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Encyclopedia > Joshua

Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. He was born in Egypt during the Israelite enslavement. He shared all the events in the Exodus. He was one of the twelve spies sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan.

Joshua praying God to stop the Sun by Gustave Doré
Joshua praying God to stop the Sun by Gustave Doré

Joshua Jehoshuah or Yehoshua (Jehovah/Yahweh is salvation)(Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian: jə.ho.ˈʃu.aʕ, Israeli: Yəhoshúa) was an Israelite leader who succeeded Moses. His story is told in the Hebrew Bible, chiefly in the Book of Exodus, the Book of Numbers, and the Book of Joshua. Joshua led the conquest of Canaan. Image File history File links Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still by Gustave Dore, (d. ... Image File history File links Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still by Gustave Dore, (d. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Joshua supposedly lived sometime in the late Bronze Age, around 1200 B.C. However, he is associated with problems concerning the evidence for the Exodus from Egypt. Various reconstructions of the Biblical data about the Exodus have not yet matched the archeological evidence[neutrality disputed]. Accordingly, archeologists dispute the historicity of the many details in the Biblical account of the Exodus and often treat it as legendary embellishments of an earlier (still unidentified) event.[citation needed] However, others have taken the account to be legitimate and have based their scholarship on this, including Richard A. Gabriel who has viewed Biblical narratives from what he calls a "military" perspective, including the Conquest of Canaan by Joshua. Still others refer to the ancient letters of appeal by Canaanite leaders to Egypt seeking assistance against the invasion of the Hapiru (see Amarna letters), who some scholars dispute are the ancient Hebrews. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... ḍ:The article Exodus discusses the events related in the book of the Bible and Torah by the same name. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ... Habiru or Hapiru was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, from before 2000 BC to around 1200 BC) to a group of people living in the areas of Northeastern Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent from the borders of Egypt in Canaan... One of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet The designation Amarna letters (sometimes Amarna correspondence) denotes an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Joshua in the Bible

See also: History of ancient Israel and Judah

According to the Bible, Joshua was the son of the tribe of Ephraim, which would become known as the most militaristic of the tribes of Israel, largely through Joshua's campaigns. He was born in Egypt during the Israelite enslavement, and was probably the same age as Caleb, with whom he is generally associated. The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... Tribe of Ephraim (Hebrew: אֶפְרַיִם / אֶפְרָיִם , Standard Efráyim Tiberian / ; double fruitfulness) took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacobs blessing (Gen. ... Mark of Calebs grave, Timnat Serah Caleb, the son of Jephunneh is an important figure in the Hebrew Bible, noted for his faith in God when the Hebrew nation refuses to enter the promised land of Canaan. ...


Joshua was appointed by Moses to succeed him as leader of the Israelites upon Moses' death. He commanded the subsequent conquest of Canaan. As the Israelites came to the Jordan River, the waters parted, as they did for Moses at the Red Sea. The first major battle was in Jericho, a heavily fortified city just five miles west of the Jordan River, northwest of the Dead Sea which he took by ordering his host to march around the city for seven days, whereupon the city walls fell, seemingly by a miracle. The Israelites then slaughtered "every living thing" inside Jericho and completely destroyed the city except for Rahab and her family, who had aided the two spies sent by Joshua to check out the city. Although they had been forbidden by God to take any of the spoils, Achan disobeyed and took some garments and silver, hiding it in his tent. When Israel tried to conquer Ai, a small neighboring city, they were defeated and 36 Israeli warriors were killed. Achan's sin was exposed, he and his family and his animals were stoned to death, and the favor of God was again restored towards His people. Next, through clever ambush tactics, Joshua defeats Ai, a city just West of Jericho. The Israelites face a Southern alliance of the Amorite kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. Joshua defeats them by causing the Sun to stand still at Gibeon, and the moon in the valley of Ajalon, so that he could finish the battle in daylight. Then Joshua faces a northern Canaanite king, Jabin of Hazor, who he defeats at the Waters of Mermon, possibly referring to Lake Huleh. For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ), (Arabic: ), is the Earths lowest point not covered by water or ice, at 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level and falling,[2] and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, at 330 m (1,083 feet) deep. ... For the video game character from Legacy of Kain Series, see Rahab (Legacy of Kain). ... Ai (Hebrew: ; heap of ruins) refers to one or two places in ancient Israel: A city mentioned along with Heshbon by Jeremiah 49:3, whose location is currently unknown, and which may or may not be the same as: A Canaanite royal city which according to the Book of Joshua... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... Jarmut or Jarmuth (Anc. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... A Biblical name, Eglon refers to either: A Canaanite city, whose king Debir joined a confederacy against Gibeon when that city made peace with Israel. ... The city of Gibeon in Canaan (about 6 miles north of the center of Jerusalem in the West Bank) was one of the four cities of the Hivites, which did not easily fall to the Hebrews. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Jabin (ja-bin) may refer to A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Joshua 11:1-14), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of... Hazor (Hebrew: courtyard or settlement) is the name of several places in ancient and modern Israel: // Locations in ancient Israel One of the most important Caananite towns. ... Hula Valley, seen from the Golan Heights. ...


Joshua then divides the conquered land among the tribes of Israel as dictated to him by God. The framing narrative, describing the process by which the land was divided (12:1-6, 13:1-14, 13:21b-22, 13:32-14:3, 15:63, 16:10-17:6, 17:12-18:10, 19:51, and 22:1-9). First a description is given of the domains east of the Jordan which were conquered and given to Reuben, Gad, and Machir (half of Manasseh). After God gives Joshua a gloss concerning the unconquered region, he reminds him about Reuben, Gad, and Machir (half of Manasseh), already having been allocated land by Moses, and about the Levites not being given territory, only cities. The territory is handed out by lot, Judah gaining the first lot, although they fail to drive out the Canaanites living in Jerusalem. Then the house of Joseph gets its territory, Ephraim failing to drive out the Canaanites of Gezer, and it is pointed out that the daughters of Zelophehad, part of the tribe of Manasseh, are also given territory of their own. The house of Joseph is given the mountain region, including the forest, and is told that they will be able to drive out the Canaanites living there despite the presence of iron chariots. The Israelites then assemble at Shiloh, and Joshua sends out a survey team. When the survey is complete, the remaining land is divided amongst the lesser tribes. Finally, the tribes whose lands are east of the Jordan are allowed to go to their lands. This is a list of the Tribes of Israel. ... Reuben may refer to: People Ruben Zambrano,Basketball player for Houston Rockets]] Reuben, the first-born son of Jacob and the founder of the Tribe of Reuben mentioned in the Book of Genesis tried to save his brother. ... Gad can refer to: Gad (see Gad Guard), a metallic cube artifact that figures prominantly in the anime Gad Guard Gad (Bible character), the sixth son of Jacob as related in Genesis 29 - 30 Tribe of Gad, one of the Hebrew tribes founded by Gad GAD as a three-letter... Machir (Makir) - selling; bartered - is a personal name in the Bible. ...


When he was "old and stricken in age" Joshua convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites and exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population.[dubious ] At a general assembly of the clans at Shechem he took leave of the people, admonishing them to be loyal to their God, who had been so mightily manifested in the midst of them. As a witness of their promise to serve God, Joshua set up a great stone under an oak by the sanctuary of God. Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110, and was buried in Timnath Serah. Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... Timnath-Heres or Timnath-Serah was the town given to Joshua in the Bible. ...


In rabbinical literature

In rabbinic Jewish literature Joshua is regarded as a faithful, humble, deserving, wise man. Biblical verses illustrative of these qualities and of their reward are applied to him. "He that waits on his master shall be honored" (Pro. xxvii. 18) is construed as a reference to Joshua (Midrash Numbers Rabbah xii.), as is also the first part of the same verse, "Whoso keepes the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof" (Midrash Yalk., Josh. 2; Numbers Rabbah xii. 21). That "honor shall uphold the humble in spirit" (Pro. xxix. 23) is proved by Joshua's victory over Amalek (Midrash Numbers Rabbah xiii). Not the sons of Moses — as Moses himself had expected — but Joshua was appointed successor to the son of Amram (Midrash Numbers Rabbah xii). Moses was shown how Joshua reproved that Othniel (Yalḳ., Num. 776). Joshua's manliness recommended him for this high post. David referred to him in Psalms lxxxvii. 25, though without mentioning the name, lest dissensions should arise between his sons and those of his brothers (Yalḳ., quoting Sifre). Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... The Book of Proverbs is a book of the Tanach/Old Testament. ... Numbers Rabbah (or Bamidbar Rabbah in Hebrew) is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. ... The Yalkut Shimoni (Hebrew: ילקוט שמעוני) or simply Yalkut is a haggadic compilation on the books of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is a book of the Tanach/Old Testament. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Sifre (סִפְרֵי siphrÄ“y, Sifre, Sifrei) is a Midrash halakhah originated from Devarim and Shmot. ...


In later literature

In the Divine Comedy Joshua's spirit appears to Dante in the Heaven of Mars, where he is grouped with the other "warriors of the faith". The Divine Comedy (Italian: Commedia, later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature and one of the greatest literary works of the Middle Ages. ...



Baroque composer Georg Frideric Handel composed an oratorio "Joshua" in 1747. Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... George Frideric Handel (German Georg Friedrich Händel), (February 23, 1685 – April 14, 1759) was a German-born British Baroque music composer. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... Joshua (HWV 64) is an oratorio by George Frideric Handel. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Hebrew Name

The original Hebrew name Yehoshua יהושע often lacks a Hebrew letter Vav (ו) after the Shin (ש), allowing a misreading of the vocalization of the name, as if Yehoshea (יְהוֹשֵׁעַ), and indeed his name was Hoshea before his namechange to Yehoshua by recommendation of Moses (Numbers 13:16). Nevertheless, the use of a mater lectionis was an orthographic innovation, and although the use of two Vavs is well attested as יְהוֹשׁוּעַ (for example, Deuteronomy 3:21), traditional orthography tended to avoid the second Vav as too intrusive when spelling Yehoshua. The name Yehoshua` in Hebrew means "salvation" from the Hebrew root ישע, "to save". In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Matres lectionis (singular form: mater lectionis) are an early manner of indicating vowels in the Hebrew alphabet. ...

Joshua's Tomb in Kifl Hares, April 2007
Joshua's Tomb in Kifl Hares, April 2007

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Relation with creationism

Some creationists have used the story of Joshua's command to the sun to stand still as part of purported evidence for biblical literalism. For example, Joshua's "Long Day" was the focus of some interests by creationists such as Harry Rimmer. Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... Harry Rimmer (1890-1952) was a prominent American creationist, president of the Science Research Bureau which was located in Los Angeles, California and pastor of First Presbyterian Church of Duluth, Minnesota. ...


Yahrtzeit

The annual commemoration of Joshua's yahrtzeit is marked on the 26th of Nisan on the Hebrew calendar. Thousands make the pilgrimage to Kifl Hares on the preceding night. Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ‎) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... Kifl Hares city hall Kifl Hares is a Palestinian village located northwest of the Israeli settlement-city of Ariel in the Samarian region of the West Bank. ...


External links

  • Book of Joshua at Wikisource.
  • Israel Period of the Judges
Tribe of Ephraim
Preceded by
Moses
Judge of Israel Succeeded by
Othniel

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joshua - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1471 words)
Joshua was the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim and the successor to Moses as the leader of Israel.
Upon Joshua devolved a twofold duty: to conquer the land, and to apportion it among the tribes.
Joshua became famous by this victory, but met a reverse at Ai in consequence of Achan's misdeed; however, after visiting condign punishment upon the offender he made himself master of the town, which was the key to the mountains rising west of the plain of Jericho.
Book of Joshua - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3116 words)
Modern critical scholars argue that Joshua was probably written in the late monarchic or early post-exilic age, either from the JEDP sources that they believe were responsible for the Pentateuch, or by one of the prophets of the eighth century BCE.
In commemoration of the event, Joshua orders two monuments to be erected: one in the river-bed itself; the other on the western bank, at Gilgal (which does not yet have its name), where the Israelites encamp.
Joshua then sets up a large stone beneath a tree, within the holy ground at Shechem, in witness to a promise of the people to be faithful.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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