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Encyclopedia > Joseph Haydn
Haydn portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792
Haydn portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792

Franz Joseph Haydn[1][2] (March 31, 1732May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the classical period, and is called by some the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet". Haydn most commonly refers to Joseph Haydn (1732–1809), a leading composer of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. Haydn may also refer to: People with last name Haydn: Michael Haydn (1737–1806) composer and the younger brother of Joseph Haydn... Image File history File links Haydn_portrait_by_Thomas_Hardy_(small). ... Image File history File links Haydn_portrait_by_Thomas_Hardy_(small). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ...


A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent most of his career as a court musician for the wealthy Hungarian Esterházy family on their remote estate. Isolated from other composers and trends in music until the later part of his long life, he was, as he put it, "forced to become original".[3] A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... The House of Esterházy was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ...


Joseph Haydn was the brother of Michael Haydn, himself a highly regarded composer, and Johann Evangelist Haydn, a tenor. Michael Haydn Johann Michael Haydn (September 14, 1737 – August 10, 1806) was an Austrian composer, the younger brother of (Franz) Joseph Haydn. ... Johann Evangelist Haydn (1743 - 1805) was a tenor singer, the younger brother of the composers Joseph Haydn and Michael Haydn. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ...

Contents

Life

Childhood

Map showing locations where Haydn lived or visited. For discussion, see Joseph Haydn: geographic key

Joseph Haydn was born in the Austrian village of Rohrau, near the Hungarian border. His father was Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright who also served as "Marktrichter", an office akin to village mayor. Haydn's mother, the former Maria Koller, had previously worked as a cook in the palace of Count Harrach, the presiding aristocrat of Rohrau. Neither parent could read music. However, Mathias was an enthusiastic folk musician, who during the journeyman period of his career had taught himself to play the harp. According to Haydn's later reminiscences, his childhood family was extremely musical, and frequently sang together and with their neighbors.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rohrau is a town in Lower Austria, Austria. ... Matthias Haydn (January 31, 1699-September 12, 1763) was the father of two famous composers, Joseph and Michael Haydn. ... Wheelwright reenactor New Salem, Illinois Wheelwrights Workshop at the Amberley Working Museum, West Sussex, England A wheelwright is a person who builds or repairs wheels. ... Folk song redirects here. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ...


Haydn's parents noticed that their son was musically talented and knew that in Rohrau he would have no chance to obtain any serious musical training. It was for this reason that they accepted a proposal from their relative Johann Matthias Franck, the schoolmaster and choirmaster in Hainburg, that Haydn be apprenticed to Franck in his home to train as a musician. Haydn therefore went off with Franck to Hainburg (seven miles away) and never again lived with his parents. He was six years old. Hainburg an der Donau is a place in the Bruck an der Leitha district, Lower Austria, Austria. ...


Life in the Franck household was not easy for Haydn, who later remembered being frequently hungry[5] as well as constantly humiliated by the filthy state of his clothing.[6] However, he did begin his musical training there, and soon was able to play both harpsichord and violin. The people of Hainburg were soon hearing him sing treble parts in the church choir. Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Treble is a term applied in music to the high or acute part of the musical system, as opposed to the bass, the lower or grave part. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


There is reason to think that Haydn's singing impressed those who heard him, because two years later (in 1740) he was brought to the attention of Georg von Reutter, the director of music in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, who was touring the provinces looking for talented choirboys. Haydn passed his audition with Reutter, and soon moved off to Vienna, where he worked for the next nine years as a chorister, the last four in the company of his younger brother Michael. Carl Georg Reutter (the Younger) was born as the son of Georg Reutter (the Elder) in Vienna on 8 April 1708. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Look up choirboy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Michael Haydn Johann Michael Haydn (September 14, 1737 – August 10, 1806) was an Austrian composer, the younger brother of (Franz) Joseph Haydn. ...


Like Franck before him, Reutter did not always bother to make sure Haydn was properly fed. The young Haydn greatly looked forward to performances before aristocratic audiences, where the singers sometimes had the opportunity to satisfy their hunger by devouring the refreshments.[7] Reutter also did little to further his choristers' musical education. However, St. Stephen's was at the time one of the leading musical centers in Europe, with many performances of new music by leading composers. Haydn was able to learn a great deal by observation, simply by serving as a professional musician there.[8]

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (527x800, 201 KB) St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (527x800, 201 KB) St. ... // The Stephansdom (Cathedral of Saint Stephen), in Vienna, Austria, is the seat of a Roman Catholic Archbishop, a beloved symbol of Vienna, and the site of many important events in Austrias national life. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...

Struggles as a freelancer

By 1749, Haydn had finally matured physically to the point that he was no longer able to sing high choral parts. On a weak pretext, he was summarily dismissed from his job. He was sent into the streets with no home to go to.[9] However, he had the good fortune to be taken in by a friend, Johann Michael Spangler, who for a few months shared with Haydn his family's crowded garret room. Haydn was able to begin immediately his pursuit of a career as a freelance musician.


During this arduous time, Haydn worked at many different jobs: as a music teacher, as a street serenader, and eventually as valet–accompanist for the Italian composer Nicola Porpora, from whom he later said he learned "the true fundamentals of composition".[10] Nicola (Antonio) Porpora (August 19, 1686 - March 3, 1768) was an Italian composer of Baroque operas (see opera seria) and teacher of singing, whose most famous pupil was the castrato Farinelli. ...


When he was a chorister, Haydn had not received serious training in music theory and composition, which he perceived as a serious gap. To fill it, he worked his way through the counterpoint exercises in the text Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux, and carefully studied the work of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, whom he later acknowledged as an important influence.[11] Look up choirboy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Johann Joseph Fux (1660 – February 13, 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. ... Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second of five sons of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. ...


As his skills increased, Haydn began to acquire a public reputation, first as the composer of an opera, Der krumme Teufel "The Limping Devil", written for the comic actor Johann Joseph Felix Kurz, whose stage name was "Bernardon". The work was premiered successfully in 1753, but was soon closed down by the censors.[12] Haydn also noticed, apparently without annoyance, that works he had simply given away were being published and sold in local music shops.[13] Der krumme Teufel (The Limping Devil, ca. ...


With the increase in his reputation, Haydn eventually was able to obtain aristocratic patronage, crucial for the career of a composer in his day. Countess Thun,[14] having seen one of Haydn's compositions, summoned him and engaged him as her singing and keyboard teacher.[15] Baron Carl Josef Fürnberg employed Haydn at his country estate, Weinzierl, where the composer wrote his first string quartets. Fürnberg later recommended Haydn to Count Morzin, who in 1757[16] became his first full time employer.[17] Count Morzin was an aristocrat of the Austrian Empire during the 18th century. ...


The years as Kapellmeister

Haydn portrait by Ludwig Guttenbrunn, ca. 1770
Haydn portrait by Ludwig Guttenbrunn, ca. 1770

Haydn's job title under Count Morzin was Kapellmeister, that is, music director. He led the count's small orchestra and wrote his first symphonies for this ensemble. Haydn - younger - contemporary painting, photo by Nevilley, with permission of owner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Haydn - younger - contemporary painting, photo by Nevilley, with permission of owner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Count Morzin was an aristocrat of the Austrian Empire during the 18th century. ... A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ...


In 1760, with the security of a Kapellmeister position, Haydn married. His wife was the former Maria Anna Aloysia Apollonia Keller (1729–1800), the sister of Therese (b. 1733), with whom Haydn had previously been in love. Haydn and his wife had a completely unhappy marriage,[18] from which the laws of the time permitted them no escape; and they produced no children. Both took lovers.[19]


Count Morzin soon suffered financial reverses that forced him to dismiss his musical establishment, but Haydn was quickly offered a similar job (1761) as Vice Kapellmeister to the Esterházy family, one of the wealthiest and most important in the Austrian Empire. When the old Kapellmeister, Gregor Werner, died in 1766, Haydn was elevated to full Kapellmeister. The House of Esterházy was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Gregor Joseph Werner (1693-1766) was an Austrian composer. ...

View of Eszterháza
View of Eszterháza

As a "house officer" in the Esterházy establishment, Haydn wore livery and followed the family as they moved among their various palaces, most importantly the family's ancestral seat Schloss Esterházy in Eisenstadt and later on Eszterháza, a grand new palace built in rural Hungary in the 1760s. Haydn had a huge range of responsibilities, including composition, running the orchestra, playing chamber music for and with his patrons, and eventually the mounting of operatic productions. Despite this workload, the job was in artistic terms a superb opportunity for Haydn.[20] The Esterházy princes (first Paul Anton, then most importantly Nikolaus I) were musical connoisseurs who appreciated his work and gave him daily access to his own small orchestra. Image File history File linksMetadata FertÅ‘d_-_The_Eszterházy_Castle_or_Palace. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FertÅ‘d_-_The_Eszterházy_Castle_or_Palace. ... FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... Rather unusually, these Angels wear white hart (deer) badges, with the personal livery of King Richard II of England, who commissioned this, the Wilton diptych, about 1400 A livery is a uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... The Schloss Esterházy is a palace in Eisenstadt, Austria; The capital of the Burgenland state. ... Eisenstadt (Hungarian Kismarton, Croatian Željezno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland. ... FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... Prince Nikolaus Esterházy was a Hungarian prince who lived during the 18th century. ...

Prince Nikolaus Esterházy, Haydn's most important patron
Prince Nikolaus Esterházy, Haydn's most important patron

During the nearly thirty years that Haydn worked at the Esterházy court, he produced a flood of compositions, and his musical style continued to develop. His popularity in the outside world also increased. Gradually, Haydn came to write as much for publication as for his employer, and several important works of this period, such as the Paris symphonies (1785–1786) and the original orchestral version of The Seven Last Words of Christ (1786), were commissions from abroad. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Prince Nikolaus Esterházy was a Hungarian prince who lived during the 18th century. ... The Paris Symphonies are a group of six symphonies written by Joseph Haydn on commission from Count dOgny for performance by the Concert de la Loge Olympique in Paris. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Haydn also gradually came to feel more isolated and lonely, particularly as the court came to spend most of the year at Esterháza, far from Vienna, rather than the closer-by Eisenstadt (Geiringer 1982, p. 60). Haydn particularly longed to visit Vienna because of his friendships there.[21]


Of these, a particularly important one was with Maria Anna von Genzinger (1750–93), the wife of Prince Nikolaus's personal physician in Vienna, who began a close, platonic, relationship with the composer in 1789. Haydn wrote to Mrs. Genzinger often, expressing his loneliness at Eszterháza and his happiness for the few occasions on which he was able to visit her in Vienna; later on, Haydn wrote to her frequently from London. Her premature death in 1793 was a blow to Haydn, and his F minor variations for piano, Hob. XVII:6, may have been written in response to her death.[22] Maria Anna von Genzinger (1750-1793), called Marianne, was a Viennese amateur musician, the mother of five children, and a friend of the composer Joseph Haydn. ... The Andante with variations in F minor (Hoboken 17/6) was composed for piano by Joseph Haydn in 1793, and is among his most popular piano works. ...

Portrait of Mozart by Joseph Lange
Portrait of Mozart by Joseph Lange

Another friend in Vienna was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whom Haydn met sometime around 1784. According to later testimony by Michael Kelly and others, the two composers occasionally played in string quartets together. Haydn was hugely impressed with Mozart's work and praised it unstintingly to others. Mozart evidently returned the esteem, as seen in his dedication of a set of six quartets, now called the "Haydn" quartets, to his friend. For further details see Haydn and Mozart. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Michael Kelly (1762 - October 9, 1826) was an Irish actor, singer and composer. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... The Haydn quartets by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are a set of six string quartets composed between 1782 and 1785, dedicated to Joseph Haydn, generally considered to be the creator of the modern string quartet. ... The composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn were friends. ...


The London journeys

In 1790, Prince Nikolaus died and was succeeded by a thoroughly unmusical prince who dismissed the entire musical establishment and put Haydn on a pension. Freed of his obligations, Haydn was able to accept a lucrative offer from Johann Peter Salomon, a German impresario, to visit England and conduct new symphonies with a large orchestra. Johann Peter Salomon (baptized February 20, 1745, died November 28, 1815) was a violinist, composer, conductor and musical impresario. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The visit (1791–1792), along with a repeat visit (1794–1795), was a huge success. Audiences flocked to Haydn's concerts; Haydn augmented his fame and made large profits, thus becoming financially secure. Charles Burney reviewed the first concert thus: "Haydn himself presided at the piano-forte; and the sight of that renowned composer so electrified the audience, as to excite an attention and a pleasure superior to any that had ever been caused by instrumental music in England."[23] Charles Burney by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1781 Charles Burney (April 12, 1726 – April 12, 1814) was an English music historian and father of author Fanny Burney. ...


Musically, the visits to England generated some of Haydn's best-known work, including the Surprise, Military, Drumroll, and London symphonies, the Rider quartet, and the "Gypsy Rondo" piano trio. The only misstep in the venture was an opera, Orfeo ed Euridice, also called L'Anima del Filosofo, which Haydn was contracted to compose, but whose performance was blocked by intrigues.[24] Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... This is a list of string quartets by Joseph Haydn, including the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ... This is a list of piano trios by Joseph Haydn, including the chronological number assigned by H. C. Robbins Landon and the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ...

Portrait of Beethoven as a young man by Carl Traugott Riedel (1769 – 1832)
Portrait of Beethoven as a young man by Carl Traugott Riedel (1769 – 1832)

Between visits, Haydn taught Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven found him unsatisfactory as a teacher and sought help from others; the relationship between the two was sometimes rather tense. For discussion of their relationship, see Beethoven and his contemporaries.[25] Image File history File links Beethoven_Riedel_1801. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_Riedel_1801. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... During the course of his lifetime (1770-1827), the composer Ludwig van Beethoven enjoyed relationships with many of his musical contemporaries. ...


Final years in Vienna

Haydn returned to Vienna in 1795, moved into a large house in the suburb of Gumpendorf,[26] and turned to the composition of large religious works for chorus and orchestra. These include his two great oratorios (The Creation and The Seasons) and six masses for the Eszterházy family, which by this time was once again headed by a musically-inclined prince. Haydn also composed instrumental music: the popular Trumpet Concerto and the last nine in his long series of string quartets, including the Fifths, Emperor, and Sunrise quartets. Gumpendorf is the 6th district in Vienna, Austria. ... The Seasons (German: Die Jahreszeiten) is an oratorio by Joseph Haydn (H. 21/3). ... This article discusses the Mass as a standard form of classical music composition. ... Joseph Haydns Trumpet Concerto in E Flat Major was written in 1796, when he was 64 years old, for his long time friend Anton Weidinger. ... // Joseph Haydns Opus 76 string quartets, composed between the years of 1786 and 1787, were commissioned by and dedicated to Count Joseph Erdody. ... // Joseph Haydns Opus 76 string quartets, composed between the years of 1786 and 1787, were commissioned by and dedicated to Count Joseph Erdody. ... // Joseph Haydns Opus 76 string quartets, composed between the years of 1786 and 1787, were commissioned by and dedicated to Count Joseph Erdody. ...


In 1802, an illness from which Haydn had been suffering for some time had increased in severity to the point that he became physically unable to compose. This was doubtless very difficult for him because, as he acknowledged, the flow of fresh musical ideas waiting to be worked out as compositions did not cease. Haydn was well cared for by his servants, and he received many visitors and public honours during his last years, but they could not have been very happy years for him. During his illness, Haydn often found solace by sitting at the piano and playing Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser, which he had composed himself as a patriotic gesture in 1797 (Geiringer 1982, pp. 161–2). This melody later was used for the Austrian and German national anthems. Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (God Save Emperor Francis) is an anthem to the Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and later of Austria, written by Lorenz Leopold Haschka (1749-1827) and set to a tune written by Joseph Haydn in 1797. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ...


Haydn died at the end of May in 1809, shortly after an attack on Vienna by the French army under Napoleon. Among his last words was his attempt to calm and reassure his servants when cannon shot fell in the neighborhood (Geiringer 1982, p. 189). "My children, have no fear, for where Haydn is, no harm can fall". Two weeks later, a memorial service was held in the Schottenkirche on June 15, 1809, at which W.A. Mozart’s Requiem K.626 was performed. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Interior of the Schottenkirche. ... W. A. Mozart, 1790 portrait by Johann Georg Edlinger Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most popular, significant and influential composers of European classical music. ...


Character and appearance

James Webster writes of Haydn's public character thus: "Haydn's public life exemplified the Enlightenment ideal of the honnête homme (honest man): the man whose good character and worldly success enable and justify each other. His modesty and probity were everywhere acknowledged. These traits were not only prerequisites to his success as Kapellmeister, entrepreneur and public figure, but also aided the favourable reception of his music."[27]. Haydn was especially respected by the Eszterházy court musicians whom he supervised, as he maintained a cordial working atmosphere and effectively represented the musicians' interests with their employer; see Papa Haydn and the tale of the "Farewell" Symphony. James Webster is a musicologist, specializing in the music of Joseph Haydn and other composers of the classical era. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ... The composer Joseph Haydn is sometimes given the nickname Papa Haydn. ... Symphony No. ...


Haydn had a robust sense of humour, evident in his love of practical jokes[28] and often apparent in his music; and he had many friends. For much of his life he benefited from a "happy and naturally cheerful temperament" (Dies 1810, 91), but in his later life, there is evidence for periods of depression, notably in the correspondence with Mrs. Genzinger and in Dies's biography, based on visits made in Haydn's old age. An office cubicle with all the contents covered in aluminum foil. ... Maria Anna von Genzinger (1750-1793), called Marianne, was a Viennese amateur musician, the mother of five children, and a friend of the composer Joseph Haydn. ...


Haydn was a devout Catholic who often turned to his rosary when he had trouble composing, a practice that he usually found to be effective.[29] He normally began the manuscript of each composition with "in nomine Domini" ("in the name of the Lord") and ended with "Laus Deo" ("praise be to God").[30] The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ...


Haydn was short in stature, perhaps as a result of having been underfed throughout most of his youth. He was not handsome, and like many in his day he was a survivor of smallpox, his face being pitted with the scars of this disease. His early biographer Dies wrote, "he couldn't understand how it happened that in his life he had been loved by many a pretty woman. 'They couldn't have been led to it by my beauty'". [31] Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Haydn also suffered from nasal polyposis for much of his adult life; this was an agonizing and debilitating disease in the 18th century, and at times it prevented him from writing music.[32] The treatment for nasal polyps in early medicine lasted for days and was excruciating and bloody, prompting Haydn to say of his physician, "May he rot beneath the earth." Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising mainly from the mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses. ...

Portion of an original manuscript by Haydn, in the British Museum, from a biography of Haydn available from Project Gutenberg
Portion of an original manuscript by Haydn, in the British Museum, from a biography of Haydn available from Project Gutenberg

PORTION OF AN ORIGINAL MS. BY HAYDN, IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... PORTION OF AN ORIGINAL MS. BY HAYDN, IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Works

James Webster summarizes Haydn's role in the history of classical music as follows:[33] "He excelled in every musical genre… He is familiarly known as the 'father of the symphony' and could with greater justice be thus regarded for the string quartet; no other composer approaches his combination of productivity, quality and historical importance in these genres." James Webster is a musicologist, specializing in the music of Joseph Haydn and other composers of the classical era. ...


Structure and character of the music

A central characteristic of Haydn's music is the development of larger structures out of very short, simple musical motifs, often derived from standard accompanying figures. The music is often quite formally concentrated, and the important musical events of a movement can unfold rather quickly.[34] In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ...


Haydn's work was central to the development of what came to be called sonata form. His practice, however, differed in some ways from that of Mozart and Beethoven, his younger contemporaries who likewise excelled in this form of composition. Haydn was particularly fond of the so-called "monothematic exposition", in which the music that establishes the dominant key is similar or identical to the opening theme. Haydn also differs from Mozart and Beethoven in his recapitulation sections, where he often rearranges the order of themes compared to the exposition and uses extensive thematic development.[35] This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In music theory, the recapitulation is the third major section of a movement written in sonata form. ...


Haydn's formal inventiveness also led him to integrate the fugue into the classical style and to enrich the rondo form with more cohesive tonal logic (see sonata rondo form). Haydn was also the principal exponent of the double variation form – variations on two alternating themes, which are often major- and minor-mode versions of each other. In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... Sonata rondo form was a form of musical organization often used during the Classical music era. ... The double variation is a musical form used in classical music. ...


Perhaps more than any other composer's, Haydn's music is known for its humour.[citation needed] The most famous example is the sudden loud chord in the slow movement of his "Surprise" symphony; Haydn's many other musical jokes include numerous false endings (e.g., in the quartets Op. 33 No. 2 and Op. 50 No. 3), and the remarkable rhythmic illusion placed in the trio section of the third movement of Op. 50 No. 1. Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... This is a list of string quartets by Joseph Haydn, including the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ... This is a list of string quartets by Joseph Haydn, including the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ...


Much of the music was written to please and delight a prince, and its emotional tone is correspondingly upbeat.[citation needed] This tone also reflects, perhaps, Haydn's fundamentally healthy and well-balanced personality. Occasional minor-key works, often deadly serious in character, form striking exceptions to the general rule. Haydn's fast movements tend to be rhythmically propulsive and often impart a great sense of energy, especially in the finales. Some characteristic examples of Haydn's "rollicking" finale type are found in the "London" symphony No. 104, the string quartet Op. 50 No. 1, and the piano trio Hob XV: 27. Haydn's early slow movements are usually not too slow in tempo, relaxed, and reflective. Later on, the emotional range of the slow movements increases, notably in the deeply felt slow movements of the quartets Op. 76 Nos. 3 and 5, symphony No. 102, and piano trio Hob XV: 23. The minuets tend to have a strong downbeat and a clearly popular character. As early as Op. 33 (1781) Haydn turned some of his minuets into "scherzi" which are much faster, at one beat to the bar. Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... A minuet, sometimes spelt menuet, is a dance for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. ...


Evolution of Haydn's style

Haydn's early work dates from a period in which the compositional style of the High Baroque (seen in Bach and Handel) had gone out of fashion. This was a period of exploration and uncertainty, and Haydn, born 18 years before the death of Bach, was himself one of the musical explorers of this time.[36] An older contemporary whose work Haydn acknowledged as an important influence was Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.[37] For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... “Bach” redirects here. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second of five sons of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. ...


Tracing Haydn's work over the six decades in which it was produced (roughly, 1749 to 1802), one finds a gradual but steady increase in complexity and musical sophistication, which developed as Haydn learned from his own experience and that of his colleagues. Several important landmarks have been observed in the evolution of Haydn's musical style.


In the late 1760s and early 1770s Haydn entered a stylistic period known as "Sturm und Drang" (storm and stress). This term is taken from a literary movement of about the same time, though it appears that the musical development actually preceded the literary one by a few years.[38] The musical language of this period is similar to what went before, but it is deployed in work that is more intensely expressive, especially in the works in minor keys. James Webster describes the works of this period as "longer, more passionate, and more daring."[39] Some of the most famous compositions of this time are the "Farewell" Symphony No. 45, the piano sonata in C minor (Hob. XVI/20, L. 33), and the six string quartets of Op. 20 (the "Sun" quartets), all from 1772. It was also around this time that Haydn became interested in writing fugues in the Baroque style, and three of the Op. 20 quartets end with such fugues. Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... Symphony No. ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ...


Following the climax of the "Sturm und Drang", Haydn returned to a lighter, more overtly entertaining style. There are no quartets from this period, and the symphonies take on new features: the first movements now sometimes contain slow introductions, and the scoring often includes trumpets and timpani. These changes are often related to a major shift in Haydn's professional duties, which moved him away from "pure" music and toward the production of comic operas. Several of the operas were Haydn's own work (see List of operas by Joseph Haydn); these are seldom performed today. Haydn sometimes recycled his opera music in symphonic works,[40] which helped him continue his career as a symphonist during this hectic decade. Trumpeter redirects here. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Opera buffa (a form of comic opera), also known as Commedia in musica or Commedia per musica, is a genre of opera. ... Joseph Haydn is not primarily remembered as a composer of opera, yet the genre occupied a great deal of his time. ...


In 1779, an important change in Haydn's contract permitted him to publish his compositions without prior authorization from his employer. This may have encouraged Haydn to rekindle his career as a composer of "pure" music. The change made itself felt most dramatically in 1781, when Haydn published the six string quartets of Opus 33, announcing (in a letter to potential purchasers) that they were written in "a completely new and special way". Charles Rosen has argued that this assertion on Haydn's part was not just sales talk, but meant quite seriously; and he points out a number of important advances in Haydn's compositional technique that appear in these quartets, advances that mark the advent of the Classical style in full flower. These include a fluid form of phrasing, in which each motif emerges from the previous one without interruption, the practice of letting accompanying material evolve into melodic material, and a kind of "Classical counterpoint" in which each instrumental part maintains its own integrity. These traits continue in the many quartets that Haydn wrote after Opus 33.[41] Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...


In the 1790s, stimulated by his England journeys, Haydn developed what Rosen calls his "popular style", a way of composition that, with unprecedented success, created music having great popular appeal but retaining a learned and rigorous musical structure.[42] An important element of the popular style was the frequent use of folk or folk-like material, as discussed in the article Haydn and folk music. Haydn took care to deploy this material in appropriate locations, such as the endings of sonata expositions or the opening themes of finales. In such locations, the folk material serves as an element of stability, helping to anchor the larger structure.[43] Haydn's popular style can be heard in virtually all of his later work, including the twelve London symphonies, the late quartets and piano trios, and the two late oratorios. Folk song redirects here. ... This article discusses the influence of folk music on the work of the celebrated composer Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). ... The London symphonies, sometimes called the Salomon symphonies after the man who brought Haydn to London,were composed by Joseph Haydn between 1791 and 1795. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ...


The return to Vienna in 1795 marked the last turning point in Haydn's career. Although his musical style evolved little, his intentions as a composer changed. While he had been a servant, and later a busy entrepreneur, Haydn wrote his works quickly and in profusion, with frequent deadlines. As a rich man, Haydn now felt he had the privilege of taking his time and writing for posterity. This is reflected in the subject matter of The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801), which address such weighty topics as the meaning of life and the purpose of humankind, and represent an attempt to render the sublime in music. Haydn's new intentions also meant that he was willing to spend much time on a single work: both oratorios took him over a year to complete. Haydn once remarked that he had worked on The Creation so long because he wanted it to last.[44] The Seasons (German: Die Jahreszeiten) is an oratorio by Joseph Haydn (H. 21/3). ...


The change in Haydn's approach was important in the history of music, as other composers soon were following his lead. Notably, Beethoven adopted the practice of taking his time and aiming high.[45] For the academic study of history of music, see Music history. ...


Identifying Haydn's works

Haydn's works are listed in a comprehensive catalogue prepared by Anthony van Hoboken. This Hoboken catalogue provides each work with an identifying number, called its Hoboken number (abbreviation: H. or Hob.). The string quartets also have Hoboken numbers, but are usually identified instead by their opus numbers, which have the advantage of indicating the groups of six quartets that Haydn published together; thus for example the string quartet Opus 76, No. 3 is the third of the six quartets published in 1799 as Opus 76. Anthony van Hoboken (March 23, 1887 - November 1, 1983) was a Dutch musicologist. ... Catalogue of works by by Joseph Haydn as compiled by Anthony van Hoboken. ... Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. In this sense the plural of opus, opera, is used to refer to the genre of music drama. ... // Joseph Haydns Opus 76 string quartets, composed between the years of 1786 and 1787, were commissioned by and dedicated to Count Joseph Erdody. ...


Media

  • Symphony No. 101, the Clock Symphony, 2nd movement (Chamber Arrangement)
    Sonata 62, Hoboken XVI:52 1st movement
    Sonata 62, Hoboken XVI:52 2nd movement
    Sonata 54, Hoboken XVI:40 1st movement
    Sonata 54, Hoboken XVI:40 2nd movement
    Cello Concerto in D
    Cello Concerto in D, 3rd movement
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

See also

Works

General

The following is a partial list of concerti by Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). ... Masses composed by Joseph Haydn include: No. ... Joseph Haydn is not primarily remembered as a composer of opera, yet the genre occupied a great deal of his time. ... This is a list of piano trios by Joseph Haydn, including the chronological number assigned by H. C. Robbins Landon and the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ... This is a list of string quartets by Joseph Haydn, including the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ... There are 104 symphonies by the Classical composer Joseph Haydn on which numbers are now generally agreed upon. ...

Vocal works

Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (God Save Emperor Francis) is an anthem to the Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and later of Austria, written by Lorenz Leopold Haschka (1749-1827) and set to a tune written by Joseph Haydn in 1797. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Seasons (German: Die Jahreszeiten) is an oratorio by Joseph Haydn (H. 21/3). ...

Contemporaries

Marianne von Martinez (May 4, 1744-December 13, 1812) was a Viennese singer, pianist and composer. ... Johann Peter Salomon (baptized February 20, 1745, died November 28, 1815) was a violinist, composer, conductor and musical impresario. ... Baron Gottfried van Swieten (1733-1803) was a minor aristocrat of the Austrian Empire during the eighteenth century. ... The Seasons (German: Die Jahreszeiten) is an oratorio by Joseph Haydn (H. 21/3). ... This is a list of Austrian composers, singers and conductors: Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, composer and music theorist August Wilhelm Ambros, composer (19th century) Wolfgang Ambros, singer (Austropop) Christian Anders, singer Marianne von Auenbrugger, composer and pianist 1759-1782 Paul Badura-Skoda, pianist (born 1927) Ludwig van Beethoven, composer (born in...

Other topics

  • Haydn and folk music
  • Haydn's head - how it was stolen after his death
  • Joseph Haydn's ethnicity - an old controversy: was Haydn a Croatian?
  • "Papa" Haydn
  • Mannersdorf am Leithagebirge - where Haydn visited and built his career during summer 1753

This article discusses the influence of folk music on the work of the celebrated composer Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). ... The ethnicity of Joseph Haydn was a controversial matter in Haydn scholarship during a period lasting from the late 19th to the mid 20th century. ... The composer Joseph Haydn is sometimes given the nickname Papa Haydn. ... Mannersdorf am Leithagebirge is a town in Austria. ...

Further reading

Biography

  • Dies, Albert Christoph (1810) Biographical Accounts of Joseph Haydn, Vienna. English translation by Vernon Gotwals, in Haydn: Two Contemporary Portraits, Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin Press. One of the first biographies of Haydn, written on the basis of 30 interviews carried out during the composer's old age.
  • Geiringer, Karl; Irene Geiringer (1982). Haydn: A Creative Life in Music, 3rd ed., University of California Press, xii, 403. ISBN 0520043162. 
  • Griesinger, Georg August (1810) Biographical Notes Concerning Joseph Haydn. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel. English translation by Vernon Gotwals, in Haydn: Two Contemporary Portraits, Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin Press. Like Dies's, a biography produced from interviews with the elderly Haydn.
  • Hughes, Rosemary (1970) Haydn (New York: Farrar Strauss and Giroux). Gives a sympathetic and witty account of Haydn's life, along with a survey of the music.
  • Larsen, Jens Peter (1980) "Joseph Haydn," article in the 1980 edition of the New Grove. Published separately as The New Grove: Haydn, Norton, New York, 1982.
  • Robbins Landon, H.C. (1976-1980) Haydn: Chronicle and Works, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. An extensive compilation of original sources in five volumes.
  • Landon, H. C. Robbins; David Wyn Jones (1988). Haydn: His Life and Music. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253372659.  Biography chapters by Robbins Landon, excerpted from Robbins Landon (1976-1980) and rich in original source documents. Analysis and appreciation of the works by Jones.
  • Webster, James, and Georg Feder (2001), "Joseph Haydn", article in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (New York: Grove, 2001). Published separately as a book: The New Grove Haydn (New York: Macmillan 2002, ISBN 0-19-516904-2). Up-to-date scholarship with little subjective interpretation.

University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ... Howard Chandler Robbins Landon (born March 6, 1926) is a musicologist. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ...

Criticism and analysis

  • Clark, Caryl, ed. (2005) The Cambridge Companion to Haydn (Cambridge; Cambridge University Press; ISBN 0-521-83347-7). Covers each of the genres Haydn composed in as well as stylistic and interpretive contexts and performance and reception.
  • Griffiths, Paul (1983) The String Quartet (Great Britain: Thames and Hudson).
  • Hughes, Rosemary (1966) Haydn String Quartets (London: BBC 1966) is a brief (55 page). Introduction to Haydn's string quartets.
  • Rosen, Charles (1971 and 1997) The Classical Style (2nd ed., New York: Norton 1997; ISBN 0-393-31712-9). Covers much of Haydn's output and seeks to explicate Haydn's central role in the creation of the classical style. The work has been influential, provoking both positive citation and work (e.g., Webster 1991) written in reaction.
  • Sutcliffe, W. Dean (1992) "Haydn's Musical Personality," The Musical Times. 130:341-344.
  • Sutcliffe, W. Dean (1992) Haydn String Quartets, Op. 50 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Covers not just Op. 50 but also its relevance to Haydn's other output as well as his earlier quartets.
  • Webster, James (1991) Haydn's "Farewell" Symphony and the Idea of Classical Style (Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-521-38520-2). This book focuses on a single work, but contains many observations and opinions about Haydn in general.

Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ...

Scores and recordings

The Werner Icking Music Archive, often abbreviated WIMA, is a web archive of public domain sheet music. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... -1...

References

  1. ^ Although he is still often called "Franz Joseph Haydn", the name "Franz" was not used in the composer's lifetime and is avoided by scholars. (Webster, James: "Haydn, Joseph", Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 18 January 2007), http://www.grovemusic.com)
  2. ^ Pronunciation in German is IPA: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈhaɪdn̩], in English IPA: /ˈdʒoʊzəf ˈhaɪdən/
  3. ^ Griesinger 1810, 24–25
  4. ^ Dies 1810, 80–81
  5. ^ Griesinger 1810, 9
  6. ^ Dies 1810, 82
  7. ^ Dies 1801, 87
  8. ^ Robbins Landon and Jones 1988, 27
  9. ^ (Geiringer 1982, p. 27)
  10. ^ Larsen 1980, 8
  11. ^ (Geiringer 1982, p. 30)
  12. ^ (Geiringer 1982, pp. 30–2)
  13. ^ Griesinger 1810, 15
  14. ^ Various individuals bore the title "Countess Thun" over time. Candidates for the countess who engaged Haydn are (1) "the elder Countess Maria Christine Thun", from Webster 2002; Maria Wilhelmine Thun (later a famous salon hostess and patroness of Mozart), from Volkmar Braunbehrens (1990) Mozart in Vienna.
  15. ^ Webster (2002, 8). Webster expresses doubts, since the source is the early biography of [Nicolas Etienne] Framery, judged (Webster p. 1) the least reliable of Haydn's early biographers.
  16. ^ This date is uncertain, since the early biography of Griesinger 1810 gives 1759. For the evidence supporting the earlier date see Robbins Landon and Jones (1988, 34) and Webster (2002, 10)).
  17. ^ Source for this paragraph: Geiringer 1982, pp. 34–5
  18. ^ See, e.g., Geiringer 1982, pp. 36–40
  19. ^ Mrs. Haydn's paramour (1770) was Ludwig Guttenbrunn, an artist who produced the portrait of Haydn seen above (Robbins Landon and Jones, 1988, 109). Joseph Haydn had a long relationship, starting in 1779, with the singer Luigia Polzelli, and was probably the father of her son Antonio (Robbins Landon and Jones 1988, 116).
  20. ^ This view is given, for instanc, by Webster (2002, 13) and Robbins Landon and Jones (1988, 37).
  21. ^ For details see Geiringer 1982, Chapter 6
  22. ^ Geiringer 1982, p. 316, citing Robbins Landon
  23. ^ From Burney's memoirs; quoted from Robbins Landon and Jones (1988, 234)
  24. ^ The premier performance occurred only in 1951, at the Florence May Festival with Maria Callas in the role of Euridice. The opera and its history are discussed in Geiringer 1982, pp. 342–3.
  25. ^ (Geiringer 1982, pp. 131–135)
  26. ^ The house, at Haydngasse 19, has since 1899 been a Haydn museum ([1], [2]).
  27. ^ Webster 2002, 44
  28. ^ See Griesinger 1810, 20, Dies 1810, 92–93,
  29. ^ Griesinger 1810, 54
  30. ^ Larsen 1980, 81
  31. ^ Dies 1810, 157; translation taken from Robbins Landon and Jones 1988
  32. ^ Discussed in "The Agony of Nasal Polyps and the Terror of Their Removal 200 Years Ago" by Jack Cohen, MD. This article appeared in The Laryngoscope, 108(9): 1311-1313, September 1998. No free online text available.
  33. ^ Online edition, article "Joseph Haydn"; downloaded Feb. 3, 2007
  34. ^ Sutcliffe (1989, 343) mentions this in a criticism of contemporary Haydn performance practice: "[Haydn's] music sometime seems to 'live on its nerves' ... It is above all in this respect that Haydn performances often fail, whereby most interpreters lack the mental agility to deal with the ever-changing 'physiognomy' of Haydn's music, subsiding instead into an ease of manner and a concern for broader effects that they have acquired in their playing of Mozart."
  35. ^ Hughes (1970, 112) writes: "Having begun to 'develop', he could not stop; his recapitulations begin to take on irregular contours, sometimes sharply condensed, sometimes surprisingly expanded, losing their first tame symmetry to regain a balance of a far higher and more satisfying order."
  36. ^ Rosen (1997, 57) writes, "the period from 1750 to 1775 was penetrated by eccentricity, hit-or-miss experimentation, resulting in works which are still difficult to accept today because of their oddities." Similar remarks are made by Hughes (1970, 111–112)
  37. ^ Charles K. Moss. Carl Phillip Emanuel Bach. Carolina Classical Connection.
  38. ^ See Webster (2002, 18): "the term has been criticized: taken from the title of a play of 1776 by Maximilian Klinger, it properly pertains to a literary movement of the middle and late 1770s rather than a musical one of about 1768–1772."
  39. ^ Webster (2002, 18)
  40. ^ Webster and Feder 2001, section 3.iii
  41. ^ Rosen's case that Opus 33 represents a "revolution in style" (1971 and 1997, 116) can be found in chapter III.1 of (Rosen 1971 and 1997). For dissenting views, see Larsen (1980, 102) and Webster (1991).
  42. ^ Rosen discusses the popular style in ch. VI.1 of Rosen (1971 and 1997).
  43. ^ Rosen (1997 and 2001), 333–337
  44. ^ Geiringer 1982, 158
  45. ^ For discussion, see Antony Hopkins (1981) The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven, Heinemann, London, pp. 7–8.

Luigia Polzelli was an Italian soprano, who sang at the Esterházy court in Hungary during the late 18th century. ... Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger (February 17, 1752 - February 25, 1831) was a German dramatist and novelist. ... Antony Hopkins (born 1921) is an English composer, also known for his books of musical analysis and his radio programs Talking About Music broadcast for many years by the BBC. Not to be confused with actor Sir Anthony Hopkins who has composed some music, including some for the film August...

External links

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Joseph Haydn
Persondata
NAME Haydn, Joseph
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Haydn, Franz Joseph; "Father of the Symphony"; "Father of the String Quartet"
SHORT DESCRIPTION Austrian composer
DATE OF BIRTH March 31, 1732
PLACE OF BIRTH Rohrau
DATE OF DEATH May 31, 1809
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Ronald Norman Drummond (born 17 October 1959, in Seattle) is an American writer, editor, and independent scholar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Rohrau is a town in Lower Austria, Austria. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Haydn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4353 words)
Joseph Haydn was the brother of Michael Haydn, himself a highly regarded composer, and Johann Evangelist Haydn, a tenor.
Joseph Haydn was born in 1732 in the Austrian village of Rohrau near the Hungarian border.
Haydn is often described as the "father" of the classical symphony and string quartet.
Joseph Haydn - definition of Joseph Haydn in Encyclopedia (3521 words)
Haydn was born in 1732 in the village of Rohrau near the border with Hungary.
Haydn was a devout Catholic, who often turned to his rosary when he got stuck in composing, a practice that he usually found to be effective.
Haydn is credited as the "father" of the classical symphony and string quartet, and also wrote many piano sonatas, piano trios, divertimentos and masses, which became the foundation for the Classical style in these compositional types.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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