperback, ISBN 1-85065-155-8).
  • Vukcevich, Boško S. Tito: Architect of Yugoslav Disintegration. Orlando, FL: Rivercross Publishing, 1995 (hardcover, ISBN 0-944957-46-3).
  • West, Richard. Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1994 (hardcover, ISBN 1-85619-437-X); New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1996 (paperback, ISBN 0-7867-0332-6).
  • New Power

Vladimir Dedijer (1914-1990) was an editor of the Yugoslav Communist Party newspaper Borba and member of the agitprop section to the General Staff during World War II. He later became a member of the partys Central Committee. ... Milovan Đilas or Djilas (Serbian Cyrillic: Милован Ђилас) (4 June 1911 - 20 April 1995) was a Montenegrin Serb[1] Communist politician, theorist and author in Yugoslavia. ... Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle MacLean of Duart and Strachur, 1st Baronet of Dunconnel, (March 11, 1911, Egypt - June 15, 1996, Scotland) was a Scottish diplomat, adventurer, writer and politician. ... Richard West may refer to: Richard West, 7th Baron De La Warr Richard West (Lord Chancellor of Ireland), an Irish politician and lawyer in the eighteenth century Richard West (keyboardist), member of the UK band Threshold. ...

References

  1. ^ Ian Bremmer, The J Curve: A New Way To Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall, Page 175
  2. ^ Rebirth in Bosnia, Time Magazine Dec 13, 1943
  3. ^ Democide in totalitarian States
  4. ^ Democide and mass murders
  5. ^ Excommunicate's Interview - Time Magazine, October 21, 1946.
  6. ^ "Untold tales of the Great Conquerors", U.S. News & World Report, January 3, 2006.
  7. ^ No Words Left? August 22, 1949.
  8. ^ Come Back, Little Tito June 06, 1955.
  9. ^ Discrimination in a Tomb June 18, 1956.
  10. ^ Socialism of Sorts June 10, 1966.
  11. ^ Unmeritorious Pardon December 16, 1966.
  12. ^ Beyond Dictatorship January 20, 1967.
  13. ^ Still a Fever August 25, 1967.
  14. ^ Back to the Business of Reform August 16, 1968.
  15. ^ Yugoslavia: Tito's Daring Experiment August 09, 1971.
  16. ^ Socialism of Sorts June 10, 1966.
  17. ^ Paraguay: A Country Study, "Foreign Relations": "Foreign policy under Stroessner was based on two major principles: nonintervention in the affairs of other countries and no relations with countries under Marxist governments. The only exception to the second principle was Yugoslavia."
  18. ^ J. Samuel Valenzuela and Arturo Valenzuela (eds.), Military Rule in Chile: Dictatorship and Oppositions, p. 316
  19. ^ Josip Broz Tito Statement on the Death of the President of Yugoslavia May 4, 1980.
  20. ^ Several authors; "Josip Broz Tito - Ilustrirani življenjepis", page 166
  21. ^ Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography, page 19
  22. ^ Tito's Speeches
  23. ^ Tito Videos
  24. ^ Letter to Comrades J. V. Stalin and V. M. Molotov, Apr 13 1948; Quoted in TIME, Aug 23, 1948
  25. ^ Thousands of Croatians rally against 'Tito' square
  26. ^ Interview with Lordan Zafranovic
  27. ^ This explanation for the name's origin is provided in Fitzroy Maclean's 1949 book, Eastern Approaches.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y List of Tito's decorations, orders and medals on titoville.com
  29. ^ Recipients of Order of the Elephant
  30. ^ Recipients of Médaille militaire
  31. ^ List of order of Victory recipients

is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle MacLean of Duart and Strachur, 1st Baronet of Dunconnel, (March 11, 1911, Egypt - June 15, 1996, Scotland) was a Scottish diplomat, adventurer, writer and politician. ... Eastern Approaches (1949) is an autobiographical account of Fitzroy MacLeans life from his days as a junior diplomat in the Foreign Office to his travels in the Soviet Union and Central Asia to his exploits in the British Army and SAS after being elected an MP. Citation: MacLean, Fitzroy...

External links

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Military offices
Preceded by
Rank established
Marshal of Yugoslavia
29 November 19434 May 1980
Succeeded by
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Federal secretary of people's defence
29 November 194514 January 1953
Succeeded by
Ivan Gošnjak
Political offices
Preceded by
Drago Marušić
as Prime Minister Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Federal Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
29 November 194529 June 1963
Succeeded by
Petar Stambolić
Preceded by
Position established
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
1 September 196110 October 1964
Succeeded by
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Preceded by
Ivan Ribar
President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
14 January 19534 May 1980
President for Life from 22 January 1974
Succeeded by
Lazar Koliševski
as Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists. ... Marshal of Yugoslavia (serbo-croat MarÅ¡al Jugoslavije) was the highest rank of Yugoslav Peoples Army. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Department of Defence redirects here. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II (from left to right): Dr. Bakarić, Ivan Milutinović, Edvard Kardelj, Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar-Leka Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Milovan Đilas. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Petar Stambolić was a Yugoslav politician who served as Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1982 until 1983. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Ivan Ribar and Tito during World War II Ivan Ribar (1881-1968), was a Yugoslav politician of Croatian descent. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, also known as First Yugoslavia, came into existence on 1 December 1918 with the merger of the Kingdom of Serbia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Lazar KoliÅ¡evski (Лазар Колишевски) also Lazar Penev Kolishev (Лазар Пенев Колишев) (1914–2002) was a Communist political leader in Socialist Republic of Macedonia closely allied with Tito. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, also known as First Yugoslavia, came into existence on 1 December 1918 with the merger of the Kingdom of Serbia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. ... Ivan Ribar and Tito during World War II Ivan Ribar (1881-1968), was a Yugoslav politician of Croatian descent. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, also known as First Yugoslavia, came into existence on 1 December 1918 with the merger of the Kingdom of Serbia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. ... Lazar KoliÅ¡evski (Лазар Колишевски) also Lazar Penev Kolishev (Лазар Пенев Колишев) (1914–2002) was a Communist political leader in Socialist Republic of Macedonia closely allied with Tito. ... Cvijetin Mijatović was a Yugoslav politician who served as Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1980 until 1981. ... Sergej Kraigher (May 30, 1914–January 17, 2001) was a Slovenian politician. ... Petar Stambolić was a Yugoslav politician who served as Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1982 until 1983. ... Mika Å piljak (November 28, 1916 - May 18, 2007) was a Croatian politician in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Veselin Djuranović (Serbian Cyrillic: Веселин Ђурановић) (May 17, 1925–August 30, 1997) was a Montenegrin communist politician. ... Radovan Vlajkovic was a Yugoslav politician who served as Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1985 until 1986 when his term ended. ... Sinan Hasani was an ethnic-Albanian Yugoslavian politician and president of Yugoslavia (head of the presidency). ... Dr. Lazar Mojsov (born December 19, 1920 in Negotino, Republic of Macedonia) was a Yugoslavian/Macedonian journalist, politician and diplomat. ... Raif Dizdarević (born 1926) was a Yugoslav politician of Bosniak ethnicity. ... Janez DrnovÅ¡ek (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born May 17, 1950) is the current President of Slovenia and the former president of Yugoslavia. ... Borisav Jovic (born 1928) was a Serbian communist politician, who served as the Serbian member of the collective presidency of Yugoslavia during the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Stjepan Stipe Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician. ... Branko Kostić (Serbian Cyrillic: Бранко Костић), born in 1939, was a Montenegrin politician. ... // Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, 1918-1929 Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1929-1945 Prime Ministers and Premiers of the Federative Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia, 1945-1963 See List of leaders of communist Yugoslavia Premiers of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Nikola PaÅ¡ić // Nikola P. PaÅ¡ić (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола П. Пашић, at the time also spelled Pashitch or Pachitch), (December 18, 1845 - December 10, 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat, the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, leader of the Peoples Radical Party who, among... Stojan Protić Serbian Cyrillic Стојан Протић (1857 - 1923) was a Yugoslavian political figure. ... Stojan Protić Serbian Cyrillic Стојан Протић (1857 - 1923) was a Yugoslavian political figure. ... Nikola PaÅ¡ić // Nikola P. PaÅ¡ić (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола П. Пашић, at the time also spelled Pashitch or Pachitch), (December 18, 1845 - December 10, 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat, the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, leader of the Peoples Radical Party who, among... Nikola PaÅ¡ić // Nikola P. PaÅ¡ić (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола П. Пашић, at the time also spelled Pashitch or Pachitch), (December 18, 1845 - December 10, 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat, the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, leader of the Peoples Radical Party who, among... Nikola Uzunovic (1873 1954) was a Serbian politician. ... Velimir Vukicevic (1871 – 1930) was a Serbian politician. ... Anton Korosec(born May 12, 1872, Wisserian, Styria, Austria-Hungary [now in Slovenia]died Dec. ... Petar Živković (1880 - 1947) was a Yugoslav political figure and soldier, he was prime minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1929-1932. ... Nikola Uzunovic (1873 1954) was a Serbian politician. ... Milan Stojadinović (July 23, 1888 - October 26, 1961) was a Yugoslav political figure. ... DragiÅ¡a Cvetković (1893 - 1969) was a Yugoslav political figure. ... Slobodan Jovanović (3 December 1869, Novi Sad, Austria-Hungary - 12 December 1958, London, United Kingdom) was prime minister of the Yugoslav government in exile during World War II from 11 January 1942 to 26 June 1943. ... Dr. Ivan Å ubaÅ¡ić (May 7th 1892 - March 22nd 1955) is Croatian and Yugoslav politician, best known as the last Ban of Croatia. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Petar Stambolić was a Yugoslav politician who served as Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1982 until 1983. ... Mika Å piljak (November 28, 1916 - May 18, 2007) was a Croatian politician in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Džemal Bijedić (Џемал Биједић) (born April 22, 1917, Mostar – died January 18, 1977) was a Yugoslav Communist leader from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Veselin Djuranović (Serbian Cyrillic: Веселин Ђурановић) (May 17, 1925–August 30, 1997) was a Montenegrin communist politician. ... Milka Planinc (born November 21, 1924 at DrniÅ¡ in Croatia) is a Communist Federal Prime Minister of Yugoslavia from 1982 to 1986. ... Branko Mikulić Branko Mikulić was a president of Bosnia and Herzegovina during 1970s and one of the leading Bosnian politicians during the communist rule in former Yugoslavia. ... Ante Marković (born November 25, 1924 in Konjic, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (now Bosnia and Herzegovina) was the last prime minister of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Milan Panic Milan Panic meeting with former President Bill Clinton Milan Panic (Serbian: Милан Панић) (born 1929) is a Serbian-American Costa Mesa, California-based pharmaceuticals tycoon. ... Radoje Kontić (born May 31, 1937) is a Montenegran politician. ... Momir Bulatović (born September 21, 1956) is a former President of Montenegro and Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Zoran Žizić (born 1951) is a politician from Montenegro. ... DragiÅ¡a PeÅ¡ić (born 1954 in Danilovgrad, Montenegro) is a Montenegrin politician who was Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...

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Josip Broz Tito, Dictator of the Month, April 2006 (2222 words)
Tito was the most prominent leader of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia - AVNOJ, which convened in Bihac on November 26, 1942 and in Jajce on November 29, 1943.
Tito was buried in his mausoleum in Belgrade, called Kuca cveca (The House of Flowers) and numerous people visit the place as a shrine to "better times," although it no longer holds a guard of honour.
Tito was most likely born on the May 7, but celebrated his birthday on May 25, after he became president of Yugoslavia, to mark the occasion of an unsuccessful attempt at his life by the Nazis in 1944.
Josip Broz Tito - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2870 words)
Tito was born Josip Broz in Kumrovec, Croatia, a part of Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, in an area called Zagorje.
She died of tuberculosis in 1946 and Tito insisted she be buried in the backyard of the Beli dvor, his Belgrade residence.
Tito was just shy of his 59th birthday, while she was 27, when they finally married, in April 1952, with state security chief Aleksandar Rankovic as the groom's best man. Their eventual marriage came about somewhat unexpectedly since Tito actually rejected her some years earlier when his confidante Ivan Krajacic brought her in originally.
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