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Encyclopedia > Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign 1765 - 1790
Full name Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam
Titles King of Hungary
King of Croatia and Slavonia
King of Bohemia
Archduke of Austria
King of Germany
Born March 13, 1741
Died February 20, 1790
Vienna
Buried Imperial Crypt
Predecessor Francis I
Successor Leopold II
Consort Isabella Maria of Parma (?-1763)
Consort Maria Josepha of Bavaria
Father Francis I
Mother Maria Theresa

Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. Download high resolution version (304x635, 20 KB)Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II from [1]. Public domain by age. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... // The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... An ornament of the sarcophagus of Emperor Karl VI: a deaths head with the crown of the Holy Roman Empire Tomb of Franz Josef I, flanked by wife Elisabeth and son Rudolf. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Maria Isabella painted by Jean-Marc Nattier Isabella Maria of Parma, (December 31, 1741 – November 27, 1763), was the daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma and his wife Louise-Elisabeth. ... Maria Josepha (Marie Josephe Antonie Walburga Felicitas Regula, 30 March 1679 - 28 May 1767), Princess of Bavaria, was the daughter of Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria and Maria Amalia of Austria. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ...


He is known by the following names in the languages of his territories: German: Joseph II, Czech: Josef II, Slovak: Jozef II, Hungarian: II. József, Croatian: Josip II.

Contents

Joseph as heir and co-regent

Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession. Maria Theresa gave orders that he was only to be taught as if he were amusing himself; the result was that Joseph acquired a habit of crude and superficial study. His real education was given to him through the writings of Voltaire and the Encyclopedists, and by the example of Frederick the Great. His useful training was conferred by government officials, who were directed to instruct him in the mechanical details of the administration of the numerous states composing the Austrian dominions and the Empire. Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...


He was made a member of the constituted council of state (Staatsrath) and began to draw up minutes (to which he gave the name of "Reveries") for his mother to read. These papers contain the germs of his later policy, and of all the disasters which finally overtook him. He was a friend to religious toleration, anxious to reduce the power of the church, to relieve the peasantry of feudal burdens, and to remove restrictions on trade and knowledge. In these, he did not differ from Frederick, Catherine of Russia, or his own brother and successor Leopold II, all enlightened rulers of the 18th century stamp. He was a great influence on serfs but that did not last after his death.[citation needed] Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and where he was very close akin to the Jacobins, was in the fanatical intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason, of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the sensibility of his rule. He had also inherited from his mother the belief of the house of Austria in its "august" quality and its claim to acquire whatever it found desirable for its power or profit. He was unable to understand that his philosophical plans for the moulding of mankind could meet with pardonable opposition. In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...

Austrian Royalty
House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Maria Theresa & Francis I
Children include
   Joseph II
   Archduchess Maria Christina
   Archduchess Marie Amalie
   Leopold II
   Archduchess Marie Caroline
   Archduke Ferdinand
   Archduchess Marie Antoinette
   Archduke Maximilian
Grandchildren include
   Francis IV of Modena
   Archduke Ferdinand Karl
Joseph II
Leopold II
Children include
   Archduchess Maria Theresia
   Francis II
   Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
   Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
   Archduke Alexander Leopold
   Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
   Archduke Johann
   Archduke Rainer
   Archduke Louis
   Archduke Rudolph
Grandchildren include
   Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
   Archduchess Maria Theresa
   Archduke Albert, Duke of Teschen
   Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska
Francis II

Joseph was documented by contemporaries as being impressive, but not necessarily likeable. In 1760, his arranged consort, the well educated Isabella of Parma, was handed over to him. Joseph appears to have been completely in love with her, but Isabella preferred the companionship of Joseph's sister, Marie Christine of Austria. The overweening character of the Emperor was obvious to Frederick II of Prussia, who, after their first interview in 1769, described him as ambitious, and as capable of setting the world on fire. The French minister Vergennes, who met Joseph when he was travelling incognito in 1777, judged him to be "ambitious and despotic." Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Archduchess Marie Christine of Austria, Duchess of Teschen Marie Christine Johanna Josephe Antonie of Austria (born Maria Christina Johanna Josepha Antonia) (3 May 1742 - 24 June 1798), (→Family Tree) called Mimi, was the fourth girl and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Maria Amalia of Austria, duchess of Parma, Plaisance and Guastalla Maria Amalia of Austria (Feb 26, 1746, Vienna - Jun 18, 1804, Prague). ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily Her Majesty Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily née Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752- 8 September 1814) was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799... Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislaus of Austria-Este (1 June 1754-24 December 1806), was the fourth son and fourteenth child of Franz I and Maria Theresa, became heir to the Duchies of Modena and Reggio through his marriage on 15 October 1771 to Beatrice dEste, the... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Maximilian Franz visits with his sister Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI. Painting by Josef Hauzinger Maximilian Franz (1756-1801) was the 16th and the last child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Francis IV of Modena with the Austrian Golden Fleece. ... Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este (April 25, 1781-November 5, 1850) was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda dEste, last member and heiress of the house of Este. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Archduchess Maria Theresia Josepha Charlotte Johanna of Austria (January 14, 1767 - November 7, 1827) was the second wife of King Anthony Clement of Saxony. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (de: Erzherzog Karl von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, also known as Karl von Österreich-Teschen) (September 5, 1771–April 30, 1847) was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747–1792) and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792). ... Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria (born Alexander Leopold Johann Joseph August 14, 1772 in Florence, Italy; died Laxenburg, Austria July 12, 1795) was the fourth son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Maria Louisa of Spain. ... Archduke Joseph c. ... Archduke Johann (or John) of Austria (January 20, 1782 - May 11, 1859) was the 13th child of Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, who later became Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Rainer Joseph Johann Michael Franz Hieronymus, Archduke of Austria (Pisa 30 September 1783 - Bolzano 16 January 1853), son of Emperor Leopold II. Married at Prague on 28 May 1820 Princess Elisabeth of Savoy-Carignano (Paris 13 April 1800 - Bozen 25 December 1856). ... Archduke Louis Joseph Anton Johann of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Tuscany (born 13 December 1784 at Florence, Italy – died 21 December 1864 at Vienna, Austria) was the 15th son of Emperor Leopold II of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duke of Tuscany and... Erzherzog Rudolph of Austria, Fürsterzbischof von Olmütz. ... Portrait of Leopold II Leopold II (October 3, 1797 – January 29, 1870), of Habsburg-Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Prince Imperial and Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Maria Theresia Isabella, queen consort of Naples and Sicily Archduchess Maria Theresa (Isabella) of Austria (31 July 1816, Vienna - 8 August 1867, Albano) was the second Queen consort of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies. ... Albrecht Friedrich Rudolf, Prince Imperial and Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Teschen (born August 3, 1817 in Vienna; died February 2, 1895, Arco (Italy) was an Austrian Habsburg general. ... Elisabeth Franziska Maria, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary and Bohemia (17 January 1831 - 14 February 1903). ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Marie Christine Johanna Josephe Antonie of Austria (born Maria Christina Johanna Josepha Antonia) (3 May 1742 - 24 June 1798), (→Family Tree) called Mimi, was the second girl and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes (December 20, 1717—February 13, 1787) was a French statesman and diplomat. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Archducal hat of Joseph II, made 1764 in Vienna of gold-coated silver. Now in the Schatzkammer.
Archducal hat of Joseph II, made 1764 in Vienna of gold-coated silver. Now in the Schatzkammer.

Until the death of his mother in 1780, Joseph was never quite free to follow his own instincts. After the death of his father in 1765, he became emperor and was made co-regent by his mother in the Austrian dominions. As emperor, he had no real power, and his mother had resolved that neither her husband nor her son should ever deprive her of sovereign control in her hereditary dominions. Joseph, by threatening to resign his place as co-regent, could induce his mother to abate her dislike for religious toleration. He could and did place a great strain on her patience and temper, as in the case of the first partition of Poland and the Bavarian War of 17781779, but in the last resort, the empress spoke the final word. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... At the Klosterneuberg Abbey another item of the Austrian regalia is kept, namely the Austrian archducal hat of 1616. ... Schatzkammer in German translates as Treasury (Chamber/Vault). ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The War of the Bavarian Succession was a war that occurred in 1778 and 1779. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


During these wars, Joseph traveled much. He met Frederick the Great privately at Neisse in 1769, and again at Mährisch-Neustadt in 1770. On the second occasion, he was accompanied by Count Kaunitz, whose conversation with Frederick may be said to mark the starting point of the first partition of Poland. To this and to every other measure which promised to extend the dominions of his house, Joseph gave hearty approval. Thus, he was eager to enforce Austria's claim on Bavaria upon the death of the elector Maximilian Joseph in 1777. In April of that year, he paid a visit to his sister the queen of France, Marie Antoinette of Austria, traveling under the name of "Count Falkenstein." He was well received and much flattered by the Encyclopedists, but his observations led him to predict the approaching downfall of the French monarchy, and he was not impressed favorably by the French army or navy. Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Nysa (until 1946: German Neisse or Neiße; the current version is a Polish rendering of this) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa KÅ‚odzka river with 52,000 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Opole Voivodeship. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location of Uničov in the Czech Republic Coat of arms of Uničov Flag of Uničov Uničov (IPA: , German: Mährisch-Neustadt) is a town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (Count Anton von Kaunitz), (Václav Antonín hrabě Kounic-Rietberg) (February 2, 1711 - June 27, 1794), born into old Bohemian noble family settled in Moravia, was an Austrian statesman. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Marie-Antoinette, painted by Wagenschon shortly after her marriage in 1770 Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born 2 November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height...


In 1778, he commanded the troops collected to oppose Frederick, who supported the rival claimant to Bavaria. Real fighting was averted by the unwillingness of Frederick to embark on a new war and by Maria Theresa's determination to maintain peace. In April 1780, Joseph paid a visit to Catherine II of Russia, against the wish of his mother. 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ...


As the son of Francis I, Joseph succeeded him as titular Duke of Lorraine and Bar, which had been surrendered to France on his father's marriage, and titular King of Jerusalem and Duke of Calabria (as a proxy for the Kingdom of Naples). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... In the middle of the 10th century, the territory of Bar (Barrois) formed a dependency of the Holy Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154...


Joseph as ruling emperor

The death of Maria Theresa on November 27, 1780, left Joseph free. He immediately directed his government on a new course, full speed ahead. He proceeded to attempt to realize his ideal of enlightened despotism acting on a definite system for the good of all. The measures of emancipation of the peasantry which his mother had begun were carried on by him with feverish activity. The spread of education, the secularization of church lands, the reduction of the religious orders and the clergy in general to complete submission to the lay state, the issue of the Patent of Tolerance (1781) providing limited guarantee of freedom of worship, the promotion of unity by the compulsory use of the German language—everything which from the point of view of 18th century philosophy, the so-called Age of Enlightenment, appeared "reasonable"—were undertaken at once. He strove for administrative unity with characteristic haste to reach results without preparation. is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as enlightened despotism) is the absolutist rule of an enlightened monarch . ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Patent of toleration was a series of ecclesiastical reforms carried out by the Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II of Austria (1765-1790). ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...


His anticlerical and liberal innovations induced Pope Pius VI to pay him a visit in July 1782. Joseph received the pope politely and showed himself a good Catholic, but refused to be influenced. On the other hand, Joseph was very friendly to Freemasonry, as he found it highly compatible with his own Enlightenment philosophy, although he apparently never joined the Lodge himself. Joseph's feelings towards religion are reflected in a witticism he once spoke in Paris. While being given a tour of the Sorbonne's library, the archivist took Joseph to a dark room containing religious documents, and lamented the lack of light which prevented Joseph from being able to read them. Joseph put the man at rest by saying "Ah, when it comes to religion, there is never much light." Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... “Freemasons” redirects here. ...


Multiple interferences with old customs began to produce unrest in all parts of his dominions. Meanwhile, Joseph threw himself into a succession of foreign policies, all aimed at aggrandisement, and all equally calculated to offend his neighbours—all taken up with zeal, and dropped in discouragement. He endeavoured to get rid of the Barrier Treaty, which debarred his Flemish subjects from the navigation of the Scheldt. When he was opposed by France, he turned to other schemes of alliance with the Russian Empire for the partition of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice. These plans also had to be given up in the face of the opposition of neighbours, and in particular of France. Then Joseph resumed his attempts to obtain Bavaria—this time by exchanging it for Belgium—and only provoked the formation of the Fürstenbund, organized by Frederick II of Prussia. During the War of Spanish Succession, the Barrier Treaties were the names given first to the treaty signed on October 29, 1709 between Great Britain and the states-general of the United Provinces. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Frederick the Great created the Furstenbund in Germany about 1780 to resist the encroachments of Austria. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ...

A medal minted during the reign of Josef II, commemorating his grant of religious liberty to Jews and Protestants.
A medal minted during the reign of Josef II, commemorating his grant of religious liberty to Jews and Protestants.

In addition, Joseph abolished serfdom in 1781. Later, in 1789, he decreed that peasants must be paid in cash payments rather than labor obligations. These policies were violently rejected by both the nobility and the peasants, since their barter economy lacked money. Image File history File links Josef_II_medal. ... Image File history File links Josef_II_medal. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... “Serf” redirects here. ...


Also he abolished the death penalty in 1787 and its remained until 1795. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Finally, Joseph joined Russia in an attempt to pillage the Ottoman Empire. It began on his part in an unsuccessful and discreditable attempt to surprise Belgrade in time of peace, and was followed by the ill-managed campaign of 1788. He accompanied his army, but showed no capacity for war; the low point of this campaign was the extraordinary incident known as the Battle of Karansebes, in which the Austrian army ran away from an imaginary Ottoman army. For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Karansebes took place on the evening of 17 September 1788, between different portions of an Austrian army which was supposed to be fighting the Turks. ...


In November 1788, he returned to Vienna with ruined health, and during 1789, was a dying man. The concentration of his troops in the east gave the malcontents of Belgium an opportunity to revolt. In Hungary, the nobles were in all but open rebellion, and in his other states, there were peasant risings and a revival of particularistic sentiments. Joseph was left entirely alone. His minister Kaunitz refused to visit his sick-room and did not see him for two years. His brother Leopold remained at Florence. At last, Joseph, worn out and broken-hearted, recognized that his servants could not, or would not, carry out his plans. On January 30, 1790, he formally withdrew all his reforms, and he died on February 20, 1790. He is buried in tomb number 42 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. He asked that his epitaph read: "Here lies Joseph II, who failed in all he undertook." 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... An ornament of the sarcophagus of Emperor Karl VI: a deaths head with the crown of the Holy Roman Empire Tomb of Franz Josef I, flanked by wife Elisabeth and son Rudolf. ...


Marriages

Joseph II married, as his first wife, Isabella Maria of Parma, a daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma. They had a daughter, named Maria Theresa, who died young. After Archduchess Isabella's death on November 27, 1763, a political marriage was arranged with Maria Josepha of Bavaria (d. 1767), a daughter of Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria (the former emperor Charles VII) and Marie Amalie, Archduchess of Austria. The second marriage proved extremely unhappy. Maria Isabella painted by Jean-Marc Nattier Isabella Maria of Parma, (December 31, 1741 – November 27, 1763), was the daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma and his wife Louise-Elisabeth. ... Philip of Bourbon, Duke of Parma (March 15, 1720–July 18, 1765) was duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. ... Maria Theresia Habsburg may refer to: Maria Theresia Habsburg (1684-1696), daughter of Leopold I Maria Theresia Habsburg (1762-1770), daughter of Joseph II See also Maria Theresa. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Maria Josepha (Marie Josephe Antonie Walburga Felicitas Regula, 30 March 1679 - 28 May 1767), Princess of Bavaria, was the daughter of Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria and Maria Amalia of Austria. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... Marie Amelie in Hunting Dress Marie Amalie or Maria Amalia, Archduchess of Austria (October 22, 1701 - December 11, 1756) was the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Wilhelmina Amalia, daughter of Duke Frederick of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ...


Joseph was succeeded by his brother, Leopold II. Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ...


Influence in the arts

Like many of the "enlightened monarchs" of his time, Joseph was a lover and patron of the arts. He was known as the "music king" and steered Austrian high culture towards a more Germanic orientation. He commissioned the German-language opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail from Mozart. The young Ludwig van Beethoven was commissioned to write a funeral cantata for him, but it was not performed due to its technical difficulty. enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ... Die Entführung aus dem Serail (K. 384; in English The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is a opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ...


Joseph is prominently featured in Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus, and the movie based upon it. In the movie, he is played by actor Jeffrey Jones as a well-meaning but somewhat clueless monarch of limited but enthusiastic musical skill, easily manipulated by Salieri; however, Shaffer has made it clear his play was fiction in many respects and not intended to portray historical reality. // Sir Peter Levin Shaffer (born May 15, 1926) is an English dramatist, author of numerous award-winning plays, several of which have been filmed. ... Playbill, 1981 For other uses, see Amadeus (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jeffrey Jones, see Jeffrey Jones (disambiguation). ... Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), was an Italian composer and conductor. ...


Ancestors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Princess Claude-Françoise of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria
Queen Dowager of Poland-Lithuania
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Eleanor Gonzaga of Mantua
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Louis XIII of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Anne of Austria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Princess Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Countess Palatine Elizabeth Charlotte of Simmern
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (= 18)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Maria Anna of Spain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Philip William, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Maria Theresa of Austria
Queen of Hungary & Bohemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Duchess Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Albert Ernest I, Prince of Oettingen-Oettingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Duchess Christine Frederica of Württemburg
 
 
 
 
 
 

Many volumes of the emperor's correspondence have been published. Among them are: Nicholas II (December 12, 1612 – January 25, 1670), was Duke of Lorraine between 1634 and 1661, when he abdicated for his son. ... Charles Léopold Nicolas Sixte (April 3, 1643 – April 18, 1690), was the titular Duke of Lorraine from 1675 to 1690, a time when Lorraine was occupied by France. ... Leopold, Duc de Lorraine Leopold Joseph called le bon (the good) , (Innsbruck, September 11, 1679 – Lunéville , March 27, 1729), was Duke of Lorraine from 1690 to his death. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Eleanora Maria, Archduchess of Austria Eleonora WiÅ›niowiecka, portrait as a Queen of the Rzeczpospolita Archduchess Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria (in Polish Eleonora WiÅ›niowiecka or Eleonora Habsburżanka), (21 May 1653 Regensburg, Germany - 17 Dec 1697 Vienna, Austria) was the daughter of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor and... Eleanor of Mantua Eleonora Gonzaga (18 November 1630 - 6 December 1686) of the Mantua was a daughter of Charles II, Duke of Mantua (1609 - 1631) and his wife and cousin Maria Gonzaga, heiress to the Duchy of Mantua. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philippe I, duc dOrléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701), known as Monsieur--as the French Kings eldest brother was traditionally called--at the French court from 1660, was the son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and younger brother of Louis XIV of... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Elisabeth Charlotte of Orléans Princess Elisabeth Charlotte of Orléans, named Mademoiselle de Chartres (Saint-Cloud, September 13, 1676 - Commercy, December 23, 1744) was a French Royal Princess and Duchess of Lorraine. ... Charles I Louis, engraving by Christoph Le Blon, 1652 Charles Louis, (German: ), Elector Palatine (22 December 1617 – 28 August 1680) was the second son of Frederick V, the Winter King, and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I of England. ... Elizabeth, Princess Palatine by Nicolas de Largillière (Château de Chantilly) Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine (May 27, 1652 in Heidelberg - October 9 or December 8, 1722 at the Château of Saint-Cloud near Paris), known in French as la princesse Palatine and in German as Liselotte von der... Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, around 1650 Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel (Kassel, November 20, 1627 - Heidelberg, March 16, 1686) was the wife of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and mother of Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Philip William (German: ) of Neuburg, Elector Palatine (24 November 1615 – 2 September 1690), was Count Palatine of Neuburg from 1653 to 1690, Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1679 and Elector of the Palatinate from 1685 to 1690. ... Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg or Eleonore of Pfalz-Neuburg (January 6, 1655, Düsseldorf - January 19, 1720, Vienna) was empress of Austria as wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Elisabeth Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt (Giessen, March 20, 1635 – Neuburg an der Donau, August 4, 1709) was a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and wife of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Anthony Ulrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Portrait by Bernhard Francke Anthony Ulrich (German: Anton Ulrich; 4 October 1633, Hitzacker – 27 March 1714, Salzdahlum) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy from 1685 until 1702 jointly with his brother, and solely from... Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Louis Rudolph (German Ludwig Rudolf; 22 July 1671 – 1 March 1735), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy from 1731 until his death. ... Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was empress of the Holy Roman Empire and mother of Maria Theresa of Austria. ... Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen (Oettingen, March 20, 1671 - Blankenberg September 3, 1747) was Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the maternal grandmother of Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria. ...

  • A Ritter von Arneth (editor): Maria Theresia und Joseph II: Ihre Korrespondenz—samt Briefen Josephs an seinen Bruder Leopold (1867 – 1868)
  • A Ritter von Arneth (editor): Joseph II und Leopold von Toskana. Ihr Briefwechsel 1781 – 1790 (1872)
  • A Ritter von Arneth (editor): Joseph II und Katharina von Russland. Ihr Briefwechsel (1869)
  • A Ritter von Arneth (editor): Maria Antoinette, Joseph II und Leopold II. Ihr Briefwechsel (1866)
  • Joseph II, Leopold II und Kaunitz. Ihr Briefwechsel, edited by A Beer (1873)
  • Correspondences intimes de l’empereur Joseph II avec son ami, le comte de Cobenzl et son premier ministre, le prince de Kaunitz, edited by S Brunner (1871)
  • Joseph II und Graf Ludwig Cobenzl. Ihr Briefwechsel, edited by A Beer and J von Fiedler (1901)
  • Geheime Korrespondenz Josephs II mit seinem Minister in den Oesterreichischen Niederlanden, Ferdinand Graf Trauttmannsdorff 17871789, edited by H Schlitter (1902).

1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Patent of toleration was a series of ecclesiastical reforms carried out by the Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II of Austria (1765-1790). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
  • Joseph II at Find-A-Grave
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine
Born: 13 March 1741 Died: 20 February 1790
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maria Theresa
King of Hungary
1780–1790
Succeeded by
Leopold II
King of Croatia and Slavonia
1780–1790
King of Bohemia
1780–1790
Archduke of Austria
1780–1790
Preceded by
Francis I
Holy Roman Emperor,
Roman-German King

1765–1790
Preceded by
Maria Theresa
Count of Flanders
1780-1790
Succeeded by
Leopold

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Persondata
NAME Joseph II
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Holy Roman Emperor
DATE OF BIRTH March 13, 1741
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH February 20, 1790
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (1822 words)
Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790.
Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession.
Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and where he was very close akin to the Jacobins, was in the fanatical intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason, of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the sensibility of his rule.
Joseph II (1206 words)
Holy Roman emperor, eldest son of the empress Maria Theresa and her husband Francis I, was born on the 13th of March 1741, in the first stress of the War of the Austrian Succession.
Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and where he was very close akin to the Jacobins, was in the fanatical intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason, of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the reasonableness of his own reasons.
Joseph II was twice married, first to Isabella, daughter of Philip, duke of Parma, to whom he was attached.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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