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Encyclopedia > Josiah
Josiah listening to the reading of the law by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld

Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ, Standard Yošiyyáhu Tiberian Yôšiyyāhû ; "supported of the Lord") was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. His grandfather was King Manasseh, who had turned from the Jewish religion, even adapting the Temple for worship that was considered idolatrous by faithful Jews. Josiah is credited by some historians with having established Jewish scripture in written form as a part of the Deuteronomic reform that occurred during his rule. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 708 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1075 × 911 pixel, file size: 93 KB, MIME type: image/gif) King Josiah by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 708 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1075 × 911 pixel, file size: 93 KB, MIME type: image/gif) King Josiah by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States... Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Categories: Stub | Kings of ancient Judah ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ...


William F. Albright has dated his reign to 640 BC-609 BC, while E. R. Thiele offers the dates 641 BC-609 BC. The chief sources of his reign are 2 Kings 22-23, and 2 Chronicles 34-35; 1 Esdras 1 clearly a copy of the relevant portion of 2 Chronicles. Archaeologists have recovered a number of "scroll-style" stamps dating to his reign. William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Edwin R. Thiele (1895-1986) was a missionary, writer, archaeologist, and professor of the Old Testament. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ...

Contents

Judah's condition at his accession

When Josiah was placed on the throne of Judah by the "People of the Land", the international situation was in flux: to the east, the Assyrian Empire was in the beginning stages of its eventual disintegration, the Babylonian Empire had not yet risen to replace it, and Egypt to the west was still recovering from Assyrian rule. This favored the resurgence of the prowess of Jerusalem, which Josiah expressed in the 18th year of rule by his sincere championing of the exclusive worship of Yahweh. He had the foreign cultic objects of Baal, Ashterah (or Asherah), "and all the hosts of the heavens" in Solomon's Temple destroyed. The living pagan priests were slaughtered and the bones of priests exhumed from their graves and burned on their altars -- which was viewed as an extreme act of desecration against these pagan deities by their adherents. (2 Kings 23:4, et seq.) The authors of Kings and Chronicles add to these acts in Jerusalem Josiah's similar destruction of altars and images belonging to pagan deities in the cities of the tribes of Manasseh, Ephraim, "and Simeon, as far as Naphtali" (2 Kings 23:8f);(2 Chr. 34:6f). For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with... It has been suggested that Asherah pole be merged into this article or section. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Tribe of Manasseh (Hebrew alphabet מְנַשֶּׁה, Samaritan Hebrew Manatch, Standard Hebrew MÉ™naÅ¡Å¡e, Tiberian Hebrew MÉ™naÅ¡Å¡eh: from נשני naššānî who makes to forget) is one of the Hebrew tribes, which the Bible says was founded by Manasseh, the son of Joseph. ... Tribe of Ephraim (Hebrew: אֶפְרַיִם / אֶפְרָיִם , Standard Efráyim Tiberian / ; double fruitfulness) took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacobs blessing (Gen. ... The Tribe of Simeon (Hebrew שִׁמְעוֹן Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was one of the Tribes of Israel. ... Naphtali (Hebrew: נַפְתָּלִי, Standard Tiberian  ; My struggle) is the sixth son of Jacob and the founder of the tribe of Naphtali, first mentioned in the Book of Genesis and as described in the Hebrew Bible. ...


In his 18th regnal year, Josiah again worked on behalf of Yahweh by having the High Priest Hilkiah take the tax monies that had been collected over the years and use them to repair the neglect and damage the Temple had suffered during the reigns of Amon and Manasseh. Regnal year: the year of the reign of a sovereign. ... Tetragrammaton redirects here. ... Hilkiah was a Hebrew Priest at the time of King Josiah. ... Categories: Stub | Kings of ancient Judah ... Manasseh of Judah was the king of Judah and only son and successor of Hezekiah. ...


Deuteronomic reform

While Hilkiah was clearing the treasure room of the Temple (2 Chr. 34:14), he found a scroll described as "the book, book of the Torah"/"הספר ספר התורה" (Second Kings 22:8) or as "the book of the Torah of YHVH by the hand of Moses" (2 Chr. 34:14). Following De Wette's suggestion in 1805, many scholars believe this was either a copy of the Book of Deuteronomy, or a text that became Deuteronomy as we have it. Hilkiah brought this scroll to Josiah's attention, and the king had it read to a crowd in Jerusalem. He was praised for this piety by the prophetess Huldah, who made the prophecy that all involved would die peacefully (2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chr. 34:22-28). As the fate of King Josiah shows, this prophecy was not fulfilled in a physical sense. It has been suggested that Tawrat be merged into this article or section. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette (January 12, 1780 - June 16, 1849), was a German theologian. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In numerous religions, including Abrahamic religions, Jah religions, Sikhism, and many forms of Paganism, a prophet is an intermediary with a deity, particularly someone who speaks for the deity or interprets the deitys will or mind. ... Huldah was a prophetess mentioned briefly in the Second Book of Kings, Chapter 22. ...


Assertion of control over Israel

At some point between this year and his death, Josiah reasserted Judean control in the former territories of the kingdom of Israel, which is recorded in 2 Kings as systematically destroying the cultic objects in various cities, as well as executing the priests of the pagan gods. The only exception he made (2 Kings 23:15-19) was for the grave of an unnamed prophet he found in Bethel, who had foretold that these religious sites Jeroboam erected would one day be destroyed (see 1 Kings 13). Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Bethel (בית אל), also written as Beth El or Beth-El, is a Semitic word that has acquired various meanings. ... The United Kingdom of Solomon breaks up, with Jeroboam ruling over the Northern Kingdom of Israel (in green on the map). ...


Josiah's death

There are two versions of Josiah's death. The Book of Kings tersely remarks that Necho II met Josiah at Megiddo, and killed him the moment the Egyptian king laid eyes on him (2 Kings 23:29)- see Battle of Megiddo (609 BC). In 2 Chronicles 35:20-27 King Josiah is killed after he attacks King Necho which is in opposition to the will of God. His death is in this way validated. Proponents of DtrH ("Deuteronomistic History")ascribe this portion of the book to a post-Josiahwic redaction. The author of Chronicles describes Josiah meeting Necho in battle at Megiddo, where Josiah was fatally wounded by Egyptian archers, and was brought back to Jerusalem to die. Some scholars favor the account in Chronicles, because it better fits with what is known of international events. Necho had left Egypt around 609 BC for two reasons: one was to relieve the Babylonian siege of Harran, and the other was to help the king of Assyria, who was defeated by the Babylonians at the Battle of Carchemish. Josiah's actions suggest that he was aiding the Babylonians by engaging the Egyptian army. Wahemibre Nomen Necho Horus name Maaib Nebty name Maakheru Golden Horus Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (or more accurately, Nekau II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I. His prenomen or royal name Wahemibre... Megiddo (Hebrew: ) is a hill in Israel near the modern settlement of Megiddo, known for theological, historical and geographical reasons. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Battle of Megiddo of 609 BCE, the forces of Egypt fought those of the Kingdom of Judah. ... (Redirected from 2 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Combatants Egypt Assyria Babylonia Commanders Necho II Nebuchadrezzar II The Battle of Carchemish was fought between an allied army of Egyptians and Assyrians and the Babylonian army. ...


In either case, the death of this king was a serious blow to the Yahweh-only faction in Judea. 2 Chronicles 35:25 implies that Jeremiah wrote a lament for Josiah's passing. A Jewish tradition claims that this lament is preserved in Lamentations chapter 4. This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


Critical Scholarship on the Reform of King Josiah

While the Biblical text relates that the scroll was "found", this has been met with skepticism among some modern critics: the view of the English deists of the 16th century (Hertz 1936), that the book was a forgery created to help centralize power under Josiah, is held today among some Biblical scholars. (However, scholars such as W.R. Smith, Rudolf Kittel, Dillman and Driver disagree, pointing out that priestly forgery of the Deuteronomic text was unlikely, as the text placed restrictions on the privileges of the priestly class, who were a thorn in the side of King Josiah.) In the ancient Near East it was commonplace for religious scrolls to be deposited in temple walls when they were constructed (Hertz 1936), and according to the Swiss Egyptologist Naville, this was the custom amongst the Jews at the time of Solomon. It would have been more unusual if such scrolls were not found in during the renovation of a temple building, and Naville recounts a similar find recounted in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. It is interesting to note in this respect that the specific text cited by Naville is one of many which are attributed to famous figures of the past, typically sons of a Pharaoh, and which are all known to have been written at a much later date. Rudolf Kittel (28 March 1853 Eningen, Württemberg - 20 October 1929 Leipzig) was a German Old Testament scholar. ... Artists depiction of Solomos court (Ingobertus, c. ... This article is about the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. ...


On the assumption that Deuteronomy was forged by Josiah's priests, these scholars go on to propose that the core narrative from Genesis to 2 Kings up to Josiah's reign comprise a "Deuteronomistic History" (DtrH) written during that reign. This history compiled the hypothesised "J", "E", and "D" narratives, all already textual at this point, of which the J narrative at this time would have extended into the history of David's court; the DtrH further attempted to historicise narratives of the times of Joshua and the Judges. The hypothetical DtrH is distinguished from the surviving Biblical books in that it omits the priestly "P" narrative. The DtrH portrayed King Josiah as the ideal ruler as Deuteronomy had defined it, and thus as the rightful ruler of Judah. (This interpretation is often confused with the position of "Biblical Minimalism", which denies that David and Solomon ruled a united kingdom; but Baruch Halpern has noted that however tendentious, DtrH must still be treated as a history, and as largely accurate at least for the reign of Josiah.) See Dating the Bible and The Bible and history. Such claims are detailed in Who Were the Early Israelites? by William G. Dever (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 2003). Another such book is The Bible Unearthed by Neil A. Silberman and Israel Finkelstein (Simon and Schuster, New York, 2001). The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible; i. ... Baruch Halpern is Chairman of Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University. ... The Bible is a compilation of various texts or books of different age. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ... Neil Asher Silberman is an archaeologist who serves as director of the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ...


See also

  • The Bible Unearthed : Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts for the possible role of Josiah in creation of the Bible.
  • Hertz J.H. (1936) The Pentateuch and Haftoras. Deuteronomy. Oxford University Press, London.

This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...

External links

Josiah
Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah
Preceded by
Amon
King of Judah
Thiele: 641 BC – 609 BC
Albright: 640 BC – 609 BC
Succeeded by
Jehoahaz

  Results from FactBites:
 
JewishEncyclopedia.com - JOSIAH (610 words)
The most important of the results which followed this reformation were the centralization of religious worship at the Temple in Jerusalem and the acceptance of a sacred book of spiritual and ethical teaching as canonical and authoritative.
Whether through chivalrous loyalty to his Assyrian suzerain or through fear of Egyptian domination, Josiah gave battle to Necho at Megiddo, in the valley of Esdraelon, but was defeated and slain.
The character of Josiah is highly praised by the editor of Kings and by Jeremiah (II Kings xxii.
Josiah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1083 words)
Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ "supported of the LORD", Standard Hebrew Yošiyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath.
Josiah is credited by some historians with having established Jewish scripture in written form as a part of the Deuteronomic reform that occurred during his rule.
Josiah's actions suggest that he was aiding the Babylonians by engaging the Egyptian army.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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