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Encyclopedia > Joseph Wheeler
Joseph Wheeler
Joseph Wheeler

Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician. He has the rare distinction of serving as a general during war time for two opposing forces: first as a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and later as a major general in the U.S. Army during the Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War. Between the wars he served as a U.S. Representative from Alabama. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (409x640, 48 KB) Maj. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (409x640, 48 KB) Maj. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba First Philippine Republic Spanish Empire Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (only 332 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead 2,000 Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ...

Contents

Early life

Although of New England ancestry, Wheeler was born near Augusta, Georgia. He spent most of his early years growing up with relatives in the North. However, he was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy from Georgia and always considered himself a Georgian. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1859 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Dragoons. In 1860, he was transferred to the Mounted Rifles. Nickname: The Garden City (of the South), Masters City, The AUG Motto: We feel Good Location of the consolidated areas of Augusta and Richmond County in the state of Georgia. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ...


Civil War

At the start of the war in 1861, Wheeler resigned from the U.S. Army to join the Confederate States Army. He was ordered to Huntsville, Alabama to take command of the newly formed 19th Alabama Infantry Regiment, which he led into battle at Shiloh in April 1862. Wheeler later transferred to the cavalry and rose to the rank of major general. Nicknamed "Fighting Joe", Wheeler was considered by General Robert E. Lee to be one of the two most outstanding Confederate cavalry leaders and saw action in many campaigns, including opposing William T. Sherman's advance on Atlanta. Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... Nickname: Rocket City Watercress Capital of the World Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Madison, Limestone Mayor Loretta Spencer Area    - City 174. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career U.S. Army officer and the most celebrated general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Nickname: Hotlanta, The Big Peach, The ATL, A-Town Location in Fulton County in the state of Georgia Coordinates: Country United States State Georgia Counties Fulton, Dekalb  - Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area    - City 343. ...

Bronze statue by Berthold Nebel, in the National Statuary Hall Collection.
Bronze statue by Berthold Nebel, in the National Statuary Hall Collection.

Joseph Wheeler bronze by Berthold Nebel Copyright: public domain. ... Joseph Wheeler bronze by Berthold Nebel Copyright: public domain. ... Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast-metal sculpture of bronze is often called a bronze. ... Part of the National Statuary Hall Collection The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is comprised of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. ...

Congress

After the war, Wheeler became a planter and a lawyer near Courtland, Alabama, where he married and raised a family. His home, Pond Spring, in an area now known as Wheeler, is a historic site of the Alabama Historical Commission. Courtland is a town located in Lawrence County, Alabama. ...


In 1880, Wheeler was elected from Alabama as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives. Wheeler's opponent, Greenback incumbent William M. Lowe, contested the election, and after a contentious legal battle which lasted over a year, Lowe was declared the winner and assumed the seat on June 3, 1882. Lowe, however, served only four months before dying of tuberculosis. Wheeler won a special election to return and serve out the remaining weeks of the term.[1] The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... The Greenback Party (Greenback-Labor Party) was an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. ... William Manning Lowe (June 12, 1842 – October 12, 1882) was an American politician who served the state of Alabama in the U.S. House of Representatives between 1879 and 1881 and in 1882. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones, joints, and even the...


Wheeler supported the election of Luke Pryor in 1882 and did not run for reelection, but was elected again in 1884, and reelected to seven subsequent terms before resigning in 1900. While in Congress, Wheeler strove to heal the breach between the North and the South and championed economic policies that would help rebuild the South. Luke Pryor (July 5, 1820–August 5, 1900) was a U.S. senator from the state of Alabama. ...


Spanish-American War

In 1898, Wheeler volunteered for the Spanish-American war, receiving an appointment to major general of volunteers by President William McKinley. He assumed command of the cavalry division, which included Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders, and was nominally second-in-command of the V Corps. He sailed for Cuba and led his dismounted troopers to victory at the Battle of Las Guasimas, the first major engagement of the war. During the excitement of the battle Wheeler supposedly called out "Come on, we've got the damn Yankees on the run!" He fell seriously ill during the campaign and turned over command of the division to Brig. Gen. Samuel S. Sumner. He was still incapacitated when the Battle of San Juan Hill began but once he heard the sound of guns, "Fighting Joe" returned to the front despite his illness. Being the senior officer present at the front he first issued orders to the 1st Division, under Jacob F. Kent, before returning to his own command. Upon taking the heights, Wheeler assured General William R. Shafter that the position could be held against a possible counterattack. He led the division through the siege of Santiago and was a senior member of the peace commission. The presidential seal was first used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War. ... The Battle of Las Guasimas was the first true clash of arms in the Cuban campaign of the Spanish-American War. ... Samuel Storrow Sumner ( 1842- 1937) was a United States general during the Spanish-American War, Boxer Rebellion, and Philippine-American War. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Spain Commanders William Rufus Shafter Joseph Wheeler Arsenio Linares Strength 15,000 regulars 4,000 guerrilleros 12 field guns 4 Gatling guns 800 regulars 5 field guns Casualties 124 dead 817 wounded 58 dead 170 wounded 39 captured The Battle of San Juan Hill... Jacob Ford Kent (1835-1918) was a United States general during the Spanish-American War. ... William Rufus Shafter (1835-1906) was a Major General in the United States Army. ... Siege of Santiago Conflict Spanish-American War Date July 3-17, 1898 Place Santiago, Cuba Result U.S. victory The Siege of Santiago also known as the Siege of Santiago de Cuba was the last major operation of the Spanish-American War on the island of Cuba. ...


At the close of the fighting on Cuba, Wheeler sailed for the Philippines to fight against the insurrectionists. He commanded a brigade in General Arthur MacArthur's Division during the Philippine-American War in 1899–1900, where he was commissioned a brigadier general in the U.S. Regular Army. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. ... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead 2,000 Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ...


Later life

Wheeler was the author of several books on military history and strategy and civil subjects. He also appeared in an early film, Surrender of General Toral (1898) with William Rufus Shafter. After long illness, Wheeler died in New York City and is one of the few former Confederate officers buried in Arlington National Cemetery. An 1898 film which featured appearances by military leaders Joseph Wheeler and William Rufus Shafter. ... William Rufus Shafter William Rufus Shafter (October 16, 1835 – November 12, 1906) was a Major General in the United States Army. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... [[ Historical Information Arlington National Cemetery Section 27 Facts Pvt. ...


In 1925, the state of Alabama donated a bronze statue of Joseph Wheeler to the U.S. Capitol's National Statuary Hall Collection. Additionally, several locations in Alabama are named after Wheeler including Joe Wheeler State Park, Wheeler Lake and Dam, and the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Also, Joseph Wheeler High School in Marietta, Georgia, and Wheeler County, Georgia are named after him. During World War II, the United States Navy named a Liberty Ship in honor of Wheeler. Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... Part of the National Statuary Hall Collection The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is comprised of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. ... Joe Wheeler State Park is located on 2550 acres (10 km²) along Wheeler Lake in Northwest Alabama. ... Wheeler Lake area Wheeler Lake is located in north Alabama between Rogersville and Huntsville. ... The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge comprising 34,500 acres. ... Wheeler High School is located in northeast Cobb County, Georgia, USA. It is near the city of Marietta, about 15 miles northwest of downtown Atlanta. ... Historic Downtown Marietta Marietta is a city located in central Cobb County, GeorgiaGR6, and is its county seat. ... Wheeler County is a county located in the state of Georgia. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... USN redirects here. ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ...


Trivia

  • Wheeler was a small man, barely tall enough to make the entrance standards for the U. S. Military Academy.
  • Wheeler's only son died shortly after his return from serving in Cuba; he drowned while swimming in the ocean.
  • While serving in the Philippines, Wheeler encountered an infantryman who was complaining about the heat and being tired. Wheeler promptly dismounted, took the man's rifle and pack, told him to mount his horse, and marched the rest of the way with the infantry.
  • Joseph Wheeler High School, in Marietta, Georgia, is named after him.
  • Wheeler is portrayed in the TV film Rough Riders by Gary Busey, although Busey is much taller than Wheeler was, and had a mustache only instead of a full beard.

Wheeler High School is located in northeast Cobb County, Georgia, USA. It is near the city of Marietta, about 15 miles northwest of downtown Atlanta. ... Historic Downtown Marietta Marietta is a city located in central Cobb County, GeorgiaGR6, and is its county seat. ... Rough Riders is a 1997 film about Theodore Roosevelt and the regiment (the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry aka the Rough Riders) he help raise to fight in Spanish-American War of 1898. ... William Gary Busey (born June 29, 1944) is an Academy Award-nominated American film and stage actor. ...

See also

Slavery and States Rights was a speech by Joseph Wheeler on July 31, 1894. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Lawley, Jim, "Gen. Joe Wheeler was entangled in recount."

References

The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Biographical sketch
  • NSHC biography
  • Pond Spring, Home of General Joe Wheeler

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Wheeler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (319 words)
Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician who fought during the Civil War and Spanish-American War and served as a U.S. Representative from Alabama.
Nicknamed "Fighting Joe", Wheeler was considered by General Robert E. Lee to be one of the two most outstanding Confederate cavalry leaders and saw action in many campaigns, including the opposition to Sherman's advance on Atlanta.
Wheeler died on January 25, 1906, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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