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Encyclopedia > Joseph McCarthy
Joseph Raymond McCarthy
Joseph McCarthy

In office
January 3, 1947 – May 2, 1957
Preceded by Robert M. La Follette, Jr.
Succeeded by William Proxmire

Born November 14, 1908(1908-11-14)
Grand Chute, Wisconsin
Died May 2, 1957 (aged 48)
Bethesda, Maryland
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Jean McCarthy
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature

Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908May 2, 1957) served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period of intense anti-communist suspicion inspired by the tensions of the Cold War.[1] He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the federal government and elsewhere. Ultimately, McCarthy's tactics and his inability to substantiate his claims led to his being discredited and censured by the United States Senate. The term "McCarthyism," coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist pursuits. Today the term is used more generally to describe demagogic, reckless, and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the character or patriotism of political opponents.[2] There were several significant people named Joseph McCarthy: Joseph McCarthy (1885-1943), a song lyricist and director of ASCAP. Joseph Vincent Joe McCarthy (1887-1978), a Hall of Fame baseball manager. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 756 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1503 × 1192 pixel, file size: 809 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) He was gay. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Marion La Follette, Jr. ... Edward William Proxmire (November 11, 1915 – December 15, 2005) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1989. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Grand Chute is a town located in Outagamie County, Wisconsin. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... GOP redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... GOP redirects here. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Distinguish from slover, censer and censor. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ...


Born and raised on a Wisconsin farm, McCarthy earned a law degree at Marquette University in 1935 and was elected as a circuit judge in 1939, the youngest in state history.[3] At age 33, McCarthy volunteered for the United States Marine Corps and served during World War II. He successfully ran for the United States Senate in 1946, defeating Robert M. La Follette, Jr. After several largely undistinguished years in the Senate, McCarthy rose suddenly to national fame in 1950 when he asserted in a speech that he had a list of "members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring" who were employed in the State Department.[4] The Marquette University Law School is the professional school for the study of law at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... // Circuits in the common law In law, a circuit is an appellate judicial district commonly seen in the court systems of many nations. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Robert Marion La Follette, Jr. ... Department of State redirects here. ...


However, McCarthy was never able to substantiate his sensational charges. In succeeding years, McCarthy made accusations of Communist infiltration into the State Department, the administration of President Truman, Voice of America, and the United States Army. He also used charges of communism, communist sympathies, or disloyalty to attack a number of politicians and other individuals inside and outside of government. With the highly publicized Army-McCarthy hearings of 1954, McCarthy's support and popularity began to fade. Later in 1954, the Senate voted to censure Senator McCarthy by a vote of 67 to 22, making him one of the few senators ever to be disciplined in this fashion. McCarthy died in Bethesda Naval Hospital on May 2, 1957, at the age of 48. The official cause of death was acute hepatitis; it is widely accepted that this was brought on by alcoholism.[5] For the victim of Mt. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Early in 1954, the U.S. Army accused Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (Republican, Wisconsin), and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, of pressuring the Army to give favorable treatment to former McCarthy aide and friend of Cohns, G. David Schine. ... The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the United States Navys system of medical centers. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...

Contents

Early life and career

McCarthy was born in the township of Grand Chute, Wisconsin, on a farm near the town of Appleton.[6] He was the fifth born of seven children.[7] McCarthy's mother, Bridget Tierney, was from County Tipperary, Ireland. His father, Tim McCarthy, was born in the United States, the son of an Irish father and a German mother. McCarthy dropped out of junior high school at age 14 to help his parents manage their farm. He entered high school when he was 20 and graduated in one year. McCarthy worked his way through college, from 1930 to 1935, studying first engineering, then law, earning a law degree at Marquette University in Milwaukee.[8] He was admitted to the bar in 1935. While working in a law firm in Shawano, Wisconsin, he launched an unsuccessful campaign to become District Attorney as a Democrat in 1936. However, in 1939, McCarthy had better success: he successfully vied for the elected post of the non-partisan 10th District circuit judge. During his years as an attorney, McCarthy made money on the side by gambling.[9] A township in the United States refers to a small geographic area, ranging in size from 6 to 54 square miles (15. ... Grand Chute is a town located in Outagamie County, Wisconsin. ... Appleton is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, on the Fox River, 100 miles (161 km) north of Milwaukee. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law. ... Marquette University is a private, coeducational, Jesuit, Roman Catholic university located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the United States of America. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shawano Business District (taken on Business 29) Shawano is a city in Shawano County, Wisconsin, United States. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... // Circuits in the common law In law, a circuit is an appellate judicial district commonly seen in the court systems of many nations. ...


McCarthy's judicial career attracted some controversy due to the speed with which he dispatched many of his cases. He had inherited a docket with a heavy backlog and he worked constantly to clear it. At times he compensated for his lack of experience by demanding, and relying heavily upon, precise briefs from the contesting attorneys. Significantly, the Wisconsin Supreme Court reversed a relatively low percentage of the cases he heard.[10]


Military service

In 1942, shortly after the U.S. entered World War II, McCarthy was commissioned into the United States Marine Corps, despite the fact that his judicial office exempted him from compulsory service. His position as a judge qualified him for an automatic commission as an officer, and he became a second lieutenant after completing basic training. He served as an intelligence briefing officer for a dive bomber squadron in the Solomon Islands and Bougainville. McCarthy reportedly chose the Marines with the hope that being a veteran of this branch of the military would serve him best in his future political career.[11] He would leave the Marines with the rank of captain. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... The Basic School (TBS) is where all newly commissioned United States Marine Corps officers are sent to learn the art and science of being a Marine officer. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... For other uses of Bougainville, see Bougainville. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ...

Joseph McCarthy in U.S. Marine Corps uniform, with overseas cap.
Joseph McCarthy in U.S. Marine Corps uniform, with overseas cap.

It is well documented that McCarthy lied about his war record. Despite his automatic commission, he claimed to have enlisted as a "buck private." He flew 12 combat missions as a gunner-observer, earning the nickname of "Tail-Gunner Joe" in the course of one of these missions.[12] But he later claimed 32 missions in order to qualify for a Distinguished Flying Cross, which he received in 1952. McCarthy publicized a letter of commendation which he claimed had been signed by his commanding officer and countersigned by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, then Chief of Naval Operations. But it was revealed that McCarthy had written this letter himself, in his capacity as intelligence officer. A "war wound" that McCarthy made the subject of varying stories involving airplane crashes or antiaircraft fire was in fact received aboard ship during an initiation ceremony for sailors who cross the equator for the first time.[11][13] Image File history File links JosephMcCarthyMilitary. ... Image File history File links JosephMcCarthyMilitary. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... For other uses, see Crossing the Line. ...


McCarthy campaigned for the Republican Senate nomination in Wisconsin while still on active duty in 1944 but was defeated for the GOP nomination by Alexander Wiley, the incumbent. He resigned his commission in April 1945, five months before the end of the Pacific war in September 1945. He was then re-elected unopposed to his circuit court position, and began a much more systematic campaign for the 1946 Republican Senate primary nomination. In this race he was challenging three-term senator and United States Progressive Party icon, Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Nomination is part of the process of selecting a candidate for either election to an office, or the bestowing of an honor or award. ... Alexander Wiley (May 26, 1884 - May 26, 1967) was a member of the Republican Party who served four terms in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1939 to 1963. ... Circuit courts previously were United States federal courts established in each federal judicial district. ... For other uses, see Primary. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1924 was a national ticket created by Robert M. La Follette, Sr. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Jr. ...


Senate campaign

In his campaign, McCarthy attacked La Follette for not enlisting during the war, although La Follette had been 46 when Pearl Harbor was bombed. He also claimed La Follette had made huge profits from his investments while he, McCarthy, had been away fighting for his country. In fact, McCarthy had invested in the stock market himself during the war, netting a profit of $42,000 in 1943. La Follette's investments consisted of partial interest in a radio station, which earned him a profit of $47,000 over two years.[14] The suggestion that La Follette had been guilty of war profiteering was deeply damaging, and McCarthy won the primary nomination 207,935 votes to 202,557. It was during this campaign that McCarthy started publicizing his war-time nickname "Tail-Gunner Joe," using the slogan, "Congress needs a tail-gunner." Arnold Beichman later reported that McCarthy "was elected to his first term in the Senate with support from the Communist-controlled United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, CIO," which preferred McCarthy to the anti-communist Robert M. La Follette.[15] In the general election against Democratic opponent Howard J. McMurray, McCarthy won by a 2-to-1 margin, and thus joined Senator Wiley, whom he had challenged unsuccessfully two years earlier, in the Senate. This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... A war profiteer is any person or organization that makes profits (rightly or wrongly) from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to one or even both of the parties at war in their own or in foreign countries. ... Arnold Beichman is a Hoover Institution research fellow and a columnist for The Washington Times. ... The United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE) is a United States labor union which was one of the first unions to affiliate with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1936 and grew to more than 400,000 members in the 1940s. ... The Congress of Industrial Organizations, or CIO, proposed by Senator Huey Long in 1932, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955. ... Howard Johnstone Mcmurray (March 3, 1901 - August 14, 1961) was a U.S. Representative from Wisconsin. ...

This cartoon depicts the end of the forty-year La Follette dynasty, as McCarthy beat three-term incumbent Robert M. La Follette, Jr., in the 1946 Republican primary in Wisconsin. Drawn by Clifford K. Berryman.

Image File history File links Lafollette_dynasty. ... Image File history File links Lafollette_dynasty. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Jr. ...

United States Senate

McCarthy's first three years in the Senate were unremarkable. McCarthy was a popular speaker, invited by many different organizations, covering a wide range of topics. His aides and many in the Washington social circle described him as charming and friendly, and he was a popular guest at cocktail parties. He was far less well-liked among fellow senators, however, who found him quick-tempered and prone to impatience and even rage. Outside of a small circle of colleagues, he was soon an isolated figure in the Senate.[16]


He was active in labor-management issues, with a reputation as a moderate Republican. He fought against continuation of wartime price controls, especially on sugar. His advocacy in this area was associated by critics with a $20,000 personal loan McCarthy received from a Pepsi bottling executive, earning the Senator the derisive nickname "The Pepsi Cola Kid."[17] He supported the Taft-Hartley Act over Truman's veto, angering labor unions in Wisconsin but solidifying his business base.[18] Pepsi-Cola, most commonly called Pepsi, is a soft drink produced by PepsiCo which is sold worldwide in stores, restaurants and vending machines. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ...


In an incident for which he would be widely criticized, McCarthy lobbied for the commutation of death sentences given to a group of Waffen-SS soldiers convicted of war crimes for carrying out the 1944 Malmedy massacre of American prisoners of war. McCarthy was critical of the convictions because of allegations of torture during the interrogations that led to the German soldiers's confessions. He charged that the U.S. Army was engaged in a coverup of judicial misconduct, but never presented any evidence to support the accusation.[19] Shortly after this, a poll of the Senate press corps voted McCarthy "the worst U.S. senator" currently in office.[20] Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre. ...


The Wheeling speech

McCarthy experienced a meteoric rise in national profile on February 9, 1950, when he gave a Lincoln Day speech to the Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, West Virginia. His words in the speech are a matter of some debate, as no audio recording was saved. However, it is generally agreed that he produced a piece of paper that he claimed contained a list of known Communists working for the State Department. McCarthy is usually quoted to have said: "I have here in my hand a list of 205—a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department."[21] is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lincoln Day celebration is the primary annual celebration and fundraising event of many state and county organizations of the Republican Party in the United States. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Secretary of State is an official in the state governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States. ...


There is some dispute about whether or not McCarthy actually gave the number of people on the list as being "205" or "57". In a later telegram to President Truman, and when entering the speech into the Congressional Record, he used the number 57.[22] The origin of the number 205 can be traced: In later debates on the Senate floor, McCarthy referred to a 1946 letter that then–Secretary of State James Byrnes sent to Congressman Adolph J. Sabath. In that letter, Byrnes said State Department security investigations had resulted in "recommendation against permanent employment" for 284 persons, and that 79 of these had been removed from their jobs; this left 205 still on the State Department's payroll. In fact, by the time of McCarthy's speech only about 65 of the employees mentioned in the Byrnes letter were still with the State Department, and all of these had undergone further security checks.[23] The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... Adolph Joachim Sabath (b. ...


At the time of McCarthy's speech, Communism was a growing concern in the United States. This concern was exacerbated by the actions of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, the fall of China to the Maoists, the Soviets' development of the atomic bomb the year before and by the recent conviction of Alger Hiss and the confession of Soviet spy Klaus Fuchs. With this background and due to the sensational nature of McCarthy's charge against the State Department, the Wheeling speech soon attracted a flood of press interest in McCarthy. Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ...


The Tydings Committee

McCarthy himself was taken aback by the massive media response to the Wheeling speech, and he was accused of continually revising both his charges and his figures. In Salt Lake City, Utah, a few days later, he cited a figure of 57, and in the Senate on February 20, he claimed 81. During a 5-hour speech,[24] McCarthy presented a case-by-case analysis of his 81 "loyalty risks" employed at the State Department. It is widely accepted that most of McCarthy's cases were selected from the so-called "Lee list," a report that had been compiled three years earlier for the House Appropriations Committee. Led by a former FBI agent named Robert E. Lee, the House investigators had reviewed security clearance documents on State Department employees, and had determined that there were "incidents of inefficiencies"[25] in the security reviews of 108 employees. McCarthy hid the source of his list, stating that he had penetrated the "iron curtain" of State Department secrecy with the aid of "some good, loyal Americans in the State Department."[26] For ships of the United States Navy of the same name, see USS Salt Lake City. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Committee on Appropriations, or Appropriations Committee (often referred to as simply Appropriations, as in Hes on Appropriations) is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


In reciting the information from the Lee list cases, McCarthy consistently exaggerated, representing the hearsay of witnesses as facts and converting phrases such as "inclined towards Communism" to "a Communist."[27]

In response to McCarthy's charges, the Tydings Committee hearings were called. This was a subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee set up in February 1950 to conduct "a full and complete study and investigation as to whether persons who are disloyal to the United States are, or have been, employed by the Department of State."[28] Many Democratic Party politicians were incensed at McCarthy's attack on the State Department of a Democratic administration, and had hoped to use the hearings to discredit him. The Democratic chairman of the subcommittee, Senator Millard Tydings, was reported to have said, "Let me have him [McCarthy] for three days in public hearings, and he'll never show his face in the Senate again."[29] ImageMetadata File history File links Millardetydings. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Millardetydings. ... Millard E. Tydings Millard Evelyn Tydings (April 6, 1890–February 9, 1961) was an attorney, author, soldier, state legislator, and served as a Democratic Representative and Senator in the United States Congress from Maryland. ... Subcommittee on the Investigation of Loyalty of State Department Employees more commonly referred to as the Tydings Committee, was a subcommittee authorized by S. Res. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Millard E. Tydings Millard Evelyn Tydings (April 6, 1890–February 9, 1961) was an attorney, author, soldier, state legislator, and served as a Democratic Representative and Senator in the United States Congress from Maryland. ...


During the hearings, McCarthy moved on from his original unnamed Lee list cases and used the hearings to make charges against nine specific people: Dorothy Kenyon, Esther Brunauer, Haldore Hanson, Gustavo Duran, Owen Lattimore, Harlow Shapley, Frederick Schuman, John S. Service, and Philip Jessup. Some of them no longer worked for the State Department, or never had; all had previously been the subject of charges of varying worth and validity. Owen Lattimore became a particular focus of McCarthy's, who at one point described him as a "top Russian spy." Throughout the hearings, McCarthy employed colorful rhetoric, but produced no substantial evidence, to support his accusations. Dorothy Kenyon (11 February 1888-11 February 1972) was a New York lawyer, judge, feminist and political activist in support of civil liberties. ... Owen Lattimore (July 29, 1900 – May 31, 1989) was a U.S. author and educator, the most influential American scholar of Central Asia in the 20th Century. ... Harlow Shapley in his earlier years. ... John Service in Yanan, China, 1944 John Stewart Service (3 August 1909 - 3 February 1999) was an American diplomat who served in the Foreign Service in China prior to and during the World War II. Considered one of the State Departments China Hands, he was an important member... Philip C. Jessup (January 5, 1897 - January 31, 1986) was a diplomat, scholar, and jurist from New York City. ...


From its beginning, the Tydings Committee was marked by partisan infighting. Its final report, written by the Democratic majority, concluded that the individuals on McCarthy's list were neither Communists nor pro-communist, and said the State Department had an effective security program. The Tydings Report labeled McCarthy's charges a "fraud and a hoax," and said that the result of McCarthy's actions was to "confuse and divide the American people [...] to a degree far beyond the hopes of the Communists themselves." Republicans responded in kind, with William E. Jenner stating that Tydings was guilty of "the most brazen whitewash of treasonable conspiracy in our history."[30] The full Senate voted three times on whether to accept the report, and each time the voting was precisely divided along party lines.[31] William Ezra Jenner (July 21, 1908–March 9, 1985) was a U.S. Republican politician from the State of Indiana. ...


Fame and notoriety

From 1950 onward, McCarthy continued to press his accusations that the government was failing to deal with Communism within its ranks. These accusations received wide publicity, increased his approval rating, and gained him a powerful national following.

Herbert Block, who signed his work "Herblock," coined the term "McCarthyism" in this cartoon in the March 29, 1950 Washington Post.
Herbert Block, who signed his work "Herblock," coined the term "McCarthyism" in this cartoon in the March 29, 1950 Washington Post.

McCarthy's methods also brought on the disapproval and opposition of many. Barely a month after McCarthy's Wheeling speech, the term "McCarthyism" was coined by Washington Post cartoonist Herbert Block. Block and others used the word as a synonym for demagoguery, baseless defamation and mudslinging. Later, it would be embraced by McCarthy and some of his supporters. "McCarthyism is Americanism with its sleeves rolled," McCarthy said in a 1952 speech, and later that year he published a book titled McCarthyism: The Fight For America. Image File history File links Herblock1950. ... Image File history File links Herblock1950. ... Herbert Lawrence Block, called Herblock (October 13, 1909 - October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... ... Herbert Lawrence Block, commonly known as Herblock (October 13, 1909 – October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ...


McCarthy has been accused of attempting to discredit his critics and political opponents by accusing them of being Communists or communist sympathizers. In the 1950 Maryland Senate election, McCarthy campaigned for John M. Butler in his race against four-term incumbent Millard Tydings, with whom McCarthy had been in conflict during the Tydings Committee hearings. In speeches supporting Butler, McCarthy accused Tydings of "protecting Communists" and "shielding traitors." McCarthy's staff was heavily involved in the campaign, and collaborated in the production of a campaign tabloid that contained a composite photograph doctored to make it appear that Tydings was in intimate conversation with Communist leader Earl Browder.[32] A Senate subcommittee later investigated this election and referred to it as "a despicable, back-street type of campaign," as well as recommending that the use of defamatory literature in a campaign be made grounds for expulsion from the Senate.[33][34] John M. Butler John Marshall Butler (b. ... Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891–June 27, 1973) was an American socialist and leader of the Communist Party USA. // Early years Browder was born in Wichita, Kansas. ...


In addition to the Tydings-Butler race, McCarthy campaigned for several other Republicans in the 1950 elections, including that of Everett Dirksen against Democratic incumbent and Senate Majority Leader Scott W. Lucas. Dirksen, and indeed all the candidates McCarthy supported won their elections, and those he opposed lost. The elections, including many that McCarthy was not involved in, were an overall Republican sweep. Although his impact on the elections was unclear, McCarthy was credited as a key Republican campaigner. He was now regarded as one of the most powerful men in the Senate and was treated with new-found deference by his colleagues.[35]  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1950 was an election for the United States Senate which occurred in the middle of Harry Trumans second term as President. ... Everett McKinley Dirksen Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was a Republican U.S. Congressman and Senator from Illinois. ... Scott Wike Lucas (1892 - 1968) was a 2-term United States senator from Illinois and Senate Majority Leader from 1948-1950. ...


In 1950 McCarthy assaulted journalist Drew Pearson in the cloakroom of a Washington club, reportedly kneeing him in the groin. McCarthy, who admitted the assault, claimed he merely "slapped" Pearson.[36] Drew Pearson Drew Pearson (December 13, 1897–September 1, 1969), born in Evanston, Illinois was one of the most prominent American newspaper and radio journalists of his day. ...


In 1952, using rumors collected by Pearson, Nevada publisher Hank Greenspun wrote that McCarthy was a homosexual. The major journalistic media refused to print the story, and no notable McCarthy biographer has accepted the rumor as probable.[37] In 1953 McCarthy married Jean Kerr, a researcher in his office. He and his wife adopted a baby girl, whom they named Tierney Elizabeth McCarthy, in January 1957. Herman Hank Milton Greenspun (August 27, 1909 - July 23, 1989) was the longtime, and often controversial, publisher of the Las Vegas Sun newspaper. ...


McCarthy and the Truman administration

President Harry S. Truman.
President Harry S. Truman.

There was considerable enmity between McCarthy and President Truman while they were both in office. McCarthy characterized Truman and the Democratic party as soft on, or even in league with, Communists, referring to "twenty years of treason" on the part of the Democrats. Truman, in turn, once referred to McCarthy as "the best asset the Kremlin has," calling McCarthy's actions an attempt to "sabotage the foreign policy of the United States" in a cold war and comparing it to shooting American soldiers in the back in a hot war.[38] It was the Truman Administration's State Department that McCarthy accused of harboring 205 (or 57 or 81) "known Communists," and Truman's Secretary of Defense George Catlett Marshall, who was the target of some of McCarthy's most colorful rhetoric. Marshall was also Truman's former Secretary of State and had been Army Chief of Staff during World War II. Marshall was a highly respected statesman and general, best remembered today as the architect of the Marshall Plan for post-war reconstruction of Europe, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. McCarthy made a lengthy speech on Marshall, later published in 1951 as a book titled America's Retreat From Victory: The Story Of George Catlett Marshall. Marshall had been involved in American foreign policy with China, and McCarthy charged that Marshall was directly responsible for the "loss of China" to Communism. In the speech McCarthy also implied that Marshall was guilty of treason;[39] declared that "if Marshall were merely stupid, the laws of probability would dictate that part of his decisions would serve this country's interest;"[39] and most famously, accused him of being part of "a conspiracy so immense and an infamy so black as to dwarf any previous venture in the history of man."[39] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x641, 94 KB) This image is a work of an employee of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x641, 94 KB) This image is a work of an employee of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for ensuring readiness of the Army. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


During the Korean War, when President Truman dismissed General Douglas MacArthur, McCarthy charged that Truman and his advisors must have planned the dismissal during late-night sessions when "they've had time to get the President cheerful" on Bourbon and Benedictine. McCarthy declared, "The son of a bitch should be impeached."[40] This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ...


Support from Catholics and Kennedy family

One of the strongest bases of anti-Communist sentiment in the United States was the Catholic community, which composed over 20% of the national vote. McCarthy identified himself as Catholic, and although the great majority of Catholics were Democrats, as his fame as a leading anti-Communist grew, he became popular in Catholic communities across the country, with strong support from many leading Catholics, diocesan newspapers and Catholic journals.[41] At the same time, some Catholics did oppose McCarthy, notably the anti-Communist author Father John Francis Cronin and the influential journal Commonweal.[42] Father John Francis Cronin, S.S. was the author of Communism: a World Menace. ... Commonweal is a New York based American journal of opinion edited and managed by lay Catholics. ...


McCarthy established a bond with the powerful Kennedy family, which had high visibility among Catholics. McCarthy became a close friend of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., himself a fervent anti-Communist, and was a frequent guest at the Kennedy compound in Hyannis Port. He dated two of Kennedy's daughters, Patricia and Eunice,[43][44] and was godfather to Robert F. Kennedy's first child, Kathleen Kennedy. Joseph Kennedy had a national network of contacts and became a vocal supporter, building McCarthy's popularity among Catholics and making sizable contributions to McCarthy's campaigns.[45] For other persons named Joseph Kennedy, see Joseph Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Hyannis Harbor, Hyannis Statue of Iyannough, in downtown Hyannis. ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Kathleen Kennedy Townsend Kathleen Hartington Kennedy Townsend (born July 4, 1951) was lieutenant governor of the U.S. state of Maryland from 1995 to 2003. ...


Unlike many Democrats, John F. Kennedy, who served in the Senate with McCarthy from 1953 until the latter's death in 1957, never attacked McCarthy. Asked once by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. why he avoided criticism of McCarthy, Kennedy said, "Hell, half my voters in Massachusetts look on McCarthy as a hero."[46] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ...


McCarthy and Eisenhower

Dwight David Eisenhower, 34th President of the United States.
Dwight David Eisenhower, 34th President of the United States.

During the 1952 Presidential election, the Eisenhower campaign toured Wisconsin with McCarthy. In a speech delivered in Green Bay, Eisenhower declared that while he agreed with McCarthy's goals, he disagreed with his methods. In draft versions of his speech, Eisenhower had also included a strong defense of his mentor, George Marshall, which was a direct rebuke of McCarthy's frequent attacks. However, under the advice of conservative colleagues who were fearful that Eisenhower could lose Wisconsin if he alienated McCarthy supporters, he deleted this defense from later versions of his speech.[47][48] The deletion was discovered by a reporter for the New York Times and featured on their front page the next day. Eisenhower was widely criticized for giving up his personal convictions, and the incident became the low point of his campaign.[49] Image File history File links Dwight_D_Eisenhower_official_photograph. ... Image File history File links Dwight_D_Eisenhower_official_photograph. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Green Bay is the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


With his victory in the 1952 presidential race, Dwight Eisenhower became the first Republican president in 20 years. The Republican party also held a majority in the House of Representatives and the Senate. After being elected president, Eisenhower made it clear to those close to him that he did not approve of McCarthy and he worked actively to diminish his power and influence. But he never directly confronted McCarthy or criticized him by name in any speech, thus perhaps prolonging McCarthy's power by giving the impression that even the President was afraid to criticize him directly. But Oshinsky disputes this last, stating that "Eisenhower was known as a harmonizer, a man who could get diverse factions to work toward a common goal... Leadership, he explained, meant patience and conciliation, not 'hitting people over the head.'"[50]


McCarthy won reelection in 1952 with only 54% of the vote, defeating former Wisconsin State Attorney General Thomas E. Fairchild but badly trailing a Republican ticket which swept the state of Wisconsin; all the other Republican winners, including Eisenhower himself, received at least 60% of the Wisconsin vote.[51] Those who expected that party loyalty would cause McCarthy to tone down his accusations of Communists being harbored within the government were soon disappointed. Eisenhower had never been an admirer of McCarthy, and their relationship became more hostile once Eisenhower was in office. In a November 1953 speech that was carried on national television, McCarthy began by praising the Eisenhower Administration for removing "1,456 Truman holdovers who were [...] gotten rid of because of Communist connections and activities or perversion." He then went on to complain that John P. Davies was still "on the payroll after eleven months of the Eisenhower Administration," even though Davies had actually been dismissed three weeks earlier, and repeated an unsubstantiated accusation that Davies had tried to "put Communists and espionage agents in key spots in the Central Intelligence Agency." In the same speech he criticized Eisenhower for not doing enough to secure the release of missing American pilots shot down over China during the Korean War.[52] Thomas Edward Fairchild (born December 25, 1912), is a U.S. federal judge and former politician from Wisconsin. ... John Paton Davies Jr. ...


By the end of 1953, McCarthy had altered the "twenty years of treason" catch-phrase he had coined for the preceding Democratic administrations and began referring to "twenty-one years of treason" to include Eisenhower's first year in office.[53]


As McCarthy became increasingly combative towards the Eisenhower Administration, Eisenhower faced repeated calls that he confront McCarthy directly. Eisenhower refused, saying privately "nothing would please him [McCarthy] more than to get the publicity that would be generated by a public repudiation by the President."[54] On several occasions Eisenhower is reported to have said of McCarthy that he did not want to "get down in the gutter with that guy."[55]


Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations

With the beginning of his second term as senator in 1953, McCarthy was made chairman of the Senate Committee on Government Operations. According to some reports, Republican leaders were growing wary of McCarthy's methods and gave him this relatively mundane panel rather than the Internal Security Subcommittee--the committee normally involved with investigating Communists--thus putting McCarthy "where he can't do any harm," in the words of Senate Majority Leader Robert Taft.[56] However, the Committee on Government Operations included the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, and the mandate of this subcommittee was sufficiently flexible to allow McCarthy to use it for his own investigations of Communists in the government. McCarthy appointed Roy Cohn as chief counsel and 27-year-old Robert Kennedy as an assistant counsel to the subcommittee. The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951-77, more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) and sometimes the McCarran Committee, was authorized under S. Res. ... For the former Governor of Ohio and Robert Tafts grandson, see Bob Taft. ... The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs is currently chaired by Senator Norm Coleman (R-MN), with Carl Levin (D-MI) as a ranking member. ... Roy Marcus Cohn (February 20, 1927 – August 2, 1986) was an American lawyer who came to prominence during the investigations by Senator Joseph McCarthy into Communism in the government and especially during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ...


This subcommittee would be the scene of some of McCarthy's most publicized exploits. When the records of the closed executive sessions of the subcommittee under McCarthy's chairmanship were made public in 2003–4,[57] Senators Susan Collins and Carl Levin wrote the following in their preface to the documents: Susan Margaret Collins (born December 7, 1952, in Caribou, Maine) is an American politician, the junior U.S. Senator from Maine and a Republican. ... Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. ...

Senator McCarthy’s zeal to uncover subversion and espionage led to disturbing excesses. His browbeating tactics destroyed careers of people who were not involved in the infiltration of our government. His freewheeling style caused both the Senate and the Subcommittee to revise the rules governing future investigations, and prompted the courts to act to protect the Constitutional rights of witnesses at Congressional hearings... These hearings are a part of our national past that we can neither afford to forget nor permit to reoccur.[58]

The subcommittee first investigated allegations of Communist influence in the Voice of America (VOA), at that time administered by the State Department's United States Information Agency. Many VOA personnel were questioned in front of television cameras and a packed press gallery, with McCarthy lacing his questions with hostile innuendo and false accusations.[59] A few VOA employees alleged Communist influence on the content of broadcasts, but none of the charges were substantiated. Morale at VOA was badly damaged, and one of its engineers committed suicide during McCarthy's investigation. Ed Kretzman, a policy advisor for the service, would later comment that it was VOA's "darkest hour when Senator McCarthy and his chief hatchet man, Roy Cohn, almost succeeded in muffling it."[60] Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... The United States Information Agency (USIA), which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to what it called public diplomacy. ...


The subcommittee then turned to the overseas library program of the International Information Agency. Cohn toured Europe examining the card catalogs of the State Department libraries looking for works by authors he deemed inappropriate. McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. The State Department bowed to McCarthy and ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers, etc." Some libraries actually burned the newly forbidden books.[61] Shortly after this, in one of his carefully oblique public criticisms of McCarthy, President Eisenhower urged Americans: "Don't join the book burners. […] Don't be afraid to go in your library and read every book."[62] A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization, but does not belong to that organization. ...


Soon after receiving the chair to the Subcommittee on Investigations, McCarthy appointed Joseph Brown Matthews (generally known as J. B. Matthews) as staff director of the subcommittee. One of the nation's foremost anti-communists, Matthews had formerly been staff director for the House Committee on Un-American Activities. The appointment became controversial when it was learned that Matthews had recently written an article titled "Reds And Our Churches,"[63] which opened with the sentence, "The largest single group supporting the Communist apparatus in the United States is composed of Protestant Clergymen." A group of senators denounced this "shocking and unwarranted attack against the American clergy" and demanded that McCarthy dismiss Matthews. McCarthy at first refused to do this. But as the controversy mounted, and the majority of his own subcommittee joined the call for Matthews's ouster, McCarthy finally yielded and accepted his resignation. For some McCarthy opponents, this was a signal defeat of the senator, showing he was not as invincible as he had formerly seemed.[64] The House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC (1945-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Investigating the Army

In the fall of 1953, McCarthy's committee began its ill-fated inquiry into the United States Army. This began with McCarthy opening an investigation into the Army Signal Corps laboratory at Fort Monmouth. McCarthy, newly married to Jean Kerr, had aborted his honeymoon to open the investigation. He garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but after weeks of hearings, nothing came of his investigations.[65] The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Branch insignia of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, representing Myers Wigwag The U.S. Army Signal Corps was founded in 1861 by United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, a physician by training. ... Ft. ...


Unable to expose any signs of subversion, McCarthy focused instead on the case of Irving Peress, a New York dentist who had been drafted into the Army in 1952 and promoted to major in November 1953. Shortly thereafter it came to the attention of the military bureaucracy that Peress, who was a member of the left-wing American Labor Party, had declined to answer questions about his political affiliations on a loyalty-review form. Peress's superiors were therefore ordered to discharge him from the Army within 90 days. McCarthy subpoenaed Peress to appear before his subcommittee on January 30, 1954. Peress refused to answer McCarthy's questions, citing his rights under the Fifth Amendment. McCarthy responded by sending a message to Secretary of the Army Robert Stevens demanding that Peress be court-martialed. On that same day, Peress asked for his pending discharge from the Army to be effected immediately, and the next day Brigadier General Ralph W. Zwicker, his commanding officer at Camp Kilmer in New Jersey, gave him an honorable separation from the Army. At McCarthy's encouragement, "Who promoted Peress?" became a rallying cry among many anti-communists and McCarthy supporters. In fact, and as McCarthy knew, Peress had been promoted automatically through the provisions of the Doctor Draft Law, for which McCarthy had voted.[66] The American Labor Party was a socialist political party in the United States active almost exclusively in the state of New York. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Amendment V (the Fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Army The United States Secretary of the Army has statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition, communications, and financial management. ... Robert Ten Broeck Stevens (1899 - 1983) was a U.S. businessman. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Camp Kilmer was activated in June 1942 as a staging area and part of an installation of the New York Port of Embarkation. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


McCarthy summoned General Zwicker to his subcommittee on February 18. Zwicker, on advice from Army counsel, refused to answer some of McCarthy's questions and reportedly changed his story three times when asked if he had known at the time he signed the discharge that Peress had refused to answer questions before the McCarthy subcommittee. McCarthy compared Zwicker's intelligence to that of a "five-year-old child," and said he was "not fit to wear that uniform."[67] is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


This abuse of Zwicker, a battlefield hero of World War II, caused considerable outrage among the military, newspapers, civilian veterans, senators of both parties and, probably most dangerously for McCarthy, President Eisenhower himself.[68] Army Secretary Stevens ordered Zwicker not to return to McCarthy's hearing for further questioning. Hoping to mend the increasingly hostile relations between McCarthy and the Army, a group of Republicans, including McCarthy, met with Secretary Stevens over a luncheon that included fried chicken and convinced him to sign a "memorandum of understanding" in which he capitulated to most of McCarthy's demands. After "The Chicken Luncheon," as it came to be called, McCarthy later told a reporter that Stevens "could not have given in more abjectly if he had got down on his knees."[69] Reaction to this agreement was widely negative. Secretary Stevens was ridiculed by Pentagon officers,[70] and The Times of London wrote: "Senator McCarthy achieved today what General Burgoyne and General Cornwallis never achieved—the surrender of the American Army."[71] The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... Cornwallis redirects here. ...


A few months later, the Army, with advice and support from the Eisenhower Administration, would launch a counterattack against McCarthy. It would do this not by directly challenging and criticizing McCarthy's behavior toward Army personnel, but by bringing charges against him on an unrelated issue.


The Army-McCarthy hearings

Senator Joseph McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, conferring during the Army-McCarthy hearings.
Main article: Army-McCarthy hearings

Early in 1954, the U.S. Army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, of improperly pressuring the Army to give favorable treatment to G. David Schine, a former aide to McCarthy and a friend of Cohn's, who was then serving in the Army as a private. McCarthy claimed that the accusation was made in bad faith, in retaliation for his questioning of Zwicker the previous year. The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, usually chaired by McCarthy himself, was given the task of adjudicating these conflicting charges. Republican Senator Karl Mundt was appointed to chair the committee, and the Army-McCarthy hearings convened on April 22, 1954. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (993 × 750 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (993 × 750 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Roy Marcus Cohn (February 20, 1927 – August 2, 1986) was an American lawyer who came to prominence during the investigations by Senator Joseph McCarthy into Communism in the government and especially during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. ... Early in 1954, the U.S. Army accused Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (Republican, Wisconsin), and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, of pressuring the Army to give favorable treatment to former McCarthy aide and friend of Cohns, G. David Schine. ... Roy Marcus Cohn (February 20, 1927 – August 2, 1986) was an American lawyer who came to prominence during the investigations by Senator Joseph McCarthy into Communism in the government and especially during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. ... G. David Schine at the Army-McCarthy hearings, 1954 Gerard David Schine, better known as G. David Schine (September 11, 1927 - June 19, 1996), received national attention in 1954 when he became a central figure in the Army-McCarthy Hearings of 1954. ... Karl Earl Mundt (June 3, 1900 - August 16, 1974) was an American educator and a Republican member of the United States Congress, representing South Dakota in the United States House of Representatives from 1938 to 1948 and in the United States Senate from 1948 to 1973. ... Early in 1954, the U.S. Army accused Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (Republican, Wisconsin), and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, of pressuring the Army to give favorable treatment to former McCarthy aide and friend of Cohns, G. David Schine. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ...


The hearings lasted for 36 days and were broadcast on live television, with an estimated 20 million viewers. After hearing 32 witnesses and two million words of testimony, the committee concluded that McCarthy himself had not exercised any improper influence on behalf of David Schine, but that Roy Cohn had engaged in "unduly persistent or aggressive efforts." The committee also concluded that Army Secretary Robert Stevens and Army Counsel John Adams "made efforts to terminate or influence the investigation and hearings at Fort Monmouth," and that Adams "made vigorous and diligent efforts" to block subpoenas for members of the Army Loyalty and Screening Board "by means of personal appeal to certain members of the [McCarthy] committee."


But of far greater import to McCarthy than the committee's inconclusive final report was the negative effect that the extensive exposure had on his popularity. Many in the audience saw him as bullying, reckless and dishonest, and the daily newspaper summaries of the hearings were also frequently unfavorable to McCarthy.[72][73] Late in the hearings, Senator Stuart Symington made an angry but prophetic remark to McCarthy: "The American people have had a look at you for six weeks," he said. "You are not fooling anyone."[74] In Gallup polls of January 1954, 50% of those polled had a positive opinion of McCarthy. In June, that number had fallen to 34%. In the same polls, those with a negative opinion of McCarthy increased from 29% to 45%.[75] An increasing number of Republicans and conservatives were coming to see McCarthy as a liability to the party and to anti-communism. Congressman George H. Bender noted, "There is a growing impatience with the Republican Party. McCarthyism has become a synonym for witch-hunting, star chamber methods and the denial of...civil liberties." Frederick Woltman, a reporter with a long-standing reputation as a staunch anti-communist, wrote a five-part series of articles criticizing McCarthy in the New York World-Telegram. He stated that McCarthy "has become a major liability to the cause of anti-communism," and accused him of "wild twisting of facts and near facts [that] repels authorities in the field."[76] William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... George Harrison Bender (September 29, 1896, Cleveland, Ohio - June 18, 1961, Chagrin Falls, Ohio) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... The Star Chamber (Latin Camera stellata) was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that sat between 1487 and 1641, when the court itself was abolished. ... The New York World-Telegram was formed by the 1931 sale of the New York World by the heirs of Joseph Pulitzer to Scripps Howard, owners since 1927 of the Evening Telegram. ...


The most famous incident in the hearings was an exchange between McCarthy and the army's chief legal representative, Joseph Nye Welch. On June 9, the 30th day of the hearings, Welch challenged Roy Cohn to provide U.S. Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr. with McCarthy's list of 130 Communists or subversives in defense plants "before the sun goes down." McCarthy stepped in and said that if Welch was so concerned about persons aiding the Communist Party, he should check on a man in his Boston law office named Fred Fisher, who had once belonged to the National Lawyers Guild, which Attorney General Brownell had called "the legal mouthpiece of the Communist Party." In an impassioned defense of Fisher that some have suggested he had prepared in advance and had hoped not to have to make,[77] Welch responded, "Until this moment, Senator, I think I never gauged your cruelty or your recklessness[...]" When McCarthy resumed his attack, Welch interrupted him: "Let us not assassinate this lad further, Senator. You've done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?" When McCarthy once again persisted, Welch cut him off and demanded the chairman "call the next witness." At that point, the gallery erupted in applause and a recess was called.[78] Joseph Nye Welch (October 22, 1890 – October 6, 1960) was the head attorney for the United States Army while it was under investigation by Joseph McCarthys Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations for Communist activities. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Herbert Brownell, Jr. ... Frederick G. Fred Fisher, Jr. ... The National Lawyers Guild is a progressive Bar Association in the United States dedicated to the need for basic and progressive change in the structure of our political and economic system. ...


Edward Murrow, See It Now

Edward R. Murrow, U.S. newscaster, pioneer in Broadcast journalism

One of the most prominent attacks on McCarthy's methods was an episode of the TV documentary series See It Now, hosted by journalist Edward R. Murrow, which was broadcast on March 9, 1954. Picture of Edward R. Murrow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Picture of Edward R. Murrow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Electronic journalism -- known as EJ or ENG for electronic news gathering -- is most associated with broadcast news where producers, reporters and editors make use of electronic recording devices for gathering and presenting information in telecasts and radio transmissions reaching the public. ... See It Now was a television newsmagazine and documentary broadcast by CBS in the 1950s. ... Edward R. Ed Murrow (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist and media figure. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ...


Titled "A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy", the episode consisted largely of clips of McCarthy speaking. In these clips, McCarthy accuses the Democratic party of "twenty years of treason," describes the American Civil Liberties Union as "listed as 'a front for, and doing the work of,' the Communist Party," and berates and harangues various witnesses, including General Zwicker. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities. ...


In his conclusion, Murrow said of McCarthy:

His primary achievement has been in confusing the public mind, as between the internal and the external threats of Communism. We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. We must remember always that accusation is not proof and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law. We will not walk in fear, one of another. We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason, if we dig deep in our history and our doctrine, and remember that we are not descended from fearful men. [...] We proclaim ourselves, as indeed we are, the defenders of freedom, wherever it continues to exist in the world, but we cannot defend freedom abroad by deserting it at home. The actions of the junior Senator from Wisconsin have caused alarm and dismay amongst our allies abroad, and given considerable comfort to our enemies. And whose fault is that? Not really his. He didn't create this situation of fear; he merely exploited it -- and rather successfully.[79]

The following week See It Now ran another episode critical of McCarthy, this one focusing on the case of Annie Lee Moss, an African-American army clerk who was the target of one of McCarthy's investigations. The Murrow shows, together with the televised Army-McCarthy hearings of the same year, were the major causes of a nationwide popular opinion backlash against McCarthy, in part because for the first time his statements were being publicly challenged by noteworthy figures. To counter the negative publicity, McCarthy appeared on See It Now on April 6, 1954, and made a number of charges against the popular Murrow. This response did not go over well with viewers, and the result was a further decline in his popularity. President Eisenhower, now free of McCarthy's political intimidation, referred to "McCarthyWASm" in conversation with a reporter. Annie Lee Moss was a middle-aged African American woman who was accused by Joseph McCarthy of being a Communist infiltrator in the Pentagon. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ...


Public opinion

McCarthy's Support in Gallup Polls[80]
Date Favorable No Opinion Unfavorable Net Favorable
1951 August 15 63 22 −7
1953 April 19 59 22 −3
1953 June 35 35 30 +5
1953 August 34 24 42 −8
1954 January 50 21 29 +21
1954 March 46 18 36 +10
1954 April 38 16 46 −8
1954 May 35 16 49 −14
1954 June 34 21 45 −11
1954 August 36 13 51 −15
1954 November 35 19 46 −11

Censure and the Watkins Committee

Senator Ralph Flanders, who introduced the resolution calling for McCarthy to be censured.
Senator Ralph Flanders, who introduced the resolution calling for McCarthy to be censured.

Several members of the U.S. Senate had opposed McCarthy well before 1953. Senator Margaret Chase Smith, a Maine Republican, delivered her "Declaration of Conscience" on June 1, 1950, calling for an end to the use of smear tactics without mentioning McCarthy or anyone else by name. Six other Republican Senators, Wayne Morse, Irving M. Ives, Charles W. Tobey, Edward John Thye, George Aiken and Robert C. Hendrickson joined her in condemning McCarthy's tactics. McCarthy referred to Smith and her fellow Senators as "Snow White and the six dwarfs."[81] Image File history File links Ralph_Edward_Flanders. ... Image File history File links Ralph_Edward_Flanders. ... Ralph Edward Flanders (September 28, 1880–February 19, 1970) was an American mechanical engineer, industrialist and politician from the state of Vermont. ... Margaret Chase Smith (December 14, 1897–May 29, 1995) was a Republican Senator from Maine, and one of the most successful politicians in Maine history. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The Declaration of Conscience was a speech made by Senator Margaret Chase Smith on June 1, 1950, the height of the McCarthy Era. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wayne Lyman Morse (October 20, 1900 – July 22, 1974) was a United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 to 1969. ... Irving McNeil Ives (January 24, 1896 February 24, 1962) was an American politician from the state of New York. ... Official photo Charles William Tobey (July 22, 1880–July 24, 1953) was an American businessman and Republican politician from Temple, New Hampshire. ... Edward John Thye Edward John Thye (April 26, 1896 – August 28, 1969) was an American politician for the state of Minnesota who served as a Republican. ... George David Aiken (August 20, 1892–November 19, 1984) was an American politician from Vermont. ... Robert Clymer Hendrickson (August 12, 1898 - December 7, 1964) was a United States Senator from New Jersey. ...


On March 9, 1954, Vermont Republican Senator Ralph E. Flanders gave a humor-laced speech on the Senate floor, questioning McCarthy's tactics in fighting communism, likening McCarthyism to "housecleaning" with "much clatter and hullabaloo." He recommended that the Senator turn his attention to the world-wide encroachment of Communism outside North America.[82][83] In a June 1, 1954 speech Flanders compared McCarthy to Hitler, accusing him of spreading "division and confusion" and saying, "Were the Junior Senator from Wisconsin in the pay of the Communists he could not have done a better job for them."[84] On June 11, 1954, Flanders introduced a resolution to have McCarthy removed as chair of his committees. Although there were many in the Senate who believed that some sort of disciplinary action against McCarthy was warranted, there was no clear majority supporting this resolution. Some of the resistance was due to concern about usurping the Senate's rules regarding committee chairs and seniority. Flanders next introduced a resolution to censure McCarthy. The resolution was initially written without any reference to particular actions or misdeeds on McCarthy's part. As Flanders put it, "It was not his breaches of etiquette, or of rules or sometimes even of laws which is so disturbing," but rather his overall pattern of behavior. Ultimately a "bill of particulars" listing 46 charges was added to the censure resolution. A special committee, chaired by Senator Arthur V. Watkins, was appointed to study and evaluate the resolution. This committee opened hearings on August 31, 1954.[85] is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Ralph Edward Flanders (September 28, 1880–February 19, 1970) was an American mechanical engineer, industrialist and politician from the state of Vermont. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Distinguish from slover, censer and censor. ... Arthur V. Watkins (born in Midway, Utah, on December 18, 1886, died September 1, 1973) was a U.S. Senator from 1946 to 1959. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ...

Senator Arthur V. Watkins.

After two months of hearings and deliberations, the Watkins Committee recommended that McCarthy be censured on two of the 46 counts: his contempt of the Subcommittee on Rules and Administration, which had called him to testify in 1951 and 1952, and his abuse of General Zwicker in 1954. The Zwicker count was dropped by the full Senate on the grounds that McCarthy's conduct was arguably "induced" by Zwicker's own behavior. In place of this count, a new one was drafted regarding McCarthy's statements about the Watkins Committee itself.[86] Image File history File links Arthur_Vivian_Watkins. ... Image File history File links Arthur_Vivian_Watkins. ...


The two counts on which the Senate ultimately voted were:

  • That McCarthy had "failed to cooperate with the Subcommittee on Rules and Administration," and "repeatedly abused the members who were trying to carry out assigned duties..."
  • That McCarthy had charged "three members of the [Watkins] Select Committee with 'deliberate deception' and 'fraud'...that the special Senate session...was a 'lynch party,'" and had characterized the committee "as the 'unwitting handmaiden,' 'involuntary agent' and 'attorneys in fact' of the Communist Party," and had "acted contrary to senatorial ethics and tended to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute, to obstruct the constitutional processes of the Senate, and to impair its dignity."[87]

On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted to "condemn" Senator Joseph McCarthy on both counts by a vote of 67 to 22. The Democrats present unanimously favored condemnation and the Republicans were split evenly. The only senator not on record was John F. Kennedy, who was hospitalized for back surgery; Kennedy never indicated how he would have voted.[88] Immediately after the vote, Senator H. Styles Bridges, a McCarthy supporter, argued that the resolution was "not a censure resolution" because the word "condemn" rather than "censure" was used in the final draft. The word "censure" was then removed from the title of the resolution, though it is generally regarded and referred to as a censure of McCarthy, both by historians[89] and in Senate documents.[90] McCarthy himself said, "Well, it wasn't exactly a vote of confidence." But he added, "I don't feel like I've been lynched." The Senate had invoked censure against one of its members only three times before in the nation's history. is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Henry Styles Bridges Henry Styles Bridges (September 9, 1898–November 26, 1961) was an American teacher, editor, and Republican Party politician from Concord, New Hampshire. ...


Final years

After his censure, McCarthy continued in his senatorial duties for another two and a half years, but his career as a major public figure had been unmistakably ruined. His colleagues in the Senate avoided him; his speeches on the Senate floor were delivered to a near-empty chamber or were received with conspicuous displays of inattention.[91] The press that had once recorded his every public statement now ignored him, and outside speaking engagements dwindled almost to nothing. Still, McCarthy continued to rail against Communism. He warned against attendance at summit conferences with "the Reds," saying that "you cannot offer friendship to tyrants and murderers...without advancing the cause of tyranny and murder." He declared that "coexistence with Communists is neither possible nor honorable nor desirable. Our long-term objective must be the eradication of Communism from the face of the earth."


McCarthy's biographers are agreed that he was a changed man after the censure; declining both physically and emotionally, he became a "pale ghost of his former self" in the words of Fred J. Cook.[92] It was reported that McCarthy suffered from cirrhosis of the liver and was frequently hospitalized for alcoholism.[7] Numerous eyewitnesses, including Senate aide George Reedy and journalist Tom Wicker, have reported finding him alarmingly drunk in the Senate. Journalist Richard Rovere (1959) wrote: Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... George Reedy was White House Press Secretary from 1964 to 1965. ... Tom Wicker (born 1926) is an American journalist. ... Richard H. Rovere (5 May 1915—23 November 1979) was an American journalist. ...

He had always been a heavy drinker, and there were times in those seasons of discontent when he drank more than ever. But he was not always drunk. He went on the wagon (for him this meant beer instead of whiskey) for days and weeks at a time. The difficulty toward the end was that he couldn't hold the stuff. He went to pieces on his second or third drink. And he did not snap back quickly.[93]

McCarthy died in Bethesda Naval Hospital on May 2, 1957, at the age of 48. The official cause of his death was listed as acute hepatitis: an inflammation of the liver. It was hinted in the press that he died of alcoholism, an estimation that is accepted by contemporary biographers.[5] He was given a state funeral attended by 70 senators, and St. Matthew's Cathedral performed a Solemn Pontifical Requiem before more than 100 priests and 2,000 others. Thousands of people viewed the body in Washington. He was buried in St. Mary's Parish Cemetery, Appleton, Wisconsin, where more than 30,000 filed through St. Mary's Church to pay their last respects. Three senators — George Malone, William E. Jenner, and Herman Welker — had flown from Washington to Appleton on the plane carrying McCarthy's casket. Robert Kennedy quietly attended the funeral in Wisconsin. McCarthy was survived by his wife, Jean, and their adopted daughter, Tierney. The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the United States Navys system of medical centers. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... The Cathedral of St. ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... St. ... Appleton is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, on the Fox River, 100 miles (161 km) north of Milwaukee. ... George Wilson Malone (August 7, 1890-May 19, 1961) was an American civil engineer and Republican politician. ... William Ezra Jenner (July 21, 1908–March 9, 1985) was a U.S. Republican politician from the State of Indiana. ... Herman Welker. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ...


In the summer of 1957, a special election was held to fill McCarthy's seat. In the primaries, voters in both parties turned away from McCarthy's legacy. The Republican primary was won by Walter J. Kohler, Jr., who called for a clean break from McCarthy's approach; he defeated former Congressman Glenn Robert Davis, who charged that Eisenhower was soft on Communism. The Democratic winner was William Proxmire, who called McCarthy "a disgrace to Wisconsin, to the Senate and to America." On August 27, Proxmire won the election.[94] For other uses, see Primary. ... Walter Jodak Kohler, Jr. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Edward William Proxmire (November 11, 1915 – December 15, 2005) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1989. ...


Ongoing debate

In the view of some modern conservative authors, McCarthy's place in history should be re-evaluated. Ann Coulter's book Treason: Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism is a notable example of this. Coulter, a controversial right-wing author, devotes a chapter to her defense of McCarthy, and much of the book to a defense of McCarthyism. She states, for example, "Everything you think you know about McCarthy is a hegemonic lie. Liberals denounced McCarthy because they were afraid of getting caught, so they fought back like animals to hide their own collaboration with a regime as evil as the Nazis."[95] Other authors who have voiced similar opinions include William Norman Grigg of the John Birch Society,[96] and M. Stanton Evans.[97] Ann Hart Coulter (born December 8, 1961)[1] is an American best-selling author, columnist and political commentator. ... William Norman Grigg is the senior editor and a prolific contributer to The New American, the official magazine of the John Birch Society. ... The John Birch Society is a conservative American exceptionalist organization founded in 1958 to fight what it saw as growing threats to the Constitution of the United States, especially a suspected communist infiltration of the United States government, and to support free enterprise. ...


These authors frequently cite new evidence, in the form of Venona decrypted Soviet messages, Soviet espionage data now opened to the West, and newly released transcripts of closed hearings before McCarthy's subcommittee, asserting that these have vindicated McCarthy, showing that many of his identifications of Communists were correct. It has also been said that Venona and the Soviet archives have revealed that the scale of Soviet espionage activity in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s was larger than many scholars suspected,[98][99] and that this too stands as a vindication of McCarthy. The VENONA project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between the United States intelligence agencies and the United Kingdoms MI5 that involved the cryptanalysis of Soviet messages. ...


These viewpoints are considered revisionist by most historians,[100] and have been specifically challenged by Kevin Drum[101] and Johann Hari.[102] Historian John Earl Haynes has also argued against this "rehabilitation" of McCarthy, saying that McCarthy's attempts to "make anti-communism a partisan weapon" actually "threatened [the post-War] anti-Communist consensus," thereby ultimately harming anti-Communist efforts more than helping.[103] With regard to Coulter's views in particular, the response among scholars has been all but universally negative, even among authors generally regarded as conservative or right wing.[104] Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... Kevin Drum Kevin Drum (born October 19, 1958) is an American political blogger and columnist. ... Johann Hari (born January 21, 1979) is a British journalist and writer. ... John Earl Haynes is a historian who is a specialist in 20th Century political history in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress; he is known for his books on the subject of the American Communist and anti-Communist movements, and on Soviet espionage in America (many written jointly...


Although there are some cases where Venona or other recent data has increased the weight of evidence against a person named by McCarthy, there are few, if any, cases where McCarthy was responsible for identifying a person, or removing a person from a sensitive government position, where later evidence has increased the likelihood that that person was a Communist or a Soviet agent.[105]


HUAC

McCarthy is often incorrectly described as part of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (technically HCUA, but generally known as HUAC). The HUAC is best known for the investigation of Alger Hiss and for its investigation of the Hollywood film industry, which led to the blacklisting of hundreds of actors, writers and directors. The HUAC was a House committee, and as such had no connection with McCarthy, who served in the Senate. The House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC (1945-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ...


McCarthy in popular culture

From the beginning of his notoriety, McCarthy was a favorite subject for political cartoonists. In 1953, the popular daily comic strip Pogo introduced the character Simple J. Malarkey, a pugnacious and conniving wildcat with an unmistakable physical resemblance to McCarthy. Pogo as drawn by Walt Kelly. ... Pogo as drawn by Walt Kelly. ... For other meanings of Wild Cat and wildcat, see wildcat. ...


Later in his career, McCarthy increasingly became the target of ridicule and parody. He was impersonated by nightclub and radio impressionists and was satirized in Mad magazine, on The Red Skelton Show, and elsewhere. Several comedy songs lampooning the senator were released in 1954, including "Point of Order" by Stan Freeberg and Daws Butler, "Senator McCarthy Blues" by Hal Block, and unionist folk singer Joe Glazer's "Joe McCarthy's Band", sung to the tune of "McNamara's Band." Also in 1954, the radio comedy team Bob and Ray parodied McCarthy with the character "Commissioner Carstairs" in their soap opera spoof "Mary Backstayge, Noble Wife". That same year, the Canadian Broadcasting Company radio network broadcast a satire, The Investigator, whose title character was a clear imitation of McCarthy. A recording of the show became popular in the United States, and was reportedly played by President Eisenhower at cabinet meetings.[106] An impressionist is a performer whose act consists of giving the impression of being someone else by imitating the other persons voice and mannerisms. ... Mad is an American humor magazine founded by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines in 1952. ... The Red Skelton Show was a staple of American television for almost two decades, from the early 1950s through the early 1970s. ... Stan Freberg (born August 7, 1926) is a voice actor and comedian. ... Daws Butler in 1976. ... Harold Hal Block (August 2, 1913 – June 16, 1981 in Chicago, Illinois) was an American comedian, author, songwriter and television personality. ... Joe Glazer Joe Glazer (1918-2006), closely associated with labor unions and often referred to as the labors troubador, was a folk musician who recorded more than thirty albums over the course of his career. ... McNamaras Band is the title of a popular song recorded in late 1945 by legendary crooner Bing Crosby. ... Bob and Ray Bob Elliott and Ray Goulding were an American comedy duo that began in radio in 1946 with a daily 15-minute show titled Matinee With Bob and Ray. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ... The Investigator (1954) was a radio play written by Reuben Ship and first broadcast by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) on May 30 of that year. ...


A more serious fictional portrayal of McCarthy played a central role in the 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate by Richard Condon. The character of Senator John Iselin, a demagogic anti-communist, is closely modeled on McCarthy, even to the varying numbers of Communists he asserts are employed by the federal government. In the 1962 film version, the characterization remains; in this version, a Heinz ketchup bottle inspires Iselin and his wife to settle on "57" as the number of subversives he claims are on the federal payroll. The Manchurian Candidate is a 1959 thriller novel written by Richard Condon, later adapted into films in 1962 and 2004. ... Richard Thomas Condon (born March 18, 1915 in New York, New York; died April 9, 1996 in Dallas, Texas), was a satirical and thriller novelist best known for conspiratorial books such as The Manchurian Candidate. ... The Manchurian Candidate (1962) is a Cold War political thriller film adapted from the 1959 thriller novel, by Richard Condon, directed by John Frankenheimer, and features Frank Sinatra, Laurence Harvey, Angela Lansbury, and Janet Leigh. ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ...


McCarthy was portrayed by Peter Boyle in the 1977 Emmy-winning television movie Tail Gunner Joe, a dramatization of McCarthy's life. Archival footage of McCarthy himself was used in the 2005 movie Good Night, and Good Luck about Edward R. Murrow and the See It Now episode that challenged McCarthy. Peter Lawrence Boyle (October 18, 1935 – December 12, 2006)[1][2] was an Emmy Award-winning American actor who is perhaps best known for his role as Frank Barone on the sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond. ... Tail Gunner Joe was a 1977 television movie dramatizing the life of Senator Joseph McCarthy. ... Good Night, and Good Luck is a 2005 film by George Clooney about the conflict between journalist Edward R. Murrow and anti-communist Senator Joseph McCarthy and the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. ... Edward R. Ed Murrow (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist and media figure. ... See It Now was a television newsmagazine and documentary broadcast by CBS in the 1950s. ...


Notes

  1. ^ For a history of this period, see, for example:
    Caute, David (1978). The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671226827. 
    Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
    Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  2. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary (2000) defines "McCarthyism" as "the practice of publicizing accusations of political disloyalty or subversion with insufficient regard to evidence" and "the use of unfair investigatory or accusatory methods in order to suppress opposition." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (1961) defines it as "characterized chiefly by opposition to elements held to be subversive and by the use of tactics involving personal attacks on individuals by means of widely publicized indiscriminate allegations especially on the basis of unsubstantiated charges."
  3. ^ Morgan, Ted (November/December 2003). Judge Joe; How the youngest judge in Wisconsin's history became the country's most notorious senator.. Legal Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  4. ^ Communists in Government Service, McCarthy Says. United States Senate History Website. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  5. ^ a b See, for example:
    Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, pp 503-504. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. ,
    Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books, pp 669-671. ISBN 1-56833-101-0. ,
    Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, pp 302-303. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  6. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, p. 79. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  7. ^ a b "The Passing of McCarthy.", Time (magazine), May 13, 1957. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. "Last week, in the U.S. Naval Hospital at Bethesda, Maryland, her fifth-born, Joseph Raymond McCarthy, overtaken by cirrhosis of the liver, received the last rites of his Roman Catholic faith and a scant 62 minutes later died at 48." 
  8. ^ In A Conspiracy So Immense, Oshinsky states that McCarthy chose Marquette University rather than the University of Wisconsin at Madison partially because Marquette was under Catholic control and partially because he enrolled during the Great Depression, when few working-class or farm-bred students had the money to go out of state for college. Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 11. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  9. ^ Oshinsky explains this (p. 17) as resulting partially from the financial pressures of the Great Depression. He also notes (p. 28) that even during his judgeship, McCarthy was known to have gambled heavily after hours. Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, pp. 17, 28. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  10. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 27. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  11. ^ a b Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, p. 30. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  12. ^ Oshinsky describes the nickname "Tail-Gunner Joe" as the result of McCarthy's wish to break the record for most live ammunition discharged in a single mission. Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 32. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  13. ^ Morgan, Ted (November/December 2003). Judge Joe; How the youngest judge in Wisconsin's history became the country's most notorious senator.. Legal Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  14. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, pp. 97, 102. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  15. ^ Beichman, Arnold (February-March 2006). The Politics of Personal Self-Destruction. Policy Review. Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  16. ^ Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, pp 44, 51, 55. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  17. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, p. 53. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  18. ^ Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books, pp 116-119. ISBN 1-56833-101-0. 
  19. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, pp 54-55. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  20. ^ Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, p. 51. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  21. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 49. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  22. ^ Congressional Record, 81st Congress, 2nd Session. West Virginia Division of Culture and History (February 20, 1950). Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  23. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House, pp. 155-156. ISBN 0-394-46270-X. 
  24. ^ Also reported as up to 8 hours in length.
  25. ^ Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books, p. 227. ISBN 1-56833-101-0. 
  26. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 55. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  27. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 56. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  28. ^ Congressional Record, 81st Congress, 2nd session, pp 2062-2068; quoted in:
    Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books, p. 243. ISBN 1-56833-101-0. 
  29. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 119. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  30. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 101. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  31. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, p. 128. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  32. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 175. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  33. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, pp 127-129. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  34. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House, p. 312. ISBN 0-394-46270-X. 
  35. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House, p. 316. ISBN 0-394-46270-X. 
  36. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, p. 233. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  37. ^ The allegation is specifically rejected in Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, p. 68. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  38. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, p. 131. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  39. ^ a b c McCarthy, Joseph (1951). Major Speeches and Debates of Senator Joe McCarthy Delivered in the United States Senate, 1950–1951. Gordon Press, pp. 264, 307, 215. ISBN 0-87968-308-2. 
  40. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 194. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  41. ^ Crosby, Donald F. (1978). God, Church, and Flag: Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the Catholic Church, 1950-1957. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807813125. 
  42. ^ Crosby, Donald F. (1978). God, Church, and Flag: Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the Catholic Church, 1950-1957. University of North Carolina Press, pp. 200, 67. ISBN 0807813125. 
  43. ^ Morrow, Lance (1978). The Best Year of Their Lives: Kennedy, Johnson, And Nixon in 1948. Perseus Books Group, p. 4. ISBN 0465047246. .
  44. ^ Bogle, Lori (2001). Cold War Espionage and Spying. Routledge, p. 129. ISBN 0815332416. .
  45. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 240. ISBN 0-19-515424-X.  Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books, p. 443. ISBN 1-56833-101-0. 
  46. ^ Johnson, Haynes (2005). The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism. Harcourt, p. 250. ISBN 0-15-101062-5. 
  47. ^ Wicker, Tom (2002). Dwight D. Eisenhower: The American Presidents Series. Times Books, p. 15. ISBN 0-8050-6907-0. 
  48. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, pp 188+. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  49. ^ Wicker, Tom (2002). Dwight D. Eisenhower: The American Presidents Series. Times Books, p. 15. ISBN 0-8050-6907-0. 
  50. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 259. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  51. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 244. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  52. ^ All quotes in this paragraph: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pp 182-184. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  53. ^ Fried, Albert (1996). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, p. 179. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  54. ^ Powers, Richard Gid (1998). Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism. Yale University Press, p. 263. ISBN 0-300-07470-0. 
  55. ^ Parmet, Herbert S. (1998). Eisenhower and the American Crusades. Transaction Publishers, pp 248, 337, 577. ISBN 0-7658-0437-9. 
  56. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, p. 134. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  57. ^ See "Transcripts, Executive Sessions..." under Primary sources, below.
  58. ^ Collins, Susan and Levin, Carl (2003). Preface (PDF). Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee On Investigations. U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  59. ^ Heil, Alan L. (2003). Voice of America: A History. Columbia University Press, p. 53. ISBN 0-231-12674-3. 
  60. ^ Heil, Alan L. (2003). Voice of America: A History. Columbia University Press, p. 56. ISBN 0-231-12674-3. 
  61. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 216. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  62. ^ Ike, Milton, and the McCarthy Battle. Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
  63. ^ Often misidentified as "Reds In Our Churches;" see this versus this.
  64. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 233. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  65. ^ Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. W. W. Norton & Company, p. 384. ISBN 0-393-05880-8. 
  66. ^ Adams, John G. (1983). Without Precedent: The Story of the Death of McCarthyism. W. W. Norton & Company, pp. 120, 126. ISBN 039330230X. 
  67. ^ Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press, p. 250. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  68. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, p. 138. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  69. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, p. 30. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  70. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, p. 138. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  71. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, p. 30. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  72. ^ Morgan, Ted (2004). Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America. Random House, p. 489. ISBN 0-8129-7302-X. 
  73. ^ Streitmatter, Rodger (1998). Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History. Westview Press, p. 167. ISBN 0-8133-3211-7. 
  74. ^ Powers, Richard Gid (1998). Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism. Yale University Press, p. 271. ISBN 0-300-07470-0. 
  75. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, p. 138. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  76. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House, p. 536. ISBN 0-394-46270-X. ,
    About McCarthy. TIME Magazine (July 19, 1954). Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
  77. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 259. ISBN 0-87023-555-9.  Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 462. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  78. ^ Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, p. 464. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  79. ^ Transcript - See it Now: A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy. CBS-TV (March 9, 1954). Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  80. ^ Polsby, Nelson W. (October 1962). "Towards an Explanation of McCarthyism". Political Studies 8: 252. 
  81. ^ Wallace, Patricia Ward (1995). Politics of Conscience: A Biography of Margaret Chase Smith. Praeger Trade, p. 109. ISBN 0-275-95130-8. 
  82. ^ Flanders, Ralph (1961). Senator from Vermont. Boston: Little, Brown. 
  83. ^ Text of Flanders's speech (March 9, 1959).
  84. ^ Woods, Randall Bennett (1995). Fulbright: A Biography. Cambridge University Press, p. 187. ISBN 0-521-48262-3. 
  85. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, pp 277+. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  86. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, pp 229-230. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  87. ^ Senate Resolution 301: Censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy. HistoricalDocuments.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  88. ^ Oshinsky [1983] (2005), pp. 33, 490; Michael O'Brien, John F. Kennedy: A Biography (2005), pp. 250-54, 274-79, 396-400; Reeves (1982), pp. 442-43; Thomas Maier, The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings (2003), pp. 270-80; Crosby, God, Church, and Flag, 138-60.
  89. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 310. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  90. ^ Senate Report 104-137 - Resolution For Disciplinary Action. Library of Congress (1995). Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
  91. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, p. 318. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  92. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House, p. 537. ISBN 0-394-46270-X. 
  93. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, pp. 244-245. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  94. ^ Nichols, John (July 31, 2007), "In 1957, a McCarthy-free morning in America", The Capital Times, <http://www.madison.com/tct/opinion/203521>
  95. ^ Coulter, Ann (2003). Treason: Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1-4000-5032-4. 
  96. ^ Grigg, William Norman (June 16, 2003). McCarthy's "Witches". The New American. Retrieved on 2006-08-28.
  97. ^ Evans, M. Stanton (May 30, 1997). McCarthyism: Waging the Cold War in America. Human Events. Retrieved on 2006-08-28.; also:
    Evans, M. Stanton (2007). Blacklisted By History: The Real Story of Joseph McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies. Crown Forum. ISBN 1-4000-8105-X. 
  98. ^ Haynes, John Earl and Klehr, Harvey (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08462-5. 
  99. ^ Weinstein, Allen; Vassiliev, Alexander (2000). The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America--The Stalin Era. Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-75536-5. 
  100. ^ See, for example:
    Oshinsky, David M. (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, pp. ix - xi (Preface to the 2005 edition). ISBN 0-19-515424-X. , and
    Evans, M. Stanton (2007), Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies, Crown Forum, p. 16, ISBN 9781400081059; "defenders of McCarthy in the academic/media world today are so microscopically few as to be practically non-existent."
  101. ^ Drum, Kevin (June 20, 2003). Sex And Communism. Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  102. ^ Hari, Johann (March 26, 2004). The Exhumation of Joe McCarthy. History News Network. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  103. ^ Haynes, John Earl (February, 2000). Exchange with Arthur Herman and Venona book talk. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  104. ^ See, for example:
    Rabinowitz, Dorothy (July 7, 2003), "A Conspiracy So Vast", The Wall Street Journal, <http://www.opinionjournal.com/medialog/?id=110003713>,
    Horowitz, David (July 08, 2003), The Trouble with “Treason", FrontPageMagazine.com, <http://frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=8793>
  105. ^ Haynes, John Earl (2006). Senator Joseph McCarthy’s Lists and Venona. Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
  106. ^ Doherty, Thomas (2005). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press, p. 213. ISBN 0-231-12953-X. 

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References and further reading

Secondary sources

  • Bayley, Edwin R. (1981). Joe McCarthy and the Press. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-08624-0. 
  • Belfrage, Cedric (1989). The American Inquisition, 1945-1960: A Profile of the "McCarthy Era". Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 0-938410-87-3. 
  • Buckley, William F. (1954). McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-472-2. 
  • Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House. ISBN 0-394-46270-X. 
  • Coulter, Ann (2003). Treason: Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1-4000-5032-4. 
  • Crosby, Donald F. (1978). God, Church, and Flag: Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the Catholic Church, 1950-1957. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1312-5. 
  • Crosby, Donald F. "The Jesuits and Joe McCarthy." Church History 1977 46(3): 374-388. Issn: 0009-6407 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Daynes, Gary (1997). Making Villains, Making Heroes: Joseph R. McCarthy, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Politics of American Memory. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8153-2992-X. 
  • Evans, M. Stanton (2007). Blacklisted By History: The Real Story of Joseph McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies. Crown Forum. ISBN 1-4000-8105-X. 
  • Freeland, Richard M. (1985). The Truman Doctrine and the Origins of McCarthyism: Foreign Policy, Domestic Politics, and Internal Security, 1946-1948. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-2576-7. 
  • Fried, Richard M. (1977). Men Against McCarthy. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08360-2. 
  • Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  • Gauger, Michael. "Flickering Images: Live Television Coverage and Viewership of the Army-McCarthy Hearings." Historian 2005 67(4): 678-693. Issn: 0018-2370 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco. Audience ratings show that few people watched the hearings.
  • Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  • Haynes, John Earl and Klehr, Harvey (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08462-5. 
  • Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83625-4. 
  • Latham, Earl (1969). Communist Controversy in Washington: From the New Deal to McCarthy. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-689-70121-7. 
  • Murphy, Brenda. Congressional Theatre: Dramatizing McCarthyism on Stage, Film, and Television. Cambridge U. Press, 1999.
  • O'Brien, Michael (1981). McCarthy and McCarthyism in Wisconsin. Olympic Marketing Corp. ISBN 0-8262-0319-1. 
  • Oshinsky, David M. [1983] (2005). A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515424-X. 
  • Powers, Richard Gid (1997). Not Without Honor: A History of American AntiCommunism. Free Press. ISBN 0-300-07470-0. 
  • Ranville, Michael (1996). To Strike at a King: The Turning Point in the McCarthy Witch-Hunt. Momentum Books Limited. ISBN 1-879094-53-3. 
  • Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books. ISBN 1-56833-101-0. 
  • Rosteck, Thomas (1994). See It Now Confronts McCarthyism: Television Documentary and the Politics of Representation. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-5191-4. 
  • Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  • Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  • Strout, Lawrence N. (1999). Covering McCarthyism: How the Christian Science Monitor Handled Joseph R. McCarthy, 1950-1954. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31091-2. 
  • Wicker, Tom (2006). Shooting Star: The Brief Arc of Joe McCarthy. Harcourt. ISBN 0-15-101082-X. 

Primary sources

Cedric Henning Belfrage (born November 8, 1904 - died June 21, 1990) was a socialist, author, journalist, translator and co-founder of the radical US-weekly newspaper the National Guardian. ... This article is about the conservative journalist and commentator. ... Ann Hart Coulter (born December 8, 1961)[1] is an American best-selling author, columnist and political commentator. ... John Earl Haynes is a historian who is a specialist in 20th Century political history in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress; he is known for his books on the subject of the American Communist and anti-Communist movements, and on Soviet espionage in America (many written jointly... Harvey E. Klehr (born December 25, 1945) is a professor of politics and history at Emory University; he is known for his books on the subject of the American Communist movement, and on Soviet espionage in America (many written jointly with John Earl Haynes). ... Arthur Herman is a conservative American historian of Anglo-American history. ... David M. Oshinsky is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American historian, currently chairing the history department at the University of Texas at Austin. ... Richard H. Rovere (5 May 1915—23 November 1979) was an American journalist. ... Ellen Wolf Schrecker, Ph. ... Tom Wicker (born 1926) is an American journalist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Joseph McCarthy

Defense of McCarthy: The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

  • By Human Events Online, a conservative weekly:
    • Editor Taints Recently Published Hearings: How Senate Historian Botched Data on McCarthy
    • Levin and Collins Trigger Disinformation: Senate Historian Clams Up When Queried On McCarthy
  • By Opinion Editorials, a conservative website:
    • The 1950's Reign Of Terror Was AGAINST McCarthy - Not By Him!
  • A Conspiracy So Vast by Dorothy Rabinowitz
  • Has she no shame? by Joe Conason
  • The Trouble with “Treason” by David Horowitz

Criticism of McCarthy: Dorothy Rabinowitz is U.S conservative journalist and commentator. ... Joe Conason is a United States-based journalist and author and is a noted commentator for liberal positions. ... For other persons named David Horowitz, see David Horowitz (disambiguation). ...

  • Excerpt from Richard Rovere's book Senator Joe McCarthy
  • Essay on McCarthyism and modern threats to liberty
Preceded by
Robert M. La Follette, Jr.
United States Senator (Class 1) from Wisconsin
1947–1957
Served alongside: Alexander Wiley
Succeeded by
William Proxmire
Preceded by
John L. McClellan
Arkansas
Chairman of Senate Government Operations Committee
1953–1955
Succeeded by
John L. McClellan
Arkansas
Persondata
NAME McCarthy, Joseph Raymond
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Wisconsin politician
DATE OF BIRTH November 14, 1908(1908-11-14)
PLACE OF BIRTH Grand Chute, Wisconsin, United States
DATE OF DEATH May 2, 1957
PLACE OF DEATH Bethesda, Maryland, United States

Richard H. Rovere (5 May 1915—23 November 1979) was an American journalist. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Jr. ... Wisconsin was admitted to the Union on May 29, 1848. ... Alexander Wiley (May 26, 1884 - May 26, 1967) was a member of the Republican Party who served four terms in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1939 to 1963. ... Edward William Proxmire (November 11, 1915 – December 15, 2005) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1989. ... John Little McClellan (25 February 1896 – 28 November 1977) was a member of the US Senate|United States Senate and United States House of Representatives from Arkansas. ... The United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs has jurisdiction over matters related to the Department of Homeland Security and other homeland security concerns, as well as the functioning of the government itself, including the National Archives, budget and accounting measures other than appropriations, the Census, the... John Little McClellan (25 February 1896 – 28 November 1977) was a member of the US Senate|United States Senate and United States House of Representatives from Arkansas. ... Wisconsin was admitted to the Union on May 29, 1848. ... Henry Dodge (October 12, 1782 - June 19, 1867) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1848 - 1857. ... Senator Matthew Carpenter Matthew Hale Carpenter, born Decatur Merritt Hammond Carpenter, (December 22, 1824 - February 24, 1881) was a member of the Republican Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1869 - 1875 and again from 1879 - 1881. ... Angus Cameron (July 4, 1826–March 30, 1897) was a Republican and a member of the United States Senate from Wisconsin from 1875-1881, when he did not seek reelection, and again from 1881-1885, when he was elected to succeed Matthew H. Carpenter, who died in office; he did... Philetus Sawyer (September 22, 1816 – March 29, 1900) was an American politician of the Republican Party who represented Wisconsin in both houses of Congress. ... John Lendrum Mitchell (October 19, 1842 - June 29, 1904) was an American politician and a Congressman and Senator from Wisconsin. ... Joseph Very Quarles (December 16, 1843 – October 7, 1911) was an American politician of the Republican Party who served as a United States Senator from Wisconsin. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Jr. ... Edward William Proxmire (November 11, 1915 – December 15, 2005) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1989. ... This article refers to Sen. ... Isaac P. Walker Isaac Pigeon Walker (November 2, 1815 – March 29, 1872) was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin. ... Charles Durkee (December 10, 1805 _ January 14, 1870) was an American politician and a Congressman and Senator from Wisconsin. ... Born in New York City in October of 1827, Timothy O. Howe was a prominent homosexual in his community. ... Senator Matthew Carpenter Matthew Hale Carpenter, born Decatur Merritt Hammond Carpenter, (December 22, 1824 - February 24, 1881) was a member of the Republican Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1869 - 1875 and again from 1879 - 1881. ... Angus Cameron (July 4, 1826–March 30, 1897) was a Republican and a member of the United States Senate from Wisconsin from 1875-1881, when he did not seek reelection, and again from 1881-1885, when he was elected to succeed Matthew H. Carpenter, who died in office; he did... John Coit Spooner (January 6, 1843 - June 11, 1919) was a member of the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1885 - 1891 and again from 1897 - 1907. ... William Freeman Vilas (July 9, 1840–August 27, 1908) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1891 to 1897. ... John Coit Spooner (January 6, 1843 - June 11, 1919) was a member of the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1885 - 1891 and again from 1897 - 1907. ... Isaac Stephenson Isaac Stephenson (June 18, 1829 – March 15, 1918) was an American politician of the Republican Party who represented Wisconsin as both a United States Representative and a United States Senator. ... Paul Oscar Husting (April 25, 1866 - October 21, 1917) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1915 - 1917. ... Irvine Luther Lenroot (January 31, 1869 - January 26, 1949) was a member of the United States Republican Party who served in the House of Representatives from 1909 - 1918, and in United States Senate from 1918 - 1927, for the state of Wisconsin. ... John J. Blaine,John James Blaine,(May 4, 1875-April 18, 1934). ... Francis Ryan Duffy (June 23, 1888 - August 16, 1979) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1933 to 1939. ... Alexander Wiley (May 26, 1884 - May 26, 1967) was a member of the Republican Party who served four terms in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1939 to 1963. ... Gaylord Nelson Gaylord Anton Nelson (June 4, 1916 – July 3, 2005) was a Democratic American politician from Wisconsin. ... Robert Walter Bob Kasten Jr. ... Russell Dana Russ Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Grand Chute is a town located in Outagamie County, Wisconsin. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ...


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NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Joseph McCarthy (1588 words)
Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957.
Born and raised on a Wisconsin farm, McCarthy earned a law degree at Marquette University in 1935 and was elected as a circuit judge in 1939, the youngest in state history.
McCarthy was born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin, on November 14, 1908, and educated at Marquette University.
Senator Joseph McCarthy (501 words)
Senator Joseph McCarthy was the leading American anticommunist figure in the late 1940s and early 50s.
McCarthy then demanded that Peress be court-martialed, but the process of the discharge had already started.
On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted to censure McCarthy by a vote of 67 to 22.
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