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Encyclopedia > Josiah Willard Gibbs
Willard Gibbs
Scientist
Born February 11, 1839
New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Died April 28, 1903
New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 New HavenApril 28, 1903 New Haven) was one of the very first American theoretical physicists and chemists. As a mathematical physicist, he devised much of the theoretical foundation for chemical thermodynamics. As a mathematician, he was an inventor of vector analysis. He spent his entire career at Yale, which awarded him the first American Ph.D. in engineering. The J. Willard Gibbs Professorship in Theoretical Chemistry at Yale was created in his honour. Josiah Willard Gibbs Original: Image:Wgibbs. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: The Elm City Location in Connecticut Coordinates: Counties New Haven County Mayor John DeStefano, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Nickname: The Elm City Location in Connecticut Coordinates: Counties New Haven County Mayor John DeStefano, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city in Connecticut. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the city in Connecticut. ... Physicists working in a government lab A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. ... A chemist pours from a Florence flask. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories1. ... Thermochemistry is the application of thermodynamics to chemistry. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Vector calculus (also called vector analysis) is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in two or more dimensions. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and mathematical principles to develop economical solutions to technical problems, creating products, facilities, and structures that are useful to people. ...

Contents

Tributes

   
Josiah Willard Gibbs
…who founded a new department of chemical science which is becoming comparable in importance with that created by Lavoisier.
   
Josiah Willard Gibbs
– Henri Louis Le Chatelier, 1885 formulated Le Chatelier's principle
   
Josiah Willard Gibbs
…whose name not only in America but in the whole world will ever be reckoned among the most renowned theoretical physicists of all times…
   
Josiah Willard Gibbs
Max Planck, 1918 Nobel prize physics

Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Henri Louis Le Chatelier (Paris, October 8, 1850 - Miribel-les-Echelles September 17, 1936) was an influential French chemist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... In chemistry, Le Chateliers principle can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist. ...

Biography

Gibbs' s career can be divided into four phases:

He also wrote classic textbooks on this last subject. 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Vector calculus is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in 2 or more dimensions. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... Electromagnetism is the force observed as static electricity, and causes the flow of electric charge (electric current) in electrical conductors. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength [citation needed]. The elementary particle that defines light is the photon. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Quantum theory is a theory of physics that uses Plancks constant. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematical physicist, born in Edinburgh. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ...


Early years

Gibbs in his youth.
Gibbs in his youth.

Gibbs was the seventh in a long line of American academics stretching back to the 17th century. His father, a professor of sacred literature at the Yale Divinity School, is now most remembered for his involvement in the Amistad trial. Although the father was also named Josiah Willard, the son is never referred to as "Josiah Willard Gibbs, Jr." Five other members of Gibb's extended family were named Josiah Willard Gibbs. His mother was the daughter of a Yale graduate in literature. Image File history File links A_young_Willard_Gibbs. ... Image File history File links A_young_Willard_Gibbs. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs was a linguist and professor of Theology and sacred literature at the university of Yale. ... Yale Divinity School is the one of the constituent graduate schools of Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ... (Spanish: friendship) was a Spanish merchant ship on which a rebellion by the African slaves it was carrying broke out in 1839 when the schooner was traveling along the coast of Cuba. ...


After attending the Hopkins School, Gibbs matriculated at Yale College at the age of 15. He graduated in 1858 near the top of his class, and was awarded prizes in mathematics and Latin. For the Minnesota school, see Hopkins Senior High School; for the university, see Johns Hopkins University. ... Yale redirects here. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Middle years

In 1863, Gibbs obtained the first Ph.D. degree in engineering ever awarded in the USA. He then tutored at Yale, two years in Latin and one year in what was then called natural philosophy. In 1866 he went to Europe to study, spending one year each at Paris, Berlin, and Heidelberg, where he was influenced by Kirchhoff and Helmholtz. At the time, German academics were the leading authorities in chemistry, thermodynamics, and theoretical natural science in general. These three years account for nearly all of his life spent outside of New Haven. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and mathematical principles to develop economical solutions to technical problems, creating products, facilities, and structures that are useful to people. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... European redirects here. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... A view of the city from the castle (Schloss) The castle (Schloss) above the town Shopping district Heidelberg and the other cities of the Neckar valley View from the so called alley of philosophers (Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg Castle, Heiliggeist Church and the Old Bridge Heidelberg is... Gustav Kirchhoff Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (March 12, 1824 – October 17, 1887), a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... Hermann von Helmholtz Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...

Founder of Chemical Thermodynamics
Founder of Chemical Thermodynamics

In 1869, he returned to Yale and was appointed Professor of Mathematical Physics in 1871, the first such professorship in the United States and a position he held for the rest of his life. The appointment was unpaid at first, a situation common in Germany and otherwise not unusual at the time, because Gibbs had yet to publish anything. Between 1876 and 1878 Gibbs wrote a series of papers collectively titled On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, now deemed one of the greatest scientific achievements of the 19th century and one of the foundations of physical chemistry. In these papers Gibbs applied thermodynamics to interpret physicochemical phenomena, successfully explaining and interrelating what had previously been a mass of isolated facts. Image File history File links Thermodynamicist_Willard_Gibbs. ... Image File history File links Thermodynamicist_Willard_Gibbs. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Yale redirects here. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories1. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...

"It is universally recognised that its publication was an event of the first importance in the history of chemistry. ... Nevertheless it was a number of years before its value was generally known, this delay was due largely to the fact that its mathematical form and rigorous deductive processes make it difficult reading for anyone, and especially so for students of experimental chemistry whom it most concerns... " (J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, J. Willard Gibbs) Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions and observations, performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...

Some important topics covered in his other papers on heterogeneous equilibria include:

Gibbs also wrote on theoretical thermodynamics. In 1873, he published a paper on the geometric representation of thermodynamic quantities. This paper inspired Maxwell to make (with his own hands) a plaster cast illustrating Gibbs' construct which he then sent to Gibbs. Yale proudly owns it to this day. In thermodynamics and chemistry, chemical potential, symbolized by μ, is a term introduced in 1876 by the American mathematical physicist (Willard Gibbs and his partner Lauren Berkley), which he defined as follows: Gibbs noted also that for the purposes of this definition, any chemical element or combination of elements in given... The free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ... In mathematical physics, especially as introduced into statistical mechanics and thermodynamics by J. Willard Gibbs in 1878, an ensemble (also statistical ensemble or thermodynamic ensemble) is an idealization consisting of a large number of mental copies (possibly infinitely many) of a system, considered all at once, each of which represents... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gibbs phase rule. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematical physicist, born in Edinburgh. ...


Later years

In 1880, the new Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland offered Gibbs a position paying $3000. Yale responded by raising his salary to $2000, and he did not leave New Haven. From 1880 to 1884, Gibbs combined the ideas of two mathematicians, the quaternions of William Rowan Hamilton and the exterior algebra of Hermann Grassmann to obtain vector analysis (independently formulated by the British mathematical physicist and engineer Oliver Heaviside). Gibbs designed vector analysis to clarify and advance mathematical physics. 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more, Balmerr Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates: Country United States State Maryland County Independent... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In mathematics, the quaternions are a non-commutative extension of the complex numbers. ... William Rowan Hamilton Sir William Rowan Hamilton (August 4, 1805 – September 2, 1865) was an Irish mathematician, physicist, and astronomer who made important contributions to the development of optics, dynamics, and algebra. ... In mathematics, the exterior algebra (also known as the Grassmann algebra, after Hermann Grassmann) of a given vector space V over a field K is a certain unital associative algebra which contains V as a subspace. ... Hermann Günther Grassmann (April 15, 1809, Stettin – September 26, 1877, Stettin) was a German polymath, renowned in his day as a linguist and now admired as a mathematician. ... Vector calculus is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in 2 or more dimensions. ... Physicists working in a government lab A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oliver Heaviside (May 18, 1850 – February 3, 1925) was a self-taught English engineer, mathematician and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, developed techniques for applying Laplace transforms to the solution of differential equations, reformulated Maxwells field equations in terms of electric and magnetic... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories1. ...


From 1882 to 1889, Gibbs refined his vector analysis, wrote on optics, and developed a new electrical theory of light. He deliberately avoided theorizing about the structure of matter (a wise decision, given the revolutionary developments in subatomic particles and quantum mechanics that began around the time of his death), developing a theory of greater generality than any other theory of matter extant in his day. He wrote classic textbooks on statistical mechanics, which Yale published in 1902. Gibbs also contributed to crystallography and applied his vector methods to the determination of planetary and comet orbits. 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom: it may be elementary or composite. ... Fig. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... Comet Hale-Bopp For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ...


Information about the names and careers of Gibbs's students is not readily available. He is known to have strongly influenced the education of the economist Irving Fisher, who completed a Yale Ph.D. in 1896. Irving Fisher, born (February 27, 1867 Saugerties, New York — April 29, 1947, New York) was an American economist, health campaigner, and eugenicist. ...


Gibbs never married, living all his life in his childhood home with a sister and his brother-in-law, the Yale librarian.


Scientific recognition

USA stamp commemorating thermodynamicist J.W. Gibbs
USA stamp commemorating thermodynamicist J.W. Gibbs

Recognition was slow in coming, in part because Gibbs published mainly in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences, a journal edited by his librarian brother-in-law, little read in the USA and even less so in Europe. At first, only a few European theoretical physicists and chemists, such as the Scot James Clerk Maxwell, paid any attention to his work. Only when Gibbs's papers were translated into German (then the leading language for chemistry) by Wilhelm Ostwald in 1892, and into French by Henri Louis le Chatelier in 1899, did his ideas receive wide currency in Europe. His theory of the phase rule was experimentally validated by the works of H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom, who showed how to apply it in a variety of situations, thereby assuring it of widespread use. Josiah Willard Gibbs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... European redirects here. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand Nature. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Motto: (Eng: No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematical physicist, born in Edinburgh. ... Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ... Henri Louis Le Chatelier (Paris, October 8, 1850 - Miribel-les-Echelles September 17, 1936) was an influential French chemist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom was a Dutch chemist who gained his reputation for works on phase behaviour in physical chemistry. ...


Gibbs was even less appreciated in his native America. During his lifetime, American secondary schools and colleges emphasized classics rather than science, and students took little interest in his Yale lectures. (That scientific teaching and research are a fundamental part of the modern university emerged in Germany during the 19th century and only gradually spread from there to the USA.) Gibbs position at Yale and in American science generally has been described as follows:

"In his later years he was a tall, dignified gentleman, with a healthy stride and ruddy complexion, performing his share of household chores, approachable and kind (if unintelligible) to students. Gibbs was highly esteemed by his friends, but American science was too preoccupied with practical questions to make much use of his profound theoretical work during his lifetime. He lived out his quiet life at Yale, deeply admired by a few able students but making no immediate impress on American science commensurate with his genius." (Crowther 1969: nnn)

Gibbs died soon after the inauguration of the Nobel Prize and so did not win it. In 1901, however, he did receive the highest possible honor granted by the international scientific community of his day, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of the United Kingdom. Nobel Prize medal. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...


In 1945, Yale University created the J. Willard Gibbs Professorship in Theoretical Chemistry, held until 1973 by Lars Onsager, who won the 1968 Nobel Prize in chemistry. This appointment was a very fitting one, as Onsager, like Gibbs, was primarily involved in the application of new mathematical ideas to problems in physical chemistry, especially statistical mechanics. Lars Onsager (November 27, 1903 – October 5, 1976) was a Norwegian physical chemist, winner of the 1968 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ...


On May 4, 2005 the United States Postal Service issued the American Scientists commemorative postage stamp series, depicting Gibbs, John von Neumann, Barbara McClintock and Richard Feynman. May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent establishment of the executive branch of the United States Government (see ) responsible for providing postal service in the United States. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... John von Neumann in the 1940s. ... Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was a pioneering American scientist and one of the worlds most distinguished cytogeneticists. ... Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 in Queens, New York – February 15, 1988 in Los Angeles, California) (surname pronounced FINE-man; in IPA) was an influential American physicist known for expanding greatly on the theory of quantum electrodynamics, particle theory, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium. ...


See also

Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of knowledge attained by verifiable means. ... A bundle of optical fiber. ... Entropy of a Bernoulli trial as a function of success probability, often called the binary entropy function. ... In mathematics, the quaternions are a non-commutative extension of the complex numbers. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... In electromagnetics, Maxwells equations are a set of four equations, developed by James Clerk Maxwell, that describe the behavior of both the electric and magnetic fields, as well as their interactions with matter. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Approximation of square wave in 5 steps Approximation of square wave in 25 steps Approximation of square wave in 125 steps In mathematics, the Gibbs phenomenon, named after the American physicist J. Willard Gibbs, (also known as ringing artifacts) is the peculiar manner in which the Fourier series of a... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gibbs phase rule. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... The free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ... In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ... In thermodynamics, specifically in statistical mechanics, the Gibbs entropy is the usual statistical mechanical entropy of a thermodynamic system, where the summation is taken over the possible states of the system as a whole (typically a 6N-dimensional space, if the system contains N separate particles). ... In information theory, Gibbs inequality is a statement about the mathematical entropy of a discrete probability distribution. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Gibbs-Helmholtz equation is a thermodynamic relationship useful for calculating changes in the energy or enthalpy (heat content) of a system. ... In statistical mechanics, the Gibbs algorithm, first introduced by J. Willard Gibbs in 1878, is the injunction to choose a statistical ensemble (probability distribution) for the unknown microscopic state of a thermodynamic system by minimising the average log probability subject to the probability distribution satisfying a set of constraints (usually... In statistical mechanics, the Gibbs algorithm, first introduced by J. Willard Gibbs in 1878, is the injunction to choose a statistical ensemble (probability distribution) for the unknown microscopic state of a thermodynamic system by minimising the average log probability subject to the probability distribution satisfying a set of constraints (usually... A Gibbs state in probability theory and statistical mechanics is an equilibrium probability distribution which remains invariant under future evolution of the system (for example, a stationary or steady-state distribution of a Markov chain, such as that achieved by running a Markov Chain Monte Carlo iteration for a sufficiently... In mathematics and physics, Gibbs sampling is an algorithm to generate a sequence of samples from the joint probability distribution of two or more random variables. ... The Marangoni-Effect is the mass transfer on, or in, a liquid layer due to surface tension differences. ... In thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials are parameters associated with a thermodynamic system and have the dimensions of energy. ... Approximation of square wave in 5 steps Approximation of square wave in 25 steps Approximation of square wave in 125 steps In mathematics, the Gibbs phenomenon, named after the American physicist J. Willard Gibbs, (also known as ringing artifacts) is the peculiar manner in which the Fourier series of a... The Gibbs-Donnan effect (also known as the Donnan effect, Donnan law, or Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium) is a name for the behavior of charged particles near a semi-permeable membrane to sometimes fail to distribute evenly on either side of the membrane. ... Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist. ... William Rowan Hamilton Sir William Rowan Hamilton (August 4, 1805 – September 2, 1865) was an Irish mathematician, physicist, and astronomer who made important contributions to the development of optics, dynamics, and algebra. ... Lars Onsager (November 27, 1903 – October 5, 1976) was a Norwegian physical chemist, winner of the 1968 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... William Stanley, Jr. ... Oliver Heaviside (May 18, 1850 – February 3, 1925) was a self-taught English engineer, mathematician and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, developed techniques for applying Laplace transforms to the solution of differential equations, reformulated Maxwells field equations in terms of electric and magnetic... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... Yale redirects here. ... Grove Street Cemetery or Grove Street Burial Ground in New Haven, Connecticut is located in the center of the Yale University campus. ... Below is a list of famous physicists. ... A timeline of events related to thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and random processes. ... This page aims to list all Wikipedia articles that are related to physics. ... A list of notable textbooks in statistical mechanics, arranged by date. ...

Quotations

  • "Mathematics is a language." (reportedly spoken by Gibbs at a Yale faculty meeting)
  • "A mathematician may say anything he pleases, but a physicist must be at least partially sane."
  • "It has been said that 'the human mind has never invented a labor-saving machine equal to algebra.' If this be true, it is but natural and proper that an age like our own, characterized by the multiplication of labor-saving machinery, should be distinguished by the unexampled development of this most refined and most beautiful of machines." (1887, quoted in Meinke and Tucker 1992: 190)

References

  1. ^ J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, "J. Willard Gibbs".

Further reading

Primary:

  • 1947. The Early Work of Willard Gibbs in Applied Mechanics. ISBN 1-881987-17-5
  • 1961. Scientific Papers of J Willard Gibbs, 2 vols. Bumstead, H. A., and Van Name, R. G., eds. ISBN 084462127
  • Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics.

Secondary :

  • Online bibliography.
  • American Institute of Physics, 2003 (1976). Josiah Willard Gibbs 1839-1903.
  • Bumstead, H. A., 1903, "Josiah Willard Gibbs," American Journal of Science XVI(4).
  • Crowther, J. G., 1969. Famous American Men of Science. ISBN 0-8369-0040-5
  • Donnan, F. G., and A. E. Haas, 1936. A Commentary on the Scientific Writings of J Willard Gibbs. ISBN 0-405-12544-5
  • Longley, W. R., and R. G. Van Name, eds., 1928. The Collected Works of J Willard Gibbs.
  • Meinke, K., and Tucker, J. V., 1992, "Universal Algebra" in Abramsky, S., Gabbay, D., and Maibaum, T. S. E., eds., Handbook of Logic in Computer Science: Vol. I. Oxford Univ. Press: 189-411.
  • Muriel Rukeyser, 1942. Willard Gibbs: American Genius. Woodbridge, CT: Ox Bow Press. ISBN 0-918024-57-9.
  • Seeger, Raymond John, 1974. J. Willard Gibbs, American mathematical physicist par excellence. Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-018013-2
  • Wheeler, L. P., 1952. Josiah Willard Gibbs, The History of a Great Mind. ISBN 1-881987-11-6

Muriel Rukeyser Muriel Rukeyser (December 15, 1913–February 12, 1980) was an American poet and political activist, best known for her poems about equality, feminism, social justice, and Judaism. ...

External links

  • The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, Scotland. "Josiah Willard Gibbs".
  • Friel, Charles Michael, "J. Willard Gibbs".
  • Jolls, Kenneth R., and Daniel C. Coy, "Gibbs models". Iowa State University.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Josiah Willard Gibbs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1529 words)
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation for chemical thermodynamics.
Gibbs attended the Hopkins School and Yale College, graduating in 1858 very high in his class and receiving prizes in mathematics and Latin.
From 1880 to 1884, Gibbs combined the ideas of two mathematicians, the quaternions of William Rowan Hamilton and the exterior algebra of Hermann Grassmann to obtain vector analysis (independently formulated by the British mathematical physicist and engineer Oliver Heaviside).
Josiah Willard Gibbs - definition of Josiah Willard Gibbs in Encyclopedia (863 words)
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American physical chemist.
Gibbs was born in New Haven, Connecticut, where his father was a professor of sacred literature at Yale University's Divinity School.
In 1880, Gibbs was offered a $3000 salary by the new Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland and Yale responded by offering him $2000, which seemingly was enough to keep him in New Haven.
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