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Encyclopedia > Joseph Henry
Joseph Henry

Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797May 13, 1878) was a Scottish-American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. During his lifetime, he was considered one of the greatest American scientists since Benjamin Franklin. While building electromagnets, Henry discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance. He also discovered mutual inductance independently of Faraday, though Faraday was the first to publish his results.[1][2] Henry's work on the electromagnetic relay was the basis of the electrical telegraph, jointly invented by Samuel Morse and Charles Wheatstone. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1320x1701, 1228 KB)Obtained from NOAA photo archives, at [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1320x1701, 1228 KB)Obtained from NOAA photo archives, at [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... An electric current i flowing around a circuit produces a magnetic field and hence a magnetic flux Φ through the circuit. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... The electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electric signals. ... Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of...


The SI unit of inductance, the henry, is named after Joseph Henry. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An electric current i flowing around a circuit produces a magnetic field and hence a magnetic flux Φ through the circuit. ... An inductor. ...

Contents

Early years

Joseph Henry was born on December 17th, 1797 in Albany, New York to two immigrants from Scotland, Ann Alexander Henry and William Henry. His parents were poor, and Joseph’s father died while he was still a young boy. For the rest of his childhood, Joseph lived with his grandmother in Galway, New York. He attended a school which would later be named Joseph Henry Elementary School in his honor. After school, he worked at a general store, and later, at the age of thirteen, he went to work as an apprentice watchmaker and silversmith. Joseph’s first love was theater and he came very close to becoming a professional actor. His interest in science was sparked at the age of sixteen, by a book of lectures on scientific topics titled Popular Lectures on Experimental Philosophy. In 1819, he entered The Albany Academy, where he was given free tuition. He was so poor, even with free tuition, that he had to support himself with teaching and private tutoring positions. He intended to go into the field of medicine, but, in 1824, he was appointed an assistant engineer for the survey of the State road being constructed between the Hudson River and Lake Erie. From then on, he was inspired to a career in civil or mechanical engineering. For other uses, see Albany. ... This article is about the country. ... Galway is a village located in Saratoga County, New York. ... A watchmaker is an artisan who makes and repairs watches. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Albany Academy is an independent college preparatory day school for boys in Albany, New York, USA, enrolling students from Early Childhood (age 3) to Post-Graduate. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ...


Joseph Henry excelled at his studies (so much so, that he would often be helping his teachers teach science) and, by 1826, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at The Albany Academy by Principal T. Romeyn Beck. Some of his most important research was conducted in this new position. His curiosity about terrestrial magnetism lead him to experiment with magnetism in general. He was the first to coil insulated wire tightly around an iron core in order to make an extremely powerful electromagnet, improving on William Sturgeon’s electromagnet, which used loosely coiled uninsulated wire. Using this technique, he built the most powerful electromagnet at the time for Yale. He also showed that, when making an electromagnet using just two electrodes attached to a battery, it is best to wind several coils of wire in parallel, but when using a set-up with multiple batteries, there should be only one single long coil. The latter made the telegraph feasible. The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Albany Academy is an independent college preparatory day school for boys in Albany, New York, USA, enrolling students from Early Childhood (age 3) to Post-Graduate. ... T. Romeyn Beck Theodric Romeyn Beck M.D. LL.D (April 11, 1791 - November 19, 1855) (alternatively Theodoric Romeyn Beck or T. Romeyn Beck) was an American physician in Albany, New York specializing in medical jurisprudence who authored the first significant American book on forensic medicine, Elements of Medical Jurisprudence... Earths magnetic field (the surface magnetic field) is approximately a magnetic dipole, with one pole near the geographic north pole and the other near the geographic south pole. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by a flow of electric current. ... William Sturgeon (May 22, 1783 - December 4, 1850) was an English physicist and inventor who made the first electromagnets. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... The electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electric signals. ...

He took what he had learned a step further and, in 1831, created one of the first machines to use electromagnetism for motion. This was the earliest ancestor of modern DC motor. It did not make use of rotating motion, but was merely an electromagnet perched on a pole, rocking back and forth. The rocking motion was caused by one of the two leads on both ends of the magnet rocker touching one of the two battery cells, causing a polarity change, and rocking the opposite direction until the other two leads hit the other battery. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3472x3960, 1043 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Joseph Henry ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3472x3960, 1043 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Joseph Henry ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ...


Here, Henry also discovered the property of self inductance. Around the same time, the British scientist Michael Faraday discovered it as well and, being first to publish his results, became the officially recognized discoverer of the phenomenon. An electric current i flowing around a circuit produces a magnetic field and hence a magnetic flux Φ through the circuit. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ...


In 1848 Joseph Henry worked in conjunction with Professor Stephen Alexander to determine the relative temperatures for different parts of the solar disk. Using a thermopile, they determined that sunspots were cooler than the surrounding regions.[3][4][5][6] This work was shown to the astronomer Angelo Secchi who extended it, but with some question as to whether Henry was given proper credit for his own earlier work.[7] Battle between persian and greece forces took place at Thermoopile ... For other uses, see Sunspot (disambiguation). ... Pietro Angelo Secchi (June 18, 1818 – February 26, 1878) was an Italian astronomer. ...


Influences in aeronautics

Prof. Henry was introduced to Prof. Thaddeus Lowe, a balloonist from New Hampshire who had taken interest in the phenomena of lighter-than-air gases, and exploits into meteorology, in particular, the high winds which we call the Jet stream today. It was Lowe's intent to make a transatlantic crossing via an enormous gas-inflated aerostat. Henry took a great interest in Lowe's endeavors so much as to support and promote him among some of the more prominent scientists and institutions of the day. Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913) Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1832 – January 16, 1913) was an American aeronaut, scientist and inventor. ... Jet streams are fast flowing, relatively narrow air currents found in the atmosphere at around 12 km above the surface of the Earth, just under the tropopause. ...


In June of 1860, Lowe had made a successful test flight with his gigantic balloon, first named the City of New York hence renamed The Great Western, flying from Philadelphia to Medford, New York. Lowe would not be able to attempt a transatlantic flight until late Spring of the next year. Henry convinced Lowe to take his balloon to a point more West and fly the balloon back to the eastern seaboard, an exercise that would keep his investors interested.


Lowe took several smaller balloons to Cincinnati in March 1861. On April 19, conditions were perfect enough for him to take off on a fateful flight that landed him in Confederate South Carolina. With the Southern States seceding from the union, and the onset of civil war, Lowe abandoned further attempts at a transatlantic crossing and, with Henry's endorsement, went to Washington to offer his services with use of balloons. Joseph Henry submitted a letter to the Secretary of War, Simon Cameron showing his endorsement:

Hon. SIMON CAMERON:
DEAR SIR: In accordance with your request made to me orally on the morning of the 6th of June, I have examined the apparatus and witnessed the balloon experiments of Mr. Lowe, and have come to the following conclusions:
1st. The balloon prepared by Mr. Lowe, inflated with ordinary street gas, will retain its charge for several days.
2d. In an inflated condition it can be towed by a few men along an ordinary road, or over fields, in ordinarily calm weather, from the places where it is galled to another, twenty or more miles distant.
3d. It can be let up into the air by means of a rope in a calm day to a height sufficient to observe the country for twenty miles around and more, according to the degree of clearness of the atmosphere. The ascent may also be made at night and the camp lights of the enemy observed.
4th. From experiments made here for the first time it is conclusively proved that telegrams can be sent with ease and certainty between the balloon and the quarters of the commanding officer.
5th. I feel assured, although I have not witnessed the experiment, that when the surface wind is from the east, as it was for several days last week, an observer in the balloon can be made to float nearly to the enemy's camp (as it is now situated to the west of us), or even to float over it, and then return eastward by rising to a higher elevation. This assumption is based on the fact that the upper strata of wind in this latitude is always flowing eastward. Mr. Lowe informs me, and I do not doubt his statement, that he will on any day which is favorable make an excursion of the kind above mentioned.
6th. From all the facts I have observed and the information I have gathered I am sure that important information may be obtained in regard to the topography of the country and to the position and movements of an enemy by means of the balloon now, and that Mr. Lowe is well qualified to render service in this way by the balloon now in his possession.
7th. The balloon which Mr. Lowe now has in Washington can only be inflated in a city where street gas is to be obtained. If an exploration is required at a point too distant for the transportation of the inflated balloon, an additional apparatus for the generation of hydrogen gas will be required. The necessity of generating the gas renders the use of the balloon more expensive, but this, where important results are required, is of comparatively small importance.
For these preliminary experiments, as you may recollect, a sum not to exceed $200 or $250 was to be appropriated, and in accordance with this Mr. Lowe has presented me with the inclosed statement of items, which I think are reasonable, since nothing is charged for labor and time of the aeronaut.
I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH HENRY,
Secretary Smithsonian Institution.

On Henry's recommendation Lowe went on to form the Union Army Balloon Corps and served two years with the Army of the Potomac as a Civil War Aeronaut. Woodblock sketch of Lowes balloon with McClellans Army of the Potomac as depicted in Harpers Weekly. ...


Influences in room acoustics

Over 150 years ago, Joseph Henry identified the room acoustics phenomena we now call direct sound, early reflections, and reverberation. He demonstrated the early sound integration period and laid the ground work for further fundamental research on early reflections that was not followed up until the work at Gottingen University in the 1950-1960’s. He brought a robust scientific approach to the subject of acoustics – a subject which is plagued by misunderstanding and misinformation to this day. Room acoustics describes how sound behaves in an enclosed space. ...


Joseph Henry devised a beautifully simple experiment to demonstrate the integration of direct and early sound. A listener, standing in an open space 100 feet from a wall, claps his hands and hears an echo. He gradually approaches the wall, clapping, until no echo is perceived, at a distance of 30 feet – the “Henry Distance” – equating to an early sound integration time of 60 ms.[8]


Later years

Grave in Oak Hill Cemetery
Grave in Oak Hill Cemetery

As a famous scientist and director of the Smithsonian Institution, Henry received visits from other scientists and inventors who sought his advice. Henry was patient, kindly, self-controlled, and gently humorous.[9] One such visitor was Alexander Graham Bell who on March 1, 1875 carried a letter of introduction to Henry. Henry showed an interest in seeing Bell's experimental apparatus and Bell returned the following day. After the demonstration, Bell mentioned his untested theory on how to transmit human speech electrically by means of a "harp apparatus" which would have several steel reeds tuned to different frequencies to cover the voice spectrum. Henry said Bell had "the germ of a great invention". Henry advised Bell not to publish his ideas until he had perfected the invention. When Bell objected that he lacked the necessary knowledge, Henry firmly advised: "Get it!" Image File history File links Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1005 × 1551 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal photograph; no rights claimed I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1005 × 1551 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal photograph; no rights claimed I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


On June 25 1876, Bell's experimental telephone (using a different design) was demonstrated at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia where Joseph Henry was one of the judges for electrical exhibits. On January 13, 1877 Bell demonstrated his instruments to Henry at the Smithsonian Institution and Henry invited Bell to show them again that night at the Washington Philosophical Society. Henry praised "the value and astonishing character of Mr. Bell's discovery and invention."[10]


Henry died on May 13, 1878 and was buried a few days later in Oak Hill Cemetery in northwest Washington, D.C.


Career

The statue of Joseph Henry standing outside the Smithsonian Institution

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2208 KB) Summary A statue of Joseph Henry, American scientist and first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2208 KB) Summary A statue of Joseph Henry, American scientist and first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Albany Academy is an independent college preparatory day school for boys in Albany, New York, USA, enrolling students from Early Childhood (age 3) to Post-Graduate. ... This article is about the state. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Automotive style miniature relay A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Megatherium Club - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ephraim George Squier (June 17, 1821 – April 17, 1888) was an American archaeologist. ... Library of Congress image used as the frontispiece for the 150th Anniversary re-issue of Squier and Davis Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (full title Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley: Comprising the Results of Extensive Original Surveys and Explorations) by Americans Ephraim... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...

See also

  • Published physics papers - On the Production of Currents and Sparks of Electricity from Magnetism and On Electro-Dynamic Induction (extract)

Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... An inductor. ... This is a list of scientific units named after people. ... The multiple-coil magnet was invented by Joseph Henry in 1831. ... Below is a list of famous physicists. ... This is a chronological list of inventions. ... Timeline of communication technology 3500s BC - The Sumerians develop cuneiform writing and the Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing 1500s BC - The Phoenicians develop an alphabet 26-37 - Roman Emperor Tiberius rules the empire from island of Capri by signalling messages with metal mirrors to reflect the sun 105 - Tsai Lun invents... This page aims to list all Wikipedia articles that are related to physics. ... Gasport is a hamlet (and census-designated place) located in the Town of Royalton in Niagara County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the community had a total population of 1,248. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ...

References

  1. ^ Ulaby, Fawwaz (2001-01-31). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, p. 232. ISBN 0-13-032931-2. 
  2. ^ Joseph Henry. Distinguished Members Gallery, National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  3. ^ Henry, Joseph (1845). "On the Relative Radiation of Heat by the Solar Spots". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 4: 173–176. 
  4. ^ Magie, W. F. (1931). "Joseph Henry". Reviews of Modern Physics 3: 465–495. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. 
  5. ^ Benjamin, Marcus (1899). "The Early Presidents of the American Association. II.". Science 10: 675. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. 
  6. ^ Hellemans, Alexander; Bryan Bunch (1988). The Timetables of Science. New York, New York: Simon and Schuster, 317. ISBN 0671621300. 
  7. ^ Mayer, Alfred M. (1880). "Henry as a Discoverer". A Memorial of Joseph Henry. Washington: Government Printing Office. 475–508. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. 
  8. ^ An auralization of Henry's experiment
  9. ^ Alexander Graham Bell and the Conquest of Solitude, Robert V. Bruce, pages 139-140
  10. ^ Alexander Graham Bell and the Conquest of Solitude, Robert V. Bruce, page 214

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Ames, Joseph Sweetman (Ed.), The discovery of induced electric currents, Vol. 1. Memoirs, by Joseph Henry. New York, Cincinnati [etc.] American book company [c1900] LCCN 00005889
  • Coulson, Thomas, Joseph Henry: His Life and Work, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950.
  • Henry, Joseph, Scientific Writings of Joseph Henry. Volumes 1 and 2, Smithsoninan Institution, 1886.
  • Moyer, Albert E., Joseph Henry: The Rise of an American Scientist, Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. ISBN 1-56098-776-6

External links

  • The Joseph Henry Papers Project
  • Biographical details] - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (1967), 58(1), pages 1 - 10.
  • Dedication ceremony for the Henry statue (1883)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Henry (132 words)
Joseph Henry (1797-1878) is widely considered the foremost American scientist of the 19th century.
Although Henry at an early age appeared to be headed for a career in the theater, a chance encounter with a book of lectures on scientific topics turned his interest to science.
Henry's early investigations concerned electromagnetic phenomena, and his discovery of electromagnetic self-induction in 1831 established his reputation in America.
HENRY, Joseph (761 words)
The discovery of the phenomenon of self-inductance, which Henry announced in 1832, is, however, attributed to him, and the unit of inductance is named the henry in his honor.
In 1846 Henry was elected secretary and director of the newly formed Smithsonian Institution, and he served in those positions until his death.
Henry was a founder of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and president (1868–78) of the National Academy of Sciences.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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