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Encyclopedia > Joseph Larmor

Sir Joseph Larmor (11 July 185719 May 1942), an Northern Irish physicist, mathematician and politician, researched electricity, dynamics, and thermodynamics. is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Articles with similar titles include physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Leonhard Euler, one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...

Contents

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Biography

Larmor published the Lorentz transformations in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1897 some two years before Hendrik Lorentz (1899, 1904) and eight years before Albert Einstein (1905). Larmor predicted the phenomenon of time dilation, at least for orbiting electrons, and verified that the FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction (length contraction) should occur for bodies whose atoms were held together by electromagnetic forces. In his book Aether and Matter (1900), he again presented the Lorentz transformations, time dilation and length contraction (treating these as dynamic rather than kinematic effects). Larmor was in opposition to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity (though he supported it for a short time). Larmor rejected both the curvature of space and the special theory of relativity, to the extent that he claimed that an absolute time was essential to astronomy (Larmor 1924, 1927). A Lorentz transformation (LT) is a linear transformation that preserves the spacetime interval between any two events in Minkowski space, while leaving the origin fixed (=rotation of Minkowski space). ... Cover of Cover the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (July 18, 1853, Arnhem – February 4, 1928, Haarlem) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and elucidation of the Zeeman effect. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Time dilation is the phenomenon whereby an observer finds that anothers clock which is physically identical to their own is ticking at a slower rate as measured by their own clock. ... The Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction hypothesis was proposed by Fitzgerald and independently proposed and extended by Lorentz to explain the negative result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, which attempted to detect Earths motion relative to the luminiferous aether. ... Length contraction, according to Albert Einsteins special theory of relativity, is the decrease in length experienced by people or objects traveling at a substantial fraction of the speed of light. ... In physics, kinematics is the branch of mechanics concerned with the motions of objects without being concerned with the forces that cause the motion. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ...


Larmor proposed that the aether could be represented as a homogeneous fluid medium which was perfectly incompressible and elastic. Larmor believed the aether was separate from matter. Larmor united Lord Kelvin's model of spinning gyrostats (e.g., vortexes) with this theory. The luminiferous aether: it was hypothesised that the Earth moves through a medium of aether that carries light In the late 19th century luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether) was the term used to describe a medium for the propagation of light. ... Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Disambiguation | Software stubs | Data compression software ... Look up elastic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, FRSE, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a mathematical physicist, engineer, and outstanding leader in the physical sciences of the 19th century. ... A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ... Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ...


Larmor held that matter consisted of particles moving in the aether. Larmor believed the source of electric charge was a "particle" (which as early as 1897 he was referring to as the electron). Thus, in what was apparently the first specific prediction of time dilation, he wrote "... individual electrons describe corresponding parts of their orbits in times shorter for the [rest] system in the ratio (1 - v2/c2)1/2" (Larmor 1897). Matter is the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... e- redirects here. ... Time dilation is the phenomenon whereby an observer finds that anothers clock which is physically identical to their own is ticking at a slower rate as measured by their own clock. ...


Larmor held that the flow of charged particles constitutes the current of conduction (but was not part of the atom). Larmor calculated the rate of energy radiation from an accelerating electron. Larmor explained the splitting of the spectral lines in a magnetic field by the oscillation of electrons. In electricity, current refers to electric current, which is the flow of electric charge. ... In science and engineering, conductors are materials that contain movable charges of electricity. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to that point basicly. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, a magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field in the space surrounding moving electric charges, such as those in electric currents and bar magnets. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ...


In February 1911 Larmor was elected as the Unionist MP for Cambridge University and remained in Parliament until the 1922 general election. This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | UK political parties | Historical liberal parties ... Cambridge University was a university constituency electing two members to the House of Commons, from 1603 to 1950. ... The UK general election of 1922 was held on 15th November 1922. ...


In 1919, Larmor proposed sunspots are self-regenerative dynamo action on the Sun's surface. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings and intense magnetic activity, which inhibits convection, forming areas of low surface temperature. ... The regenerative circuit (or self-regenerative circuit) allows a signal to be amplified many times by the same vacuum tube or other active component such as a field effect transistor. ... Dynamo, or Dinamo, may refer to: Dynamo, an electrical generator Dynamo (sports society) of the Soviet Union Operation Dynamo, the 1940 mass evacuation at Dunkirk Dynamo, the rock band based in Belfast Dynamo theory, a theory relating to magnetic fields of celestial bodies Dynamo Open Air, annual heavy metal music... “Sol” redirects here. ...


Awards and honors

1898 -- Adams Prize (Cambridge)
1914 -- De Morgan Medal (London Mathematical Society)
1915 -- Royal Medal (Royal Society)
1921 -- Copley Medal (Royal Society)

The Crater Larmor on the moon was named in his honour. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... See also the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize of the American Historical Society The Adams Prize is awarded each year by the Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and St Johns College to a young, UK based mathematician for first class international research in the Mathematical Sciences. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The De Morgan Medal is a prize for outstanding contribution to mathematics, awarded by the London Mathematical Society (LMS). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London were established by King George IV. They were further supported with certain changes to their conditions, by King William IV and Queen Victoria. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... Larmor is a lunar crater on the Moons far side. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


Publications

Larmor edited the complete works of George Stokes and William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin. Larmor wrote the obituaries of George Stokes, Josiah Gibbs, and William Thomson. Larmor's publications include: Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet (August 13, 1819 – February 1, 1903) was an Irish mathematician and physicist. ... William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, FRSE, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a mathematical physicist, engineer, and outstanding leader in the physical sciences of the 19th century. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American physical chemist. ...

  • 1887, "On the direct applications of first principles in the theory of partial differential equations," Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • 1891, "On the theory of electrodynamics," Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • 1892, "On the theory of electrodynamics, as affected by the nature of the mechanical stresses in excited dielectrics," Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • 1893-97, "Dynamical Theory of the Electric and Luminiferous Medium," Proceedings of the Royal Society; Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series of 3 papers containing Larmor's physical theory of the universe. The last, containing the Lorentz transformations, is 1897 (190): 205-300.
  • 1894, "Least action as the fundamental formulation in dynamics and physics," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society.
  • 1896, "The influence of a magnetic field on radiation frequency," Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • 1896, "On the absolute minimum of optical deviation by a prism," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
  • 1898, "Note on the complete scheme of electrodymnamic equations of a moving material medium, and electrostriction," Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • 1898, "On the origin of magneto-optic rotation," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
  • 1900, Aether and Matter. (renamed by Horace Lamb Aether and no matter).
  • 1903, "On the electrodymanic and thermal relations of energy of magnetisation," Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • 1907, "Aether" in Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London.
  • 1908, "William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs. 1824-1907" (Obituary). Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • 1924, "On Editing Newton," Nature.
  • 1927, "Newtonion time essential to astronomy," Nature.
  • 1929, "Mathematical and Physical Papers. Cambridge Univ. Press.

Cover of Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... A Lorentz transformation (LT) is a linear transformation that preserves the spacetime interval between any two events in Minkowski space, while leaving the origin fixed (=rotation of Minkowski space). ... Sir Horace Lamb FRS (November 29, 1849 - December 4, 1934) was a British applied mathematician and author of several influential texts on classical physics, among them Hydrodynamics (1895) and Dynamical Theory of Sound (1910). ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

See also

Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet (13 August 1819–1 February 1903) was an Irish mathematician and physicist, who at Cambridge made important contributions to fluid dynamics (including the Navier-Stokes equations), optics, and mathematical physics (including Stokes theorem). ... Larmor precession refers to the precession of the magnetic moments of electrons or atomic nucleii in atoms around the direction of an external magnetic field. ... In physics, Larmor precession, named after Joseph Larmor refers to the precession of the magnetic moments of electrons, atomic nuclei, and atoms around the direction of an external magnetic field. ... The gyroradius (also known as radius of gyration or cyclotron radius) defines the radius of the circular motion of a charged particle in the presence of a magnetic field. ... The Larmor formula is used to calculate the power radiated by a nonrelativistic electron as it accelerates. ... The incumbent of the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, the Lucasian Professor is the holder of a mathematical professorship at Cambridge University. ... The relativity of simultaneity is the dependence of the notion of simultaneity on the observer. ...

External links and references

  • Einstein, A. (1905) "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper", Annalen der Physik, 17, 891. English translation: On the electrodynamics of moving bodies
  • Greco, Diane, "Ether and field theories". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Lorentz, H. A. (1899) "Simplified theory of electrical and optical phnomena in moving systems", Proc. Acad. Science Amsterdam, I, 427-43.
  • Lorentz, H. A. (1904) "Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity less than that of light", Proc. Acad. Science Amsterdam, IV, 669-78.
  • Macrossan, M. N. "A note on relativity before Einstein", British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 37 (1986): 232-234.
  • Warwick, Andrew, "On the Role of the FitzGerald-Lorentz Contraction Hypothesis in the Development of Joseph Larmor's Electronic Theory of Matter". Archive for History of Exact Sciences 43 (1991): 29-91.
  • Weisstein, Eric W., "Larmor, Joseph (1857-1942)". Science World.
  • "Larmor, Sir Joseph (1857-1942)". AIM25.
  • "Sir Joseph Larmor". Rug.ac.be.
  • "Sir Joseph Larmor". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland.
  • "Joseph Larmor". University Science.
  • "Papers of Sir Joseph Larmor". Janus, University of Cambridge.
Preceded by
Sir George Stokes
Lucasian Professor at Cambridge University
1903–1932
Succeeded by
Paul Dirac

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Larmor (474 words)
Larmor proposed that the aether could be represented as a homogeneous fluid medium which was perfectly incompressible and elastic.
Larmor held that matter consisted of particles moving in the aether.
Larmor held that the flow of charged particles constitutes the current of conduction (but was not part of the atom).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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