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Encyclopedia > Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait
Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. In September 2005, the Tate Gallery acquired the painting for over UK£2.5 million (US$4.4 million).
"Robert Clive and his family with an Indian maid", painted 1765.

Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA (July 16, 1723February 23, 1792) was the most important and influential of 18th century English painters, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was one of the founders and first President of the Royal Academy. George III appreciated his merits and knighted him in 1769. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Self Portrait is a 1970 double album by Bob Dylan. ... Image File history File links Joshua_Reynolds;_Colonel_Acland_and_Lord_Sydney,_'The_Archers',_1769. ... Image File history File links Joshua_Reynolds;_Colonel_Acland_and_Lord_Sydney,_'The_Archers',_1769. ... The Tate Gallery in the United Kingdom is a network of four galleries: Tate Britain (opened 1897), Tate Liverpool (1988), Tate St Ives (1993), Tate Modern (2000), with a complementary website Tate Online (1998). ... Sir Joshua Reynolds, “George Clive and his family with an Indian maid”, painted 1765. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds, “George Clive and his family with an Indian maid”, painted 1765. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (546 × 700 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 1758, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (546 × 700 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 1758, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. ... Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond and Lennox (1733 - December 1806), was one of the most remarkable men of the 18th century, being chiefly famous for his advanced views on the question of parliamentary reform. ... This article refers to an art institution in London. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... A portrait is a painting, photograph, or other artistic representation of a person or object. ... This article refers to an art institution in London. ... George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Biography

Reynolds was born in Plympton, Devon, on 16 July 1723. As one of eleven children, and the son of the village school-master, his formal education was restricted to what his father taught him. Despite this, Reynolds exhibeted a natural curiosity, and as a boy came under the influence of Zachariah Mudge, whose Platonistic philosophy stayed with him all his life. Plympton is a suburb located in south-east Plymouth. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Zachary (variously Zacharia or Zechariah) Mudge (January 22, 1770-1852) was an officer in the British Royal Navy, best known for serving in the historic Vancouver Expedition. ...


Showing an early interest in Art, Reynolds apprenticed in 1740 to the fashionable portrait painter Thomas Hudson, with whom he remained until 1743. From 1749 to 1752, he spent over two years in Italy, where he studied the Old Masters and acquired a taste for the "Grand Style". Unfortunately, whilst in Rome, Reynolds suffered severe cold which left him partially deafened, and as a result he began to carry a small ear trumpet with which he is often pictured. From 1753 until the rest of his life he lived London, his talents gaining recognition soon after his arrival. Thomas Hudson was a British portrait painter in the eighteenth century. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Behind the ear aid For the song, see Flood (album). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Reynolds worked long hours in his studio, rarely taking a vacation. Despite this he was both gregarious and keenly intellectual, with a great number of friends from London's intelligentsia, numbered amongst which were Dr Samuel Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, Edmund Burke, Henry Thrale, David Garrick and fellow artist Angelica Kauffmann. Because of his popularity as a portrait painter, Reynolds enjoyed constant interaction with the wealthy and famous men and women of the day, and it was he who first brought together the famous figures of "The" Club. For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730(?) – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and She Stoops... Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Henry Thrale by Sir Joshua Reynolds Henry Thrale (born 1724-30, at the Alehouse in Harrow Corner, Southwark, died 4 April 1781, London) was an 18th century English MP and a close friend of Samuel Johnson. ... Portrait of David Garrick David Garrick (February 19, 1717 – January 20, 1779) was an English actor, dramatist, theatrical producer and theatrical manager, and a friend and pupil of Samuel Johnson. ... Angelica Kauffmann Miranda and Ferdinand in The Tempest, 1782. ... The Club was a London dining club founded in 1764 by essayist Samuel Johnson, and Joshua Reynolds, the painter. ...


With his rival Thomas Gainsborough, Reynolds was the dominant English portraitist of 'the Age of Johnson'. It is said that in his long life he painted as many as three thousand portraits. In 1789 he lost the sight of his left eye, which finally forced him into retirement, and on 23 February 1792 he died in his house in Leicester Fields, London. He was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. Self-portrait, painted 1759 Thomas Gainsborough (May 14, 1727 (baptised) – August 2, 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For details on the adjacent London Underground station, see Leicester Square tube station Leicester Square in 1750, looking north. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...


Status and Reputation

Professionally, Reynolds' career never peaked. He was one of the earliest members of the Royal Society of Arts, and with Gainsborough established the Royal Academy of Arts as a spin-off organisation. In 1768 he was made the RA's first President, a position he held until his death. As a lecturer, Reynolds' Discourses on Art (delivered between 1769 and 1790) are remembered for their sensitivity and perception. In one of these lectures he was of the opinion that "invention, strictly speaking, is little more than a new combination of those images which have been previously gathered and deposited in the memory." The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... This article refers to an art institution in London. ...


Reynolds and the Royal Academy have historically received a mixed reception. Critics include many of the Pre-Raphaelites, and William Blake, the latter having published his vitriolic Annotations to Sir Joshua Reynolds' Discourses in 1808. To the contrary, both J. M. W. Turner and James Northcote were fervent acolytes: Turner requested he be laid to rest at Reynolds' side, and Northcote (who lived for four years as Reynolds' pupil) wrote to his family "I know him thoroughly, and all his faults, I am sure, and yet almost worship him." The word worship is second cast; originally Northcote had written adore. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... William Blake in an 1807 portrait by Thomas Phillips. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed) – December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... James Northcote (October 22, 1746 - July 13, 1831), was an English painter. ...


Character sketch

In appearance Reynolds was not at all striking. Slight of frame, he was just about 5'6" with dark brown curls, a florid complexion and features which James Boswell thought were "rather too largely and strongly limned." He had a broad face, a cleft chin, and the bridge of his nose was slightly dented; his skin was scarred by smallpox, and his upper lip disfigured as a result of falling from a horse as a young man. Nonetheless he was not considered ugly, and Edmond Malone asserted that "his appearance at first sight impressed the spectator with the idea of a well-born and well-bred English gentleman." James Boswell James Boswell (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Edmond Malone (October 4, 1741 - April 25, 1812), was an Irish Shakespearean scholar and editor of the works of William Shakespeare. ...


Renown for his placidity, Reynolds often claimed that he "hated nobody". Never quite losing his Devonshire accent, he was not only an amiable and original conversationalist but a friendly and generous host, so that Fanny Burney recorded in her diary that he had "a suavity of disposition that set everybody at their ease in his society", and William Makepeace Thackeray believed "of all the polite men of that age, Joshua Reynolds was the finest gentleman." Dr. Johnson commented on the inoffensiveness of his nature; Edmund Burke noted his "strong turn for humor". Thomas Bernard, who later became Bishop of Killaloe, wrote in his verses on Reynolds: Fanny Burney For Frances Burney (1776–1828), niece of Frances Burney, later Madame DArblay (1752-1840), see Frances Burney Fanny Burney, later Madame DArblay, (June 13, 1752-January 6, 1840) was an English novelist and diarist. ... William Makepeace Thackeray William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was an English novelist of the 19th century. ... Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... 1546-1555. ...


"Dear knight of Plympton, teach me how
To suffer, with unruffled brow
And smile serene, like thine,
The jest uncouth or truth severe;
To such I'll turn my deafest ear
And calmly drink my wine.



Thou say'st not only skill is gained
But genius too may be attained
By studious imitation;
Thy temper mild, thy genius fine
I'll copy till I make them mine
By constant application."

Admitedly, some did construe Reynolds' equable calm as cool and unfeeling. Hester Lynch Piozzi's pen-portrait reads: Hester Lynch Thrale by Sir Joshua Reynolds Hester Lynch Thrale (born Hester Lynch Salusbury and after her second marriage, Hester Lynch Piozzi ) (16 January 1741 (she mistakenly celebrated her own birthday on 27 January) - May 2, 1821) was a British diarist, author, and a friend and confidante of Samuel Johnson. ...


"Of Reynolds what good shall be said?- or what harm?
His temper too frigid; his pencil too warm;
A rage for sublimity ill understood,
To seek still for the great, by forsaking the good..."

Indeed, it is to this luke-warm temperament that Frederick W. Hilles, Bodman Professor of English Literature at Yale attributes the fact Reynolds never married. In the editorial notes of his compendium Portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds, Hilles theorizes that "as a corollary one might say that he [Reynolds] was somewhat lacking in a capacity for love", and cites Boswell's notary papers: "He said the reason he would never marry was that every woman whom he liked had grown indifferent to him, and he had been glad he did not marry her." Reynolds' own sister, Frances, who lived with him as housekeeper, took her own negative opinion further still, thinking him "a gloomy tyrant". Strangely, it was this very presence of family that compensated Reynolds for the absence of a wife; He wrote on one occasion to his friend Bennet Langton, that both his sister and niece were away from home "so that I am quite a bachelor." Biographer Ian McIntyre discusses the possibility of Reynolds having enjoyed sexual rendezvous with certain cliants, such as Nelly O'Brien (or "My Lady O'Brien", as he playfully dubbed her) and Kitty Fisher, who visited his house for more sittings than were strictly necessary. Claims to this end are, however, purely speculative. YALE (Yet Another Learning Environment) is an environment for machine learning experiments and data mining. ... Catherine Maria (Kitty) Fisher (died 1767) was one of the most famous English courtesans of her day. ...

See also

The English school of painting is an expression for English (or British) painters who produced characteristically English paintings. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Paintings

Writings

  • By Sir Joshua Reynolds
  • Biographies
    • The Life Of Sir Joshua Reynolds: Late President Of The Royal Academy, volumes 1 and 2, by Reynolds' Friend James Northcote
    • Memoirs of Sir Joshua Reynolds, by Reynolds' friend Farington Joseph Staff
    • Sir Joshua Reynolds: The Painter in Society, by Richard Wendorf (winner of the Annibel Jenkins Prize for Biography)
    • Sir Joshua Reynolds, by Estelle M. Hurll, from Project Gutenberg


Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ...

Honorary Titles
Preceded by
President of the Royal Academy
1768–1792
Succeeded by
Benjamin West

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biography (1387 words)
Reynolds early aspired to become an artist, and in 1740 he was apprenticed for four years in London to Thomas Hudson, a conventional portraitist and the pupil and son-in-law of Jonathan Richardson.
Reynolds preferred the company of men of letters to that of his fellow artists and was friends with Samuel Johnson, Edmund Burke, and Oliver Goldsmith, among others.
Reynolds' state portraits of the king and queen were never considered a success, and he seldom painted for them; but the Prince of Wales patronized him extensively, and there were few distinguished families or individuals who did not sit for him.
Joshua Reynolds - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (311 words)
Sir Joshua Reynolds (July 16, 1723–February 23, 1792) was the most important and influential of eighteenth-century English painters, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect.
Reynolds was born in Plympton St Maurice, Devon, on 16 July 1723, and apprenticed in 1740 to the fashionable portrait painter Thomas Hudson, with whom he remained until 1743.
Twelve Joshua Reynolds portraits in Henry Thrale's library.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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