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Encyclopedia > Joseph Hooker
Joseph Hooker
November 13, 1814(1814-11-13)October 31, 1879 (aged 64)

Portrait by Mathew Brady or Levin C. Handy
Nickname Fighting Joe
Place of birth Hadley, Massachusetts
Place of death Garden City, New York
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1837–53
1859–68
Rank Major General
Commands I Corps, Army of the Potomac
Army of the Potomac
XX Corps, Army of the Tennessee
Battles/wars Seminole Wars
Mexican-American War
American Civil War

Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814October 31, 1879), known as "Fighting Joe", was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Although he served throughout the war, usually with distinction, he is best remembered for his stunning defeat by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863. Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... Levin C. Handy Levin Corbin Handy (August 1855 – March 26, 1932) was an American photographer who worked during the 19th and early 20th century. ... Hadley is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... Garden City, New York, is a village in central Nassau County, New York, in the USA, which was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Two corps of the Union Army were called XX Corps during the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville...

Contents

Early years

Hooker was born in Hadley, Massachusetts, the grandson of a captain in the American Revolutionary War. His initial schooling was at the local Hopkins Academy. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1837 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery.[1] His initial assignment was in Florida fighting in the second of the Seminole Wars. He served in the Mexican-American War in staff positions in the campaigns of both Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. He received brevet promotions for his staff leadership and gallantry in three battles: Monterrey (to captain), National Bridge (major), and Chapultepec (lieutenant colonel). His future Army reputation as a ladies' man began in Mexico, where local girls referred to him as the "Handsome Captain". Hadley is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... This article is about military actions only. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (O-3 in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines), or a rank between a Commander and... Puente Nacional is a city in Veracruz Mexico. ... Insignia of a Major in the United States Military Major is a rank used in the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, and is the equivalent of a Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, and United States National Guard. ...


After the war, he served as assistant adjutant general of the Pacific Division, but resigned his commission in 1853; his military reputation had been damaged when he testified against his former commander, General Scott, in the court-martial for insubordination of Gideon Pillow. Hooker settled in Sonoma County, California, as a farmer and land developer, but one more devoted to gambling and liquor than to agriculture. He was obviously unhappy and unsuccessful in his new profession because, in 1858, he wrote to Secretary of War John B. Floyd to request that his name "be presented to the president Buchanan as a candidate for a lieutenant colonelcy", but nothing came of his request. From 1859 to 1861, he held a commission as a colonel in the California militia.[2] An adjutant general is the chief administrative officer to a military general. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Gideon Johnson Pillow (June 8, 1806 – October 8, 1878) was an American lawyer, politician, and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Sonoma County is on the northwest coast of California, one of the northernmost parts of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, U.S. Its population at the 2000 census was 458,614. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... John Buchanan Floyd (June 1, 1806 – August 26, 1863), was a Virginia politician (legislator and governor), U.S. Secretary of War, and the Confederate general in the American Civil War who lost the crucial Battle of Fort Donelson. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


Civil War

At the start of the war, Hooker requested a commission, but his first application was rejected, possibly because of the lingering resentment harbored by Winfield Scott, general-in-chief of the Army. He had to borrow money to make the trip east from California. After he witnessed the Union Army defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run, he wrote a letter to President Abraham Lincoln that complained of military mismanagement, promoted his own qualifications, and again requested a commission. He was appointed, in August 1861, as brigadier general of volunteers to rank from May 17. He commanded a brigade and then division around Washington, D.C., as part of the effort to organize and train the new Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan. The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ...


1862

"Fighting" Joe Hooker in an 1863 engraving

In the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, Hooker commanded the 2nd Division of the III Corps and made a good name for himself as a combat leader who handled himself well and aggressively sought out the key points on battlefields. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Williamsburg (as a result of which he was promoted to major general as of May 5, 1862) and throughout the Seven Days Battles. He chafed at the cautious generalship of McClellan and openly criticized his failure to capture Richmond. Of his commander, Hooker said, "He is not only not a soldier, but he does not know what soldiership is." The Peninsula cemented two further reputations of Hooker's: his devotion to the welfare and morale of his men, and his hard drinking social life, even on the battlefield. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (494x640, 62 KB) Summary REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (494x640, 62 KB) Summary REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...


As McClellan's army retreated into inactivity, Hooker was transferred to Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia. His division first served in its III Corps under Maj. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman, but Hooker assumed corps command (III Corps of the Army of Virginia) on September 6, after the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run, a severe Union defeat. As Robert E. Lee's army moved north into Maryland, Hooker's corps (redesignated the I Corps on September 12) was returned to the Army of the Potomac, and he fought with distinction at South Mountain and Antietam. At Antietam, his corps launched the first assault of the bloodiest day in American history, driving south into the corps of Stonewall Jackson, where they fought each other to a standstill. Hooker, aggressive and inspiring to his men, left the battle early in the morning with a foot wound. He asserted that the battle would have been a decisive Union victory if he had managed to stay on the field, but General McClellan's caution once again failed the Northern troops and Lee's much smaller army eluded destruction. With his patience at an end, President Lincoln replaced McClellan with Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside. Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Samuel Peter Heintzelman (September 30, 1805 – May 1, 1880) was a U.S. Army General. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Bull Run (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Ambrose Burnside William B. Franklin Robert E. Lee Strength 28,000 18,000 Casualties 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, 75 missing) 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, 800 missing) The Battle of South Mountain (known... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ...


The December 1862 Battle of Fredericksburg was another Union debacle. Upon recovering from his foot wound, Hooker was briefly made commander of V Corps, but was then promoted to "Grand Division" command, with a command that consisted of both III and V Corps. Hooker derided Burnside's plan to assault the fortified heights behind the city, deeming them "preposterous". His Grand Division (particularly V Corps) suffered serious losses in fourteen futile assaults ordered by Burnside over Hooker's protests. Burnside followed up this battle with the humiliating Mud March in January and Hooker's criticism of his commander bordered on formal insubordination. He described Burnside as a "wretch ... of blundering sacrifice." Burnside planned a wholesale purge of his subordinates, including Hooker, and drafted an order for the president's approval. He stated that Hooker was "unfit to hold an important commission during a crisis like the present." But Lincoln's patience had again run out and he removed Burnside instead. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... The Mud March was an abortive attempt at a winter offensive in January, 1863, by Major General Ambrose Burnside in the American Civil War. ...


Army of the Potomac

Major General Joseph Hooker

The new commander of the Army of the Potomac, as of January 26, 1863, was Fighting Joe Hooker. Parts of the army saw this move as inevitable, given Hooker's reputation for aggressive fighting, something sorely lacking in his predecessors. Hooker did not take the promotion with modest reserve. He was quoted as saying that the country at war would be best served by a dictator. Lincoln replied, Joseph Hooker File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Joseph Hooker File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

I have heard, in such way as to believe it, of your recently saying that both the Army and the Government needed a Dictator. Of course it was not for this, but in spite of it, that I have given you the command. Only those generals who gain success can set up dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship.

During the spring of 1863, Hooker established a reputation as an outstanding administrator and restored the morale of his soldiers, which had plummeted to a new low under Burnside. Among his changes were fixes to the daily diet of the troops, camp sanitary changes, improvements and accountability of the quartermaster system, addition of and monitoring of company cooks, several hospital reforms, and an improved furlough system (one man per company by turn, 10 days each). Other orders addressed the need to stem rising desertion (one from Lincoln combined with incoming mail review, the ability to shoot deserters, and better camp picket lines), more and better drills, stronger officer training, high-level command changes, and for the first time, combining the federal calvary into a single corps.[3] Hooker said of his revived army:

I have the finest army on the planet. I have the finest army the sun ever shone on. ... If the enemy does not run, God help them. May God have mercy on General Lee, for I will have none.

But Fighting Joe set a very bad example for the conduct of generals and their staffs and subordinates. His headquarters in Falmouth, Virginia, was described as being a combination of a "bar-room and a brothel". He built a network of loyal political cronies that included Dan Butterfield and the notorious political general, Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles. Falmouth is an unincorporated place located in Stafford County, Virginia. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ... Daniel Adams Butterfield (October 31, 1831 – July 17, 1901) was a New York businessman, a Union general in the American Civil War, and Assistant U.S. Treasurer in New York. ... Portrait of Daniel Sickles during the Civil War Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1825–May 3, 1914) was an American soldier, statesman and diplomat. ...


Hooker's plan for the spring and summer campaign was both elegant and promising. He first planned to send his cavalry corps deep into the enemy's rear, disrupting supply lines and distracting him from the main attack. He would pin down Robert E. Lee's much smaller army at Fredericksburg, while taking the large bulk of the Army of the Potomac on a flanking march to strike Lee in his rear. Defeating Lee, he could move on to seize Richmond. Unfortunately for Hooker and the Union, the execution of his plan did not match the elegance of the plan itself. The cavalry raid was conducted cautiously by its commander, Brig. Gen. George Stoneman, and met none of its objectives. The flanking march went well enough, achieving strategic surprise, but Hooker somehow lost his nerve when the first reports of enemy contact reached him on May 1, 1863. Rather than pushing aggressively into Lee's rear, he pulled his army back around the tiny crossroads town of Chancellorsville and waited for Lee to attack. Lee audaciously split his smaller army in two to deal with both parts of Hooker's army. Then, he split again, sending Stonewall Jackson's corps on its own flanking march, striking Hooker's exposed right flank and routing the Union XI Corps. The Army of the Potomac dropped into a purely defensive mode and eventually was forced to retreat. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Portrait of George Stoneman during the Civil War George Stoneman (August 22, 1822 – September 5, 1894) was a career U.S. Army officer, a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War, and the Governor of California between 1883 and 1887. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ...


The Battle of Chancellorsville has been called "Lee's perfect battle" because of his ability to vanquish a much larger foe through audacious tactics. Part of Hooker's failure can be attributed to a deadly encounter with a cannonball. While standing on the porch of his headquarters, the missile struck a wooden column the general was leaning against, knocking him senseless and putting him out of action for the rest of the day. Despite his incapacitation, he refused entreaties to turn over temporary command of the army to his second-in-command, Maj. Gen. Darius N. Couch. Several of his subordinate generals, including Couch and Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, openly questioned Hooker's command decisions. Couch was so disgusted that he refused to ever serve under Hooker again. Political winds blew strongly in the following weeks as generals maneuvered to overthrow Hooker or to position themselves if Lincoln decided on his own to do so. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... Darius Nash Couch (July 23, 1822 – February 12, 1897) was a United States Army officer, naturalist, and a Union major general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ...


Robert E. Lee once again began an invasion of the North, in June 1863, and Lincoln urged Hooker to pursue and defeat him. Hooker's initial plan was to seize Richmond instead, but Lincoln immediately vetoed that idea, so the Army of the Potomac began to march north, attempting to locate Lee's Army of Northern Virginia as it slipped down the Shenandoah Valley into Pennsylvania. Hooker's mission was first to protect Washington, D.C., and Baltimore and second to intercept and defeat Lee. Unfortunately, Lincoln was losing any remaining confidence he had in Hooker. When the general got into a dispute with Army headquarters over the status of defensive forces in Harpers Ferry, he impulsively offered his resignation, which was quickly accepted by Lincoln and Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. On June 28, three days before the climactic Battle of Gettysburg, Hooker was replaced by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade. Hooker received the Thanks of Congress for his role at the start of the Gettysburg Campaign,[4] but the glory would go to Meade. The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America: Harpers Ferry, Iowa Harpers Ferry, West Virginia There was also John Browns raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia as well as a Battle of Harpers Ferry in the American Civil War. ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ...


Western Theater

Hooker's military career was not ended by his poor performance in the summer of 1863. He went on to regain a reputation as a solid commander when he was transferred with the XI and XII Corps of the Army of the Potomac westward to reinforce the Army of the Cumberland around Chattanooga, Tennessee. Hooker was in command at the Battle of Lookout Mountain, playing an important role in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's decisive victory at the Battle of Chattanooga. He was brevetted to major general in the regular army for his success at Chattanooga, but he was disappointed to find that Grant's official report of the battle credited his friend William Tecumseh Sherman's contribution over Hooker's. The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... Union Army, XII Corps, 3rd Division Badge The XII Corps (Twelfth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Union army in the west during the American Civil War, commanded at various times by Generals Robert Anderson, Don Carlos Buell, William S. Rosecrans, and George Thomas. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... The American Civil Wars Battle of Lookout Mountain, also known as The Battle Above the Clouds took place on November 24, 1863 in southeastern Tennessee near Chattanooga. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... General Sherman redirects here. ...


Hooker led his corps (now designated the XX Corps) competently in the 1864 Atlanta Campaign under Sherman, but asked to be relieved before the capture of the city because of his dissatisfaction with the promotion of another general (Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard) who had less seniority. He commanded the Northern Department (comprising the states of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois), headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, from October 1, 1864, until the end of the war.[2] While in Cincinnati he married Olivia Groesbeck, sister of Congressman William S. Groesbeck. Two corps of the Union Army were called XX Corps during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ...


Final years and legacy

Hooker's equestrian statue at Massachusetts State House.

After the war, Hooker suffered from poor health and was partially paralyzed by a stroke. He was mustered out of the volunteer service on September 1, 1866, and retired from the U.S. Army on October 15, 1868, with the regular army rank of major general. He died on a visit to Garden City, New York, and is buried in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio,[2] his wife's home town. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United States Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... Garden City, New York, is a village in central Nassau County, New York, in the USA, which was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ...


Hooker was popularly known as "Fighting Joe" Hooker, a nickname he detested. When a newspaper dispatch arrived in New York during the Peninsula Campaign, a typographical error changed an entry "Fighting — Joe Hooker" to remove the dash and the name stuck. Robert E. Lee occasionally referred to him as "Mr. F. J. Hooker" in a mildly sarcastic jab at his opponent.


Despite Hooker's reputation as a hard-drinking ladies' man, there is no basis for the popular legend that the slang term for prostitutes is derived from his last name because of parties and a lack of military discipline at his headquarters. Some versions of the legend claim that the band of prostitutes that followed his division were derisively referred to as "General Hooker's Army" or "Hooker's Brigade."[5] However, the term "hooker" was used in print as early as 1845, years before Hooker was a public figure.[6] The prevalence of the Hooker legend may have been at least partly responsible for the popularity of the term.[7] For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Whore redirects here. ...


There is an equestrian statue of General Hooker outside the Massachusetts State House in Boston. Apotheosis of Saint Louis by Charles H. Niehaus In sculpture, an equestrian (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue consisting of a horse with mounted rider. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Boston redirects here. ...


Hooker County in Nebraska is named for him. Hooker County is a county located in the state of Nebraska. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ...


See also

United States Army Portal
American Civil War Portal
  • List of American Civil War generals

Image File history File links United_States_Department_of_the_Army_Seal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

References

  • Barnett, James, Forty For the Union: Civil War Generals Buried in Spring Grove Cemetery (Cincinnati Civil War Roundtable biography of Hooker).
  • Catton, Bruce, Glory Road, Doubleday and Company, 1952, ISBN 0-385-04167-5.
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, Letter to General Hooker, January 26, 1863.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Chancellorsville, Houghton Mifflin, 1996, ISBN 0-395-87744-X.
  • Sears, Stephen W., To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign, Ticknor and Fields, 1992, ISBN 0-89919-790-6.
  • Smith, Gene, The Destruction of Fighting Joe Hooker, American Heritage magazine, October 1993.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.

Bruce Catton (October 9, 1899 — August 28, 1978) was a journalist and a notable historian of the American Civil War. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Eicher, p. 303.
  2. ^ a b c Eicher, p. 304.
  3. ^ Catton, pp. 141-47.
  4. ^ Eicher, p. 304; Thanks of Congress partial text: "...to Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker... for the skill, energy, and endurance which first covered Washington and Baltimore from the meditated blow of the advancing and powerful army of rebels led by General Robert E. Lee...."
  5. ^ See, for example, Loudoun County, Virginia, history website.
  6. ^ Random House Word of the Day website, World Wide Words website.
  7. ^ The Word Detective website, May 20, 2003, issue.

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
James B. Ricketts
Commander of the I Corps
September 6, 1862September 17, 1862
Succeeded by
George G. Meade
Preceded by
Fitz John Porter
Commander of the V Corps
November 10, 1862November 16, 1862
Succeeded by
Daniel Butterfield
Preceded by
Ambrose Burnside
Commander of the Army of the Potomac
January 26, 1862June 28, 1863
Succeeded by
George G. Meade
Preceded by
Alexander M. McCook
Commander of the XX Corps
April 14, 1864July 28, 1864
Succeeded by
Alpheus S. Williams
Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Brewerton Ricketts (June 21, 1817 – September 22, 1887) was a career officer in the United States Army, serving as a general in the Eastern Theater during the American Civil War. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Daniel Adams Butterfield (October 31, 1831 – July 17, 1901) was a New York businessman, a Union general in the American Civil War, and Assistant U.S. Treasurer in New York. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Alexander McDowell McCook Alexander McDowell McCook (April 22, 1831 – June 12, 1903) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Two corps of the Union Army were called XX Corps during the American Civil War. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Alpheus S. Williams Alpheus Starkey Williams (September 29, 1810 – December 21, 1878) was a lawyer, judge, journalist, U.S. Congressman, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Hooker (5712 words)
Hooker had close contact with many of the men he fought with (and against) during The Civil War, but he worked closely with Franklin Pierce, a brigadier in Pillow's division.
Hooker's men were the last to pass through Manassas Station before Stonewall Jackson cut the railroad on August 27, 1862 at the beginning of the Second Battle of Bull Run.
On January 25, 1863, Burnside was relieved of duty and Hooker was chosen as Commander of the Army of the Potomac.
Joseph Hooker - LoveToKnow 1911 (584 words)
JOSEPH HOOKER (1814-1879), American general, was born in Hadley, Massachusetts, on the 13th of November 1814.
Even then Hooker followed the Confederates a day only behind them, until, finding himself distrusted and forbidden to control the movements of troops within the sphere of operations, he resigned the command on the eve of the battle (June 28, 1863).
Hooker, who, though only a corps commander, was senior to the other army commanders, Thomas and Schofield, was normally entitled to receive it, but General Sherman feared to commit a whole army to the guidance of a man of Hooker's peculiar temperament, and the place was given to Howard.
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